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Health and Environmental Consequences of Genetically- Modified Foods, Biopharming and rBGH Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Oregon Physicians.

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Presentation on theme: "Health and Environmental Consequences of Genetically- Modified Foods, Biopharming and rBGH Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Oregon Physicians."— Presentation transcript:

1 Health and Environmental Consequences of Genetically- Modified Foods, Biopharming and rBGH Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP Portland State University Oregon Physicians for Social Responsibility With thanks to Rick North, Project Director, Campaign for Safe Food Oregon Physicians for Social Responsibility

2 Wendell Berry “How we eat determines to a considerable extent how the world is used”

3 The Precautionary Principle When evidence points toward the potential of an activity to cause significant, widespread or irreparable harm to public health or the environment, options for avoiding that harm should be examined and pursued, even though the harm is not yet fully understood or proven.

4 The Precautionary Principle Give human and environmental health the benefit of doubt. Give human and environmental health the benefit of doubt. Include appropriate public participation in the discussion. Include appropriate public participation in the discussion. Gather unbiased scientific, technological and socioeconomic information. Gather unbiased scientific, technological and socioeconomic information. Consider less risky alternatives. Consider less risky alternatives.

5 Genetically-Modified Foods Plants/animals whose DNA has been altered through the addition of genes from other organisms Plants/animals whose DNA has been altered through the addition of genes from other organisms In development since 1982 In development since 1982 First commercially available crops hit market in 1994 First commercially available crops hit market in 1994

6 Genetically-Modified Foods GM Crops grown commercially by 8.5 million farmers on 250 million acres spread over 21 countries (10% of all commercial farmland) GM Crops grown commercially by 8.5 million farmers on 250 million acres spread over 21 countries (10% of all commercial farmland) Up from 4.3 million acres in 1996 Up from 4.3 million acres in 1996

7 Genetically-Modified Foods Global acreage increased 20% in 2004, but new R and D slowing: Global acreage increased 20% in 2004, but new R and D slowing: ¾ of U.S. federal crop approvals between 1995 and 1999 ¾ of U.S. federal crop approvals between 1995 and 1999 Global value of GE seeds sold annually exceeds %7 billion Global value of GE seeds sold annually exceeds %7 billion

8 Genetically-Modified Foods Top producers: United States (59%), Argentina (20%), Canada (6%), Brazil (6%), and China (5%), India (3%) Top producers: United States (59%), Argentina (20%), Canada (6%), Brazil (6%), and China (5%), India (3%) Europe – only small amounts in a few countries Europe – only small amounts in a few countries 60-70% of processed foods available in the U.S. today come from GM crops 60-70% of processed foods available in the U.S. today come from GM crops Hawaii: biodiversity vs. biotech Hawaii: biodiversity vs. biotech

9 Genetically-Modified Foods Today 10 corporations control 2/3 of global proprietary seed sales Today 10 corporations control 2/3 of global proprietary seed sales mid-1970s: none of the 7,000 seed companies controlled over 0.5% of world seed market mid-1970s: none of the 7,000 seed companies controlled over 0.5% of world seed market

10 Genetically-Modified Foods Major agricultural biotech companies also pharmaceutical companies: Major agricultural biotech companies also pharmaceutical companies: Monsanto Monsanto $993 million profit on $8.5 billion revenues in 2007 – 4 th straight year of record- breaking profits $993 million profit on $8.5 billion revenues in 2007 – 4 th straight year of record- breaking profits 90% of GM seeds sold by Monsanto or by competitors that license Monsanto genes in their own seeds 90% of GM seeds sold by Monsanto or by competitors that license Monsanto genes in their own seeds

11 Genetically-Modified Foods Monsanto Monsanto UK employee cafeteria is GMO-free, Monsanto CEO buys organic UK employee cafeteria is GMO-free, Monsanto CEO buys organic Ties to Gates Foundation Ties to Gates Foundation Supports secondary school “science education” through sponsored curricula Supports secondary school “science education” through sponsored curricula Support of land-grant universities Support of land-grant universities Pays South Dakota State University president $400K/year for sitting on board of directors (president’s university salary $300K/year) Pays South Dakota State University president $400K/year for sitting on board of directors (president’s university salary $300K/year) Responsible for 56 Superfund sites Responsible for 56 Superfund sites

12 Genetically-Modified Foods Major agricultural biotech companies also pharmaceutical companies: Major agricultural biotech companies also pharmaceutical companies: Novartis Seeds Novartis Seeds Dupont Dupont Aventis CropScience Aventis CropScience Bayer CropScience Bayer CropScience Syngenta Syngenta Dow Dow Companies sponsor professorships, academic research institutes Companies sponsor professorships, academic research institutes

13 Genetically-Modified Foods Purposes: increase growth rate/enhance ripening, prevent spoilage, enhance nutritional quality, change appearance, provide resistance to herbicides and drought, alter freezing properties Purposes: increase growth rate/enhance ripening, prevent spoilage, enhance nutritional quality, change appearance, provide resistance to herbicides and drought, alter freezing properties USDA (2006): Genetic engineering has not increased the yield potential of any commercialized GM crop USDA (2006): Genetic engineering has not increased the yield potential of any commercialized GM crop Tobacco industry attempting to develop GE-tobacco to enhance nicotine delivery Tobacco industry attempting to develop GE-tobacco to enhance nicotine delivery

14 Genetically-Modified Foods 73% herbicide-resistant 73% herbicide-resistant 18% produce their own pesticide 18% produce their own pesticide 8% produce their own pesticide and are herbicide-resistant 8% produce their own pesticide and are herbicide-resistant SmartStax corn: combines 8 herbicide and insect-protection genes SmartStax corn: combines 8 herbicide and insect-protection genes Approved in US, Canada, and Japan in 2009 Approved in US, Canada, and Japan in 2009

15 “Golden Rice”: The Poster Child of GE Purported to be the solution to the problem of Vitamin A deficiency in developing countries Purported to be the solution to the problem of Vitamin A deficiency in developing countries Developed in 1999 by Swiss and German scientists, led by Ingo Potrykus Developed in 1999 by Swiss and German scientists, led by Ingo Potrykus Potrykus has accused GM opponents of “crimes against humanity” Potrykus has accused GM opponents of “crimes against humanity” Produced by splicing two daffodil and one bacterial gene into japonica rice, a variety adapted for temperate climates Produced by splicing two daffodil and one bacterial gene into japonica rice, a variety adapted for temperate climates

