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Assignment #1 Answer the 12 questions posted on our webpage. Due next week in lab. Worth (12 points)

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Presentation on theme: "Assignment #1 Answer the 12 questions posted on our webpage. Due next week in lab. Worth (12 points)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assignment #1 Answer the 12 questions posted on our webpage. Due next week in lab. Worth (12 points)

2 Minerals

3 Earth’s Materials - Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

4 GasLiquidSolid Three States of Matter

5 Solid – substance that keeps its shape Liquid – a substance that flows freely but is not a gas Gas - a substance that flows freely and will distribute itself evenly in a container

6 Three States of Water

7 Triple Point- all three states exist at once Two states exist at once

8 Latent heat - amount of heat released or adsorbed during a change in state.

9 Latent heat redistributes solar energy from near the Equator towards the poles.

10 Review of the Atom P P Helium Protons in nucleus N 3 ( 3 He ) Neutron in nucleus e e Orbiting electrons

11 Atomic Number - # of protons Atomic Weight = # of protons + Neutrons Review of the Atom

12 Isotopes - elements with different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus. e N P N e Helium 3 ( 3 He) P e e P N P Helium 4 ( 4 He)

13 Ions - atoms with excess positive or negative charge (gain or loss of electrons from the outermost shell). Cations (positive charge, lose electrons) P e Hydrogen atom P e ElectronHydrogen ion ( H + ) + + Anions (negative charge, gain electrons)

14 Compounds - combination of atoms of one or more elements in a specific ratio. Examples: N 2 - nitrogen gas H 2 O - water CaCO 3 – calcite (a mineral) Ions dissolved in water will combine to form compounds

15 Chlorine Gas Sodium Solid Sodium Chloride

16 Sodium Chloride Hydration Of Ions

17

18 Types of Bonds Ionic - transfer of electrons between cations and anions. Moderate strength, Moderate hardness

19 Covalent - electrons are shared between atoms Types of Bonds Strong bond/ Hard mineral

20 Metallic - electrons are shared but move about freely between ions good conductors of electricity (copper, gold) Types of Bonds

21 Van der Waals - weak attraction Graphite

22 Bond Strength and Mineral Hardness **The stronger the bond, the harder the mineral 2. Ionic bond– intermediate strength, moderately hard minerals 1. Covalent bond – strongest bond, hardest minerals 3. Van der Waals bond– weakest bond, softest minerals

23 Most Common Elements Oxygen Silicon Aluminum Iron Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Percentage by Weight

24 Crystal Growth

25 Five Requirements to be a mineral Naturally formed Solid Formed by inorganic processes Specific chemical composition Characteristic crystal structure

26 Properties of Minerals Crystal form Habit and Cleavage Hardness Luster, Color, Streak Density

27 Crystal form Quartz

28 Isometric (cubic) Tetragonal Orthorhombic Hexagonal TrigonalMonoclinic

29 Crystal Form

30 Habit

31 GeodeStalactitic Botryoidal Fibrous Mammillary Radiating

32 Cleavage

33

34 Red Arrows show where cleaveage will occur.

35 Mohs Hardness Scale

36 Mohs Hardness Scale 1 - Talc 2 - Gypsum 3 - Calcite 4 - Fluorite 5 - Apatite 6 - Potassium Feldspar 7 - Quartz 8 - Topaz 9 - Corundum 10 -Diamond softest hardest fingernail Copper penny glass Streak plate

37 Vitreous - glass like Resinous - resin like Pearly - pearl like Greasy - slippery Luster Non Metallic Metallic - metal like

38 Luster MetallicNonmetallic

39 Color

40 Color of Streak

41 box of feathers box of hammers Density

42 Common Mineral Families Silicates(SiO 4 ) 4- OxidesO 2- Carbonates(CO 3 ) 2- Sulfates(SO 4 ) 2- Phosphates(PO 4 ) 3-

43 Silicates NeosilicateSorosilicate

44 Silicates Inosilicate Phylosilicate


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