Triple Point- all three states exist at once Two states exist at once
Latent heat - amount of heat released or adsorbed during a change in state.
Latent heat redistributes solar energy from near the Equator towards the poles.
Review of the Atom P P Helium Protons in nucleus N 3 ( 3 He ) Neutron in nucleus e e Orbiting electrons
Atomic Number - # of protons Atomic Weight = # of protons + Neutrons Review of the Atom
Isotopes - elements with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus. e N P N e Helium 3 ( 3 He) P e e P N P Helium 4 ( 4 He)
Ions - atoms with excess positive or negative charge (gain or loss of electrons from the outermost shell). Cations (positive charge, lose electrons) P e Hydrogen atom P e ElectronHydrogen ion ( H + ) + + Anions (negative charge, gain electrons)
Compounds - combination of atoms of one or more elements in a specific ratio. Examples: N 2 - nitrogen gas H 2 O - water CaCO 3 – calcite (a mineral) Ions dissolved in water will combine to form compounds
Bond Strength and Mineral Hardness **The stronger the bond, the harder the mineral 2. Ionic bond– intermediate strength, moderately hard minerals 1. Covalent bond – strongest bond, hardest minerals 3. Van der Waals bond– weakest bond, softest minerals
Most Common Elements Oxygen Silicon Aluminum Iron Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Percentage by Weight