16 Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) VAD afflicts millions, esp. children and women VAD afflicts millions, esp. children and women Severe deficiency causes blindness (350,000 pre-school age children/year) Severe deficiency causes blindness (350,000 pre-school age children/year) Lesser deficiencies weaken the immune system, increasing risk of measles, malaria, other infectious diseases, and death (VAD implicated in over one million deaths per year) Lesser deficiencies weaken the immune system, increasing risk of measles, malaria, other infectious diseases, and death (VAD implicated in over one million deaths per year)

17 Golden Rice Produces β-carotene, which the body converts into Vitamin A (in the absence of other nutritional deficiencies - such as zinc, protein, and fats - and in individuals not suffering from diarrhea) Produces β-carotene, which the body converts into Vitamin A (in the absence of other nutritional deficiencies - such as zinc, protein, and fats - and in individuals not suffering from diarrhea)

18 “Not-So Golden” Rice Crop not yet adapted to local climates in developing countries Crop not yet adapted to local climates in developing countries Amounts produced minute: 3 servings of ½ cup/day provides 10% of Vitamin A requirement (6% for nursing mothers) Amounts produced minute: 3 servings of ½ cup/day provides 10% of Vitamin A requirement (6% for nursing mothers) Β-carotene is a pro-oxidant, which may be carcinogenic Β-carotene is a pro-oxidant, which may be carcinogenic

19 “Not-So Golden” Rice Chinese children with vitamin A deficiency used for feeding trials of Golden Rice by Tufts University investigators Chinese children with vitamin A deficiency used for feeding trials of Golden Rice by Tufts University investigators Without preceding animal studies Without preceding animal studies ? Nature of informed consent ? Nature of informed consent May violate Nuremberg Code May violate Nuremberg Code The latest…Syngenta Golden Rice II (20 times more provitamin A) and GM potatoes recently developed The latest…Syngenta Golden Rice II (20 times more provitamin A) and GM potatoes recently developed

20 Curing Vitamin A Deficiency VAD can be cured: VAD can be cured: With breast milk and small to moderate amounts of vegetables, whose cultivation has decreased in the face of monoculture and export crops With breast milk and small to moderate amounts of vegetables, whose cultivation has decreased in the face of monoculture and export crops With inexpensive supplements With inexpensive supplements Less than $60 million/year, with resulting benefits of over $1 billion/year (cost includes zinc supplementation/benefits also) Less than $60 million/year, with resulting benefits of over $1 billion/year (cost includes zinc supplementation/benefits also) With political and social will and international cooperation With political and social will and international cooperation

21 Measure 27 November, 2002 Oregon ballot November, 2002 Oregon ballot Required labeling of genetically-engineered foods sold or distributed in the state Required labeling of genetically-engineered foods sold or distributed in the state Wholesale and retail, e.g., supermarkets Wholesale and retail, e.g., supermarkets Not cafeterias, restaurants, prisons, bake sales, etc. Not cafeterias, restaurants, prisons, bake sales, etc.

22 Measure 27 Defeated 70% to 30% Defeated 70% to 30% Surprising, since multiple polls conducted by the news media, government and industry show from 85-95% of US citizens favor labeling Surprising, since multiple polls conducted by the news media, government and industry show from 85-95% of US citizens favor labeling 2008 NY Times/CBS News poll: 53% of Americans say they won’t buy GM food 2008 NY Times/CBS News poll: 53% of Americans say they won’t buy GM food Biased British Food Journal Study Biased British Food Journal Study

23 Measure 27 Opponents outspent proponents $5.5 million to $200,000 Opponents outspent proponents $5.5 million to $200,000 Similar to defeat of measure to establish public ownership of utilities (vs. PGE/Enron) in Portland, OR Similar to defeat of measure to establish public ownership of utilities (vs. PGE/Enron) in Portland, OR Public power advocates outspent $2 million to $25,000 Public power advocates outspent $2 million to $25,000 Most opposition money from outside Oregon Most opposition money from outside Oregon

24 Measure 27 Vast majority of opposition funding from corporations headquartered outside state: Vast majority of opposition funding from corporations headquartered outside state: Monsanto, Dupont, Syngenta, Dow Agro Sciences, BASF, Aventis, Hoechst, and Bayer Crop Science Monsanto, Dupont, Syngenta, Dow Agro Sciences, BASF, Aventis, Hoechst, and Bayer Crop Science

25 Measure 27 Aided by PR and political professionals Aided by PR and political professionals Hid behind scientific-sounding “advocacy” groups – e.g., The Council for Biotechnology Information Hid behind scientific-sounding “advocacy” groups – e.g., The Council for Biotechnology Information

26 Corporate Opposition to Measure 27 Vested interest in spreading deliberate misinformation about the initiative to keep the public ignorant of the adverse consequences of their profit-driven manipulation of the world’s food supply

27 Measure 27 Opponents’ Other Activities Chemical weapons: Chemical weapons: Hoechst (mustard gas), Monsanto (Agent Orange, PCBs, dioxins), Dow (napalm) Hoechst (mustard gas), Monsanto (Agent Orange, PCBs, dioxins), Dow (napalm) Other weapons: Other weapons: Dow, Dupont Dow, Dupont Pesticides: Pesticides: Monsanto (DDT), Dow (dioxins, PCBs, Dursban) Monsanto (DDT), Dow (dioxins, PCBs, Dursban)

28 Measure 27 Opponents’ Other Activities Ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons: Ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons: Dupont and Hoechst (merged with Rhone Poulenc to form Aventis) major producers Dupont and Hoechst (merged with Rhone Poulenc to form Aventis) major producers Other toxins: Other toxins: Dupont (PFOA, major component of Teflon) Dupont (PFOA, major component of Teflon) Agricultural Antibiotics: Agricultural Antibiotics: Many companies – overuse of agricultural antibiotics on factory farms is the #1 cause of antibiotic- resistant food-borne infections in humans Many companies – overuse of agricultural antibiotics on factory farms is the #1 cause of antibiotic- resistant food-borne infections in humans

29 Opposition Tactics Claimed measure would unfairly hurt Oregon farmers, grocers, restaurants, schools and non-profit groups Claimed measure would unfairly hurt Oregon farmers, grocers, restaurants, schools and non-profit groups No commercial GE crops grown in Oregon No commercial GE crops grown in Oregon Grocers, restaurants, schools and non- profit groups not affected Grocers, restaurants, schools and non- profit groups not affected

30 Opposition Tactics Funded commercial diatribes describing increased, onerous and complicated government oversight Funded commercial diatribes describing increased, onerous and complicated government oversight Frightened public with unfounded fears of increased costs (including tax increases) of up to $500 per family Frightened public with unfounded fears of increased costs (including tax increases) of up to $500 per family Realistic estimates $4 - $10/person/year Realistic estimates $4 - $10/person/year

31 Opposition Tactics Accused Measure’s supporters of being “against national policy and scientific consensus”, “technophobic,” and “anti-progress” Accused Measure’s supporters of being “against national policy and scientific consensus”, “technophobic,” and “anti-progress” Argued that labels would provide “unreliable, useless information that would unnecessarily confuse, mislead and alarm consumers” Argued that labels would provide “unreliable, useless information that would unnecessarily confuse, mislead and alarm consumers” Portrayed their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of (or despite the) evidence to the contrary Portrayed their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of (or despite the) evidence to the contrary

32 Opposition Tactics Claimed USDA, EPA and FDA evaluate safety of GE products from inception to “final approval” Claimed USDA, EPA and FDA evaluate safety of GE products from inception to “final approval” USDA deals with field testing, EPA with environmental concerns, FDA considers GE foods equivalent to non-GE foods USDA deals with field testing, EPA with environmental concerns, FDA considers GE foods equivalent to non-GE foods FDA policy on GE foods overseen by former Monsanto attorney Michael Taylor, who became a Monsanto VP after leaving FDA FDA policy on GE foods overseen by former Monsanto attorney Michael Taylor, who became a Monsanto VP after leaving FDA Corporations do all testing, are not required to report results to government Corporations do all testing, are not required to report results to government

33 Corporations Dominate Oregon Politics Second lowest corporate taxes of all US states Second lowest corporate taxes of all US states Large cuts in public services Large cuts in public services Oregon corporate income taxes have decreased by 40% over the past 12 years Oregon corporate income taxes have decreased by 40% over the past 12 years In the budget cycle, corporations will pay just 5% of all Oregon’s income taxes, compared to 18% from In the budget cycle, corporations will pay just 5% of all Oregon’s income taxes, compared to 18% from /3 of Oregon’s corporations pay Oregon’s $10 (no disclosure law) 2/3 of Oregon’s corporations pay Oregon’s $10 (no disclosure law)

34 Corporations Dominate Oregon Politics Oregon is one of only six states to allow unlimited corporate campaign contributions Oregon is one of only six states to allow unlimited corporate campaign contributions Corporations outspend labor unions 5-1 and massively outspend all other progressive groups and causes put together Corporations outspend labor unions 5-1 and massively outspend all other progressive groups and causes put together

35 Post-Measure 27 Activities Ongoing vigorous lobbying campaign to pass bill pre-empting any locality in Oregon from passing a labeling bill Ongoing vigorous lobbying campaign to pass bill pre-empting any locality in Oregon from passing a labeling bill Eight states have enacted laws to prohibit counties and other local governments from banning or regulating GE seeds Eight states have enacted laws to prohibit counties and other local governments from banning or regulating GE seeds 5 other states considering bills 5 other states considering bills

36 Post-Measure 27 Activities 2005: Alaska becomes first state to require labeling of GM fish (bill unanimously passes both House and Senate) 2005: Alaska becomes first state to require labeling of GM fish (bill unanimously passes both House and Senate) Vermont considering bill to make seed companies, instead of farmers, liable for damage from GM plants Vermont considering bill to make seed companies, instead of farmers, liable for damage from GM plants

37 Post-Measure 27 Activities Scientific-sounding front groups: Council for Biotechnology Information (Dow, Dupont, Monsanto, others) Scientific-sounding front groups: Council for Biotechnology Information (Dow, Dupont, Monsanto, others) Monsanto: 9 in-house lobbyists, another 13 at private firms Monsanto: 9 in-house lobbyists, another 13 at private firms Nationwide: lawsuits against farmers Nationwide: lawsuits against farmers Over 500, supported by 75 employee, $10 million legal division at Monsanto Over 500, supported by 75 employee, $10 million legal division at Monsanto Most farmers settle; settlement terms often sealed Most farmers settle; settlement terms often sealed

38 Post-Measure 27 Activities: The National Uniformity for Food Act Passed House of Representatives in 3/06; similar bill yet to be introduced in Senate Passed House of Representatives in 3/06; similar bill yet to be introduced in Senate Could affect over 200 state-level food safety laws Could affect over 200 state-level food safety laws Including labeling laws for GMOs and rBGH Including labeling laws for GMOs and rBGH

39 Post-Measure 27 Activities: The National Uniformity for Food Act Costs of appeals to FDA could be up to $80 million annually (per CBO) Costs of appeals to FDA could be up to $80 million annually (per CBO) Appeals could take years Appeals could take years FDA under-funded and under-staffed FDA under-funded and under-staffed Only ¼ of FDA’s resources allocated to food program, down from ½ in 1972 Only ¼ of FDA’s resources allocated to food program, down from ½ in 1972

40 Post-Measure 27 Activities: The National Uniformity for Food Act Supported by the “National Uniformity for Food Coalition,” an industry group started by the Grocery Manufacturers Association Supported by the “National Uniformity for Food Coalition,” an industry group started by the Grocery Manufacturers Association Since 1999, shortly after the uniformity campaign began, food-related industries have contributed $81 million to congressional candidates Since 1999, shortly after the uniformity campaign began, food-related industries have contributed $81 million to congressional candidates

41 Food Labeling in the U.S. Vitamin, mineral, caloric and fat content Vitamin, mineral, caloric and fat content Sulfites (allergies) Sulfites (allergies) Source of proteins (vegetarians) Source of proteins (vegetarians) No labeling required for GM foods, products from animals fed GM foods No labeling required for GM foods, products from animals fed GM foods

42 Food Labeling in the U.S. Former President GW Bush opposed labeling of GM foodstuffs; President Obama has not stated an opinion yet: APHA favors labeling Former President GW Bush opposed labeling of GM foodstuffs; President Obama has not stated an opinion yet: APHA favors labeling Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack Supporter of biopharmed crops Supporter of biopharmed crops Named Governor of the Year by Biotechnology Industry Organization Named Governor of the Year by Biotechnology Industry Organization Originated seed pre-emption bill (to strip local governments from GE and biopharmed crops) when governor of Iowa Originated seed pre-emption bill (to strip local governments from GE and biopharmed crops) when governor of Iowa

43 COOL: Country of Origin Labeling 2002 Farm Bill mandated USDA to begin COOL in 9/ Farm Bill mandated USDA to begin COOL in 9/04 85% favor COOL, 74% support Congress making COOL mandatory, 55% have “little or not much trust” in industry to provide voluntary COOL 85% favor COOL, 74% support Congress making COOL mandatory, 55% have “little or not much trust” in industry to provide voluntary COOL

44 COOL: Country of Origin Labeling COOL for seafood went into effect in 4/05 COOL for seafood went into effect in 4/05 COOL for meats, fresh/some frozen fruits and vegetables, nuts took effect 10/08 COOL for meats, fresh/some frozen fruits and vegetables, nuts took effect 10/08 Processed foods exempted Processed foods exempted Heavy industry lobbying and large campaigns to fight mandatory COOL / support voluntary COOL Heavy industry lobbying and large campaigns to fight mandatory COOL / support voluntary COOL Trade Associations / Big Agribusiness and grocers Trade Associations / Big Agribusiness and grocers

45 Cloned Meats Approved by the FDA, 2008 Approved by the FDA, 2008 No requirement for labeling No requirement for labeling Problems: Problems: Very expensive, ?growth potential? Very expensive, ?growth potential? 2007: 90% pre-natal failure rate 2007: 90% pre-natal failure rate

46 Cloned Meats Problems Problems Surrogate suffering – spontaneous abortions, “large offspring syndrome” leading to early- term and stressful C-sections Surrogate suffering – spontaneous abortions, “large offspring syndrome” leading to early- term and stressful C-sections Post-natal health problems:enlarged tongues, heart/lung/liver/brain damage, kidney failure Post-natal health problems:enlarged tongues, heart/lung/liver/brain damage, kidney failure High doses of hormones, antibiotics required (pre- and post-natally) High doses of hormones, antibiotics required (pre- and post-natally)

47 Cloned Meats NAS (2004): It is “impossible to draw conclusions about the safety of food from cloned animals” NAS (2004): It is “impossible to draw conclusions about the safety of food from cloned animals” Next up, synthetic, laboratory-produced meat Next up, synthetic, laboratory-produced meat

48 GE Food Labeling Worldwide European Union has required since 1998 European Union has required since 1998 European Court of Justice rules public must have access to information re the location of GM crops (2009) European Court of Justice rules public must have access to information re the location of GM crops (2009) Japan, China, Australia, Brazil, South Africa, Malaysia, and many other countries also require labels Japan, China, Australia, Brazil, South Africa, Malaysia, and many other countries also require labels Yet Japan allows 5% GMO contamination, loopholes exempt 90% of Australian foods from labeling, etc. Yet Japan allows 5% GMO contamination, loopholes exempt 90% of Australian foods from labeling, etc.

49 GE Foods Worldwide Many countries ban planting and the importation of GE foods from the U.S. and elsewhere Many countries ban planting and the importation of GE foods from the U.S. and elsewhere EU lifted ban in 2003 due in part to U.S./Canada/Argentine lawsuit against EU through WTO EU lifted ban in 2003 due in part to U.S./Canada/Argentine lawsuit against EU through WTO NSW government banned until 2006 NSW government banned until 2006

50 WTO Suit Against EU for Import Restrictions on GMOs WTO ruled against EU (2006) WTO ruled against EU (2006) Details of secret proceedings leaked to press Details of secret proceedings leaked to press WTO acknowledged that their decision based on trade, and that they were not qualified nor obligated to consider health and environmental consequences WTO acknowledged that their decision based on trade, and that they were not qualified nor obligated to consider health and environmental consequences

51 GE Food Labeling Worldwide Switzerland/Sweden/Scotland/Wales/ Switzerland/Sweden/Scotland/Wales/ Ireland/Northern Ireland have banned GMO crops 164 local governments in EU have banned or come out against GE crops 164 local governments in EU have banned or come out against GE crops European public strongly opposed to GMO foods European public strongly opposed to GMO foods But, since 1/05, at least 12 GM seeds approved for planting in various EU countries But, since 1/05, at least 12 GM seeds approved for planting in various EU countries

52 Government and Industry Revolving door between industry and federal regulatory agencies Revolving door between industry and federal regulatory agencies Silencing dissent; firing dissenters Silencing dissent; firing dissenters Pseudoscience Pseudoscience

53 Benefits of Labeling GE Foods Prevent allergic reactions Prevent allergic reactions Soybeans modified with Brazil nut genes (noted pre- marketing, never commercialized) Soybeans modified with Brazil nut genes (noted pre- marketing, never commercialized) Allow vegetarians to avoid animal genes Allow vegetarians to avoid animal genes Tomatoes with flounder genes (Flavr Savr tomato - antifreeze properties, consumer demand low in test- marketing) Tomatoes with flounder genes (Flavr Savr tomato - antifreeze properties, consumer demand low in test- marketing) Ice cream with ocean pout gene (“smoother and creamier” – from Unilever…subsidiary Ben and Jerry’s opposing) Ice cream with ocean pout gene (“smoother and creamier” – from Unilever…subsidiary Ben and Jerry’s opposing)

54 Benefits of Labeling GE Foods Permit concerned individuals to avoid milk from rBGH-treated cattle Permit concerned individuals to avoid milk from rBGH-treated cattle Risks to humans, cattle and the environment Risks to humans, cattle and the environment Heighten public awareness of genetic engineering Heighten public awareness of genetic engineering Millions of Americans eat GM foods every day without knowing it Millions of Americans eat GM foods every day without knowing it Only 26% of Americans believe they have eaten GM foods Only 26% of Americans believe they have eaten GM foods

55 Benefits of Labeling GE Foods Grant people freedom to choose what they eat based on individual willingness to confront risk Grant people freedom to choose what they eat based on individual willingness to confront risk Ensure healthy public debate over the merits of genetic modification of foodstuffs Ensure healthy public debate over the merits of genetic modification of foodstuffs

56 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Allergies and toxicities from new proteins entering the food supply Allergies and toxicities from new proteins entering the food supply EMS from Showa Denko’s GE-L-tryptophan supplements in 1980s EMS from Showa Denko’s GE-L-tryptophan supplements in 1980s FDA covered up FDA covered up Bt corn increases sensitivity of mammals to other allergens Bt corn increases sensitivity of mammals to other allergens Bt corn toxic to caddisflies, a food resource for fish and amphibians Bt corn toxic to caddisflies, a food resource for fish and amphibians GM peas (with bean gene) cause lung inflammation in mice – trial stopped GM peas (with bean gene) cause lung inflammation in mice – trial stopped New, allergenic proteins in GE soy in South Korea New, allergenic proteins in GE soy in South Korea

57 Food Allergies 2% of adults, 5% of infants and young children in the U.S. (FDA) 2% of adults, 5% of infants and young children in the U.S. (FDA) 30,000 ER visits and 150 deaths/yr 30,000 ER visits and 150 deaths/yr 90% caused by ingredients containing protein derived from milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat and soybeans (FDA requires food labeling for these ingredients) 90% caused by ingredients containing protein derived from milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat and soybeans (FDA requires food labeling for these ingredients)

58 Food Allergies Food allergies and anaphylaxis on the rise Food allergies and anaphylaxis on the rise Partly due to increased recognition and reporting Partly due to increased recognition and reporting ?Partly due to GMOs? ?Partly due to GMOs? Asthma twice as common in children with food allergies Asthma twice as common in children with food allergies

59 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Secret Monsanto report found that rats fed a diet rich in GM corn had smaller kidneys and unusually high white blood cell counts Secret Monsanto report found that rats fed a diet rich in GM corn had smaller kidneys and unusually high white blood cell counts Monsanto’s MON 863 YieldGard Rootworm (GM) Maize damages rats’ livers and kidneys Monsanto’s MON 863 YieldGard Rootworm (GM) Maize damages rats’ livers and kidneys

60 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Russian Academy of Sciences report found up to six-fold increase in death and severe underweight in infants of mothers fed GM soy Russian Academy of Sciences report found up to six-fold increase in death and severe underweight in infants of mothers fed GM soy Austrian study shows impaired fertility in mice fed GM maize Austrian study shows impaired fertility in mice fed GM maize Bt cotton reported to cause skin and respiratory illnesses/allergies in workers in Philippines Bt cotton reported to cause skin and respiratory illnesses/allergies in workers in Philippines

61 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Altered nutritional value of foodstuffs Altered nutritional value of foodstuffs Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes into intestinal bacteria or other organisms, contributing to antibiotic resistance in human pathogens Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes into intestinal bacteria or other organisms, contributing to antibiotic resistance in human pathogens Horizontal gene transfer of gene inserted into GM soy to DNA of human gut bacteria Horizontal gene transfer of gene inserted into GM soy to DNA of human gut bacteria Soy allergies increased by 50% after introduction of GM soy into the UK Soy allergies increased by 50% after introduction of GM soy into the UK

62 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Animal data suggest DNA can be taken up intact by lymphocytes through Peyer’s patches of small intestine Animal data suggest DNA can be taken up intact by lymphocytes through Peyer’s patches of small intestine Other animal studies show adverse effects on multiple organs Other animal studies show adverse effects on multiple organs Monsanto conducted feeding studies of GM potatoes (which had been declared unsafe in rats) on Russian prisoners in 1998 (kept secret until 2007) Monsanto conducted feeding studies of GM potatoes (which had been declared unsafe in rats) on Russian prisoners in 1998 (kept secret until 2007)

63 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Increased pesticide use when pests inevitably develop resistance to GE food toxins Increased pesticide use when pests inevitably develop resistance to GE food toxins Reproductive and neurotoxic effects Reproductive and neurotoxic effects Greater herbicide use – confirmed by multiple studies Greater herbicide use – confirmed by multiple studies Glyphosphate use increased 15-fold from Glyphosphate use increased 15-fold from Glyphosphate (Roundup) toxic to placenta Glyphosphate (Roundup) toxic to placenta

64 GM crops and Pesticide Use Overall pesticide use up 4.1% (122 million pound increase since 1996) Overall pesticide use up 4.1% (122 million pound increase since 1996) Pesticide use down in some Bt crops, up in others (e.g., 1/3↑ in cotton) Pesticide use down in some Bt crops, up in others (e.g., 1/3↑ in cotton) 2009: GM cotton contaminates animal feed in West Texas 2009: GM cotton contaminates animal feed in West Texas Herbicide use up in herbicide-tolerant (e.g., Roundup Ready) crops Herbicide use up in herbicide-tolerant (e.g., Roundup Ready) crops

65 Bt Plants Bt cotton destroyed by mealy bug; harvests in India decline dramatically, contributing to thousands of suicides among farmers Bt cotton destroyed by mealy bug; harvests in India decline dramatically, contributing to thousands of suicides among farmers Indonesia outlawed Bt cotton Indonesia outlawed Bt cotton Bt corn more susceptible to aphids, bollworms Bt corn more susceptible to aphids, bollworms Monsanto pays fines for bribing Indonesian and Turkish officials to accept Bt plants Monsanto pays fines for bribing Indonesian and Turkish officials to accept Bt plants

66 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Acrylamide released from polyacrylamide (added to commercial herbicide mixtures to reduce spray drift) = neurotoxin, reproductive toxin, and carcinogen Acrylamide released from polyacrylamide (added to commercial herbicide mixtures to reduce spray drift) = neurotoxin, reproductive toxin, and carcinogen Non-target insects dying from exposure to pesticide-resistant crops Non-target insects dying from exposure to pesticide-resistant crops Ripple effects on other organisms Ripple effects on other organisms

67 Pesticides Based on the poison gasses developed in WW II Based on the poison gasses developed in WW II Vandana Shiva: “We are eating the leftovers of World War II” Vandana Shiva: “We are eating the leftovers of World War II”

68 Pesticides 4.5 billion lbs/yr pesticides (17 lbs/citizen) 4.5 billion lbs/yr pesticides (17 lbs/citizen) CA, NY, and OR are the only states currently tracking pesticide sales and use CA, NY, and OR are the only states currently tracking pesticide sales and use OR system under-funded OR system under-funded EPA estimates U.S. farm workers suffer up to 300,000 pesticide-related acute illnesses and injuries per year EPA estimates U.S. farm workers suffer up to 300,000 pesticide-related acute illnesses and injuries per year

69 Pesticides NAS estimates that pesticides in food could cause up to 1 million cancers in the current generation of Americans NAS estimates that pesticides in food could cause up to 1 million cancers in the current generation of Americans 1,000,000 people killed by pesticides over the last 6 years (WHO) 1,000,000 people killed by pesticides over the last 6 years (WHO)

70 Pesticides Even so, the EPA and NAS have OK’d human subject testing….. Even so, the EPA and NAS have OK’d human subject testing….. Monsanto’s Roundup purchased by US government for aerial spraying in Colombia as part of “War on Drugs” Monsanto’s Roundup purchased by US government for aerial spraying in Colombia as part of “War on Drugs”

71 Pesticides $2.4 billion worth of insecticides and fungicides sold to American farmers each year $2.4 billion worth of insecticides and fungicides sold to American farmers each year Pesticides inhibit nitrogen fixation, decrease crop yields Pesticides inhibit nitrogen fixation, decrease crop yields Evidence suggests these actually promote pests (vs. natural pesticides) Evidence suggests these actually promote pests (vs. natural pesticides) 30% of medieval crop harvests were destroyed by pests vs % of current crop harvests 30% of medieval crop harvests were destroyed by pests vs % of current crop harvests Implies organic farming more cost-effective Implies organic farming more cost-effective

72 Toxins Body burden of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides high Body burden of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides high Environmental Working Group (2004) found 287 pesticides, consumer product ingredients, and wastes from burning coal, gasoline, and garbage in umbilical cord blood Environmental Working Group (2004) found 287 pesticides, consumer product ingredients, and wastes from burning coal, gasoline, and garbage in umbilical cord blood Many other compounds not even tested; numbers undoubtedly higher Many other compounds not even tested; numbers undoubtedly higher

73 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Genes, initially designed to protect crops from herbicides, being transferred to native weeds Genes, initially designed to protect crops from herbicides, being transferred to native weeds Create herbicide-resistant “superweeds” (8 species identified by 2005, 5 in the U.S.) Create herbicide-resistant “superweeds” (8 species identified by 2005, 5 in the U.S.) Herbicide-resistant oilseed rape has transferred gene to charlock weeds in U.K. Herbicide-resistant oilseed rape has transferred gene to charlock weeds in U.K. Glyphosate (Roundup)-resistant palmer amaranth (pigweed) in MO and GA, ryegrass in CA, Johnsongrass and maretail in multiple states Glyphosate (Roundup)-resistant palmer amaranth (pigweed) in MO and GA, ryegrass in CA, Johnsongrass and maretail in multiple states

74 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods GE plants and animals interbreeding with wild relatives GE plants and animals interbreeding with wild relatives Spread novel genes into wild populations Spread novel genes into wild populations Herbicide-resistant oilseed rape genes found in turnips Herbicide-resistant oilseed rape genes found in turnips 21% of U.S. farmers in violation of EPA rule requiring GE fields to contain at least 20% non-GE crop 21% of U.S. farmers in violation of EPA rule requiring GE fields to contain at least 20% non-GE crop ¼ to 1/3 of Mexican corn samples contaminated; Columbian coca plants ¼ to 1/3 of Mexican corn samples contaminated; Columbian coca plants

75 Genetic Modification of Conventional Crops First commercialized in the U.S. in 1996 First commercialized in the U.S. in 1996 About 23% of the total 2,970 million acres crops harvested during this period About 23% of the total 2,970 million acres crops harvested during this period Vast majority of herbicide-tolerant crops resistant to glyphosphate (Roundup, Monsanto) – known as “Roundup Ready” Vast majority of herbicide-tolerant crops resistant to glyphosphate (Roundup, Monsanto) – known as “Roundup Ready” Price of Roundup doubled Price of Roundup doubled Monsanto’s Roundup Revenues predicted to rise 75% from Monsanto’s Roundup Revenues predicted to rise 75% from

76 Genetic Modification of Conventional Crops (US/Worldwide) 89%/64% of soybeans 89%/64% of soybeans 83%/43% of cotton (oilseed rape) 83%/43% of cotton (oilseed rape) 80% of canola 80% of canola 61%/24% of corn 61%/24% of corn Other crops: rice, tomatoes, potatoes, Hawaiian papaya, zucchini, crook neck squash Other crops: rice, tomatoes, potatoes, Hawaiian papaya, zucchini, crook neck squash

77 GE Crop Incidents Over 200 contamination incidents involving 57 countries from Over 200 contamination incidents involving 57 countries from % of cases involve GE crops originating in US 50% of cases involve GE crops originating in US Affected countries more than double the number of countries where GM crops are grown Affected countries more than double the number of countries where GM crops are grown 17 illegal releases 17 illegal releases 8 reports of negative agricultural side effects 8 reports of negative agricultural side effects

78 GE Crop Incidents 39 countries on 5 continents affected, almost twice the number of countries that grow GM crops 39 countries on 5 continents affected, almost twice the number of countries that grow GM crops 28 incidents of contamination and 11 illegal releases in incidents of contamination and 11 illegal releases in 2007

79

80 GE Crop Incidents Monsanto (1998): Uncontrolled field test of GE (“Naturemark” NewLeaf) potatoes in Georgia (in Eastern Europe) contaminated crops in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan Monsanto (1998): Uncontrolled field test of GE (“Naturemark” NewLeaf) potatoes in Georgia (in Eastern Europe) contaminated crops in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan Crop yields fell by ½ to 2/3 Crop yields fell by ½ to 2/3 Many farmers went into debt Many farmers went into debt

81 GE Crop Contamination Canadian farmer Percy Schmeiser’s fields contaminated by pollen from nearby GM canola Canadian farmer Percy Schmeiser’s fields contaminated by pollen from nearby GM canola Sued by Monsanto Sued by Monsanto One of over 145 similar GE-based lawsuits (90+ brought by Monsanto), costing US farmers tens of millions of dollars One of over 145 similar GE-based lawsuits (90+ brought by Monsanto), costing US farmers tens of millions of dollars Canadian Supreme Court ruled that Monsanto’s patent valid, Schmeiser’s fine negligible, Monsanto owns Schmeiser’s crops Canadian Supreme Court ruled that Monsanto’s patent valid, Schmeiser’s fine negligible, Monsanto owns Schmeiser’s crops Schmeiser then sued Monsanto over new contamination – case settled, Monsanto paid for cleanup, Schmeiser covered all court costs Schmeiser then sued Monsanto over new contamination – case settled, Monsanto paid for cleanup, Schmeiser covered all court costs

82 GE Crop Contamination Percy Schmeiser’s Percy Schmeiser’s Schmeiser then sued Monsanto over new contamination – case settled, Monsanto paid for cleanup, Schmeiser covered all court costs Schmeiser then sued Monsanto over new contamination – case settled, Monsanto paid for cleanup, Schmeiser covered all court costs Percy and Louise Schmeiser receive 2007 Right Livelihood Awards (the “alternative Nobel Prize”) Percy and Louise Schmeiser receive 2007 Right Livelihood Awards (the “alternative Nobel Prize”) California law now protects farmers from unknowingly violating patent infringement rules California law now protects farmers from unknowingly violating patent infringement rules

83 GE Crop Contamination Starlink Incident (2000) Starlink Incident (2000) Unapproved corn contaminates food supply Unapproved corn contaminates food supply $1 billion in food recalls; Aventis pays $500 million to farmers and food producers and processors $1 billion in food recalls; Aventis pays $500 million to farmers and food producers and processors Less than 1% of corn grown; 12% contaminated Less than 1% of corn grown; 12% contaminated 2003 – 1% of corn still tests positive 2003 – 1% of corn still tests positive

84 GE Crop Contamination Prodigene Incident (2002) Prodigene Incident (2002) GM corn, engineered to produce a pig vaccine, contaminates soybeans in Nebraska and Iowa GM corn, engineered to produce a pig vaccine, contaminates soybeans in Nebraska and Iowa USDA fines Prodigene $250,000; reimbursements to farmers over $3 million USDA fines Prodigene $250,000; reimbursements to farmers over $3 million

85 GE Crop Contamination Syngenta accidentally released hundreds of tons of GM corn, tagged with antibiotic resistance genes, to farmers between 2001 and 2004 Syngenta accidentally released hundreds of tons of GM corn, tagged with antibiotic resistance genes, to farmers between 2001 and 2004 Native Mexican corn varieties contaminated by GE corn Native Mexican corn varieties contaminated by GE corn Yet Mexico reversed its ban on GM corn (the nation’s most important crop) in 2009 Yet Mexico reversed its ban on GM corn (the nation’s most important crop) in 2009 Peruvian corn crops contaminated with GM corn Peruvian corn crops contaminated with GM corn Yet GM products cannot be planted, harvested, or sold legally in Peru Yet GM products cannot be planted, harvested, or sold legally in Peru

86 GE Crop Contamination Dow AgroScience GM corn contaminates 53,000 acres in US in 2007 Dow AgroScience GM corn contaminates 53,000 acres in US in 2007 Corn contamination events have wiped out US corn exports Corn contamination events have wiped out US corn exports

87 GE Crop Contamination Contamination of wild creeping bentgrass with Roundup-resistant Scotts Miracle-Gro/Monsanto GM variety in Oregon (8/06) Contamination of wild creeping bentgrass with Roundup-resistant Scotts Miracle-Gro/Monsanto GM variety in Oregon (8/06) Designed to “revolutionize golf course maintenance” Designed to “revolutionize golf course maintenance” Contamination found well beyond “buffer zone” Contamination found well beyond “buffer zone” USDA fines Scotts maximum penalty of $500,000 USDA fines Scotts maximum penalty of $500,000 True costs of contamination likely to be much higher True costs of contamination likely to be much higher

88 GE Crop Contamination Oregon creeping bentgrass contamination Oregon creeping bentgrass contamination Threatens $374 million Oregon grass seed market Threatens $374 million Oregon grass seed market Jim King, Scotts’ spokesman: “The fact that nature took its course was exactly what you would have expected to happen.” Jim King, Scotts’ spokesman: “The fact that nature took its course was exactly what you would have expected to happen.” U.S. Court of Appeals upholds federal judge’s overturning USDA’s approval of Roundup Ready alfalfa (9/08), re-affirms decision (6/09) U.S. Court of Appeals upholds federal judge’s overturning USDA’s approval of Roundup Ready alfalfa (9/08), re-affirms decision (6/09)

89 GE Crop Contamination 7% of growers of organic corn, soybeans, and canola reported GM contamination in 2001 study 7% of growers of organic corn, soybeans, and canola reported GM contamination in 2001 study Canada: Herbicide resistance found to have spread from GM canola to wild relative by pollination Canada: Herbicide resistance found to have spread from GM canola to wild relative by pollination Canola has transferred herbicide-resistance to wild mustard weeds Canola has transferred herbicide-resistance to wild mustard weeds

90 GE Crop Contamination Roundup-resistant johnsongrass contamination in Argentina Roundup-resistant johnsongrass contamination in Argentina Japan: Transgenic canola found growing near some ports and roadsides Japan: Transgenic canola found growing near some ports and roadsides Since canola not grown commercially in Japan, imported seeds likely escaped during transportation to oil-processing facilities Since canola not grown commercially in Japan, imported seeds likely escaped during transportation to oil-processing facilities

91 GE Crop Contamination Heinz baby food sold in China found to contain illegal GM rice containing Bt toxin gene sequences Heinz baby food sold in China found to contain illegal GM rice containing Bt toxin gene sequences Syngenta found to be conducting illegal trial with GM soybeans in Iguacu National Park in Brazil Syngenta found to be conducting illegal trial with GM soybeans in Iguacu National Park in Brazil GM foods found in 1/3 of National Wildlife Refuges in the Southeastern US without full environmental and public review (approved by Obama’s head of Fish and Wildlife Service) GM foods found in 1/3 of National Wildlife Refuges in the Southeastern US without full environmental and public review (approved by Obama’s head of Fish and Wildlife Service)

92 GE Crop Contamination Bayer CropScience herbicide-tolerant “Liberty Link” rice contaminates food supply (August, 2006) Bayer CropScience herbicide-tolerant “Liberty Link” rice contaminates food supply (August, 2006) Places $1.5 billion industry at risk Places $1.5 billion industry at risk Worldwide cost estimates range from $740 million to $1.3 billion Worldwide cost estimates range from $740 million to $1.3 billion Over 1,200 lawsuits Over 1,200 lawsuits

93 GE Crop Contamination EU initially requires testing of all imported rice, then stops in response to US pressure EU initially requires testing of all imported rice, then stops in response to US pressure Japan ban imports of US rice Japan ban imports of US rice But, China may be first developing country to allow the sale of GM rice (huge market) But, China may be first developing country to allow the sale of GM rice (huge market)

94 GE Crop Contamination Bayer keeps contamination secret for 6 months, then US government takes another 18 days to respond Bayer keeps contamination secret for 6 months, then US government takes another 18 days to respond 9/06: 33/162 EU samples tested positive for Liberty Link contamination 9/06: 33/162 EU samples tested positive for Liberty Link contamination Former USDA Secretary Mike Johanns: “I didn’t ask where [the contaminated samples] came from…I can’t tell you if it came from this state or that state.” (8/18/06) Former USDA Secretary Mike Johanns: “I didn’t ask where [the contaminated samples] came from…I can’t tell you if it came from this state or that state.” (8/18/06)

95 GE Crop Failures Bt cotton in India, leading to epidemic of suicides Bt cotton in India, leading to epidemic of suicides Three varieties of Monsanto’s GM maize failed to produce crops in 2008/9 in South Africa Three varieties of Monsanto’s GM maize failed to produce crops in 2008/9 in South Africa Commercial farmers compensated, but barred from speaking to media or public Commercial farmers compensated, but barred from speaking to media or public Others Others

96 Economic Risks of GE Crop Contamination Recent studies have cast doubt on the economic utility of GM crops for farmers in North America Recent studies have cast doubt on the economic utility of GM crops for farmers in North America Lower yields Lower yields Higher input costs Higher input costs Contamination could be devastating for local farmers Contamination could be devastating for local farmers Buffer zones inadequate Buffer zones inadequate

97 Economic Risks of GE Crop Contamination Agriculture major industry in Oregon Agriculture major industry in Oregon Oregon agriculture garnered $1.3 billion in net income in 2004 Oregon agriculture garnered $1.3 billion in net income in 2004 Almost 3 times net farm income in 2002 Almost 3 times net farm income in 2002 Approximately $14 million organic market Approximately $14 million organic market

98 Response to Contamination The most common response to contamination worldwide is for companies and governments to raise the allowable contamination threshold The most common response to contamination worldwide is for companies and governments to raise the allowable contamination threshold UK Environment Minister (7/06) calls for “pragmatic co-existence”: “In the real world, you can’t have zero cross-pollination” UK Environment Minister (7/06) calls for “pragmatic co-existence”: “In the real world, you can’t have zero cross-pollination” EU labeling rules now allow 0.9% contamination in “GM-free” foods EU labeling rules now allow 0.9% contamination in “GM-free” foods

99 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods GE crops out-competing, or driving to extinction, wild varieties, or becoming bio-invaders in neighboring farms or other ecosystems GE crops out-competing, or driving to extinction, wild varieties, or becoming bio-invaders in neighboring farms or other ecosystems GE plants adversely altering soil bacteria and consequently soil quality GE plants adversely altering soil bacteria and consequently soil quality Possible contribution to decline in honeybee populations Possible contribution to decline in honeybee populations Cry1Ab protein present in Bt crops affects learning responses associating nectar sources with odorants Cry1Ab protein present in Bt crops affects learning responses associating nectar sources with odorants Other possible causes of colony collapse disorder also exist Other possible causes of colony collapse disorder also exist

100 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Further decrease in agricultural biodiversity Further decrease in agricultural biodiversity UN FAO estimates 75% of the genetic diversity in agriculture present at beginning of 20 th Century lost UN FAO estimates 75% of the genetic diversity in agriculture present at beginning of 20 th Century lost Unknown effects on integrity of global food supply from large-scale genetic rearrangements Unknown effects on integrity of global food supply from large-scale genetic rearrangements

101 Health and Environmental Risks of GE Foods Some corporations producing GE foods have not been able to get insurance due to excessive liability risks Some corporations producing GE foods have not been able to get insurance due to excessive liability risks Deutsche Bank (Europe’s largest bank) has advised large institutional investors to sell their shares in GE companies Deutsche Bank (Europe’s largest bank) has advised large institutional investors to sell their shares in GE companies The Large Scale Biology Corporation (formerly Biosource Genetics), the first company to try to produce plants genetically-modified to make drugs and industrial chemicals, went bankrupt in 1/06 The Large Scale Biology Corporation (formerly Biosource Genetics), the first company to try to produce plants genetically-modified to make drugs and industrial chemicals, went bankrupt in 1/06

102 Failure of Regulatory Oversight “The Department of Agriculture has failed to regulate field trials of GE crops adequately” “The Department of Agriculture has failed to regulate field trials of GE crops adequately” Department of Agriculture’s Office of Inspector General, 1/06 Department of Agriculture’s Office of Inspector General, 1/06

103 Failure of Regulatory Oversight Nearly 1/5 FDA scientists “have been asked, for non-scientific reasons, to inappropriately exclude or alter technical information or their conclusions in an FDA scientific document” (2006) Nearly 1/5 FDA scientists “have been asked, for non-scientific reasons, to inappropriately exclude or alter technical information or their conclusions in an FDA scientific document” (2006) Similar to global warming report from NASA, Plan B EC data, Medicare Part D data, etc. Similar to global warming report from NASA, Plan B EC data, Medicare Part D data, etc. A new “Dark Ages” for US science A new “Dark Ages” for US science

104

105 Biopharming The engineering of plants to produce pharmaceuticals such as enzymes, antibiotics, contraceptives, abortifacients, antibodies, chemotherapeutic agents, other medications, vaccines, and industrial and research chemicals The engineering of plants to produce pharmaceuticals such as enzymes, antibiotics, contraceptives, abortifacients, antibodies, chemotherapeutic agents, other medications, vaccines, and industrial and research chemicals None yet approved by FDA for marketing None yet approved by FDA for marketing

106 Biopharming Rationale: Rationale: Farmers/farms cheaper than technicians/manufacturing plants Farmers/farms cheaper than technicians/manufacturing plants Inexpensive scale-up and scale-down; hire or fire contract farmers Inexpensive scale-up and scale-down; hire or fire contract farmers Seeds/silos may be cheap storage system Seeds/silos may be cheap storage system ?Cheaper drugs? – doubtful given history of pharmaceutical industry pricing patterns; also, multiple externalized costs ?Cheaper drugs? – doubtful given history of pharmaceutical industry pricing patterns; also, multiple externalized costs

107 Biopharming Over 300 field tests since 1991 Over 300 field tests since 1991 None yet in Oregon None yet in Oregon U of Wisconsin trial of alfalfa genetically- modified to produce amylase and lignin peroxidase approved in 1995, apparently did not go through U of Wisconsin trial of alfalfa genetically- modified to produce amylase and lignin peroxidase approved in 1995, apparently did not go through USDA does not regulate indoor biopharm crops USDA does not regulate indoor biopharm crops

108 Pharma Crop Approvals in the U.S. (2/06)

109 Top 12 Biopharm States 1 – Nebraska 7 – Florida 2 – Hawaii 8 – Texas 3 - Puerto Rico 9 – Maryland 4 – Wisconsin 10 – California 5 – Iowa 11 – Kentucky 6 – Illinois 12 - Indiana

110 Biopharming Hawaii – most tests; most fragile ecosystem Hawaii – most tests; most fragile ecosystem Risks similar to GE crops Risks similar to GE crops e.g., cases of food crop contamination reported e.g., cases of food crop contamination reported Prodigene incident, Starlink incident Prodigene incident, Starlink incident Concerns that pharma trait could increase in frequency and concentration reaching dangerous levels in unwitting consumers Concerns that pharma trait could increase in frequency and concentration reaching dangerous levels in unwitting consumers

111 Biopharming More than 15 companies, along with 5 universities, involved in US (75 companies worldwide) More than 15 companies, along with 5 universities, involved in US (75 companies worldwide) Missouri has subsidized a biopharm research center Missouri has subsidized a biopharm research center Ventria Bioscience to plant rice genetically- engineered to produce lactiva and lysomin (antidiarrheals) in Kansas, despite contamination of Mexican rice by US GM rice Ventria Bioscience to plant rice genetically- engineered to produce lactiva and lysomin (antidiarrheals) in Kansas, despite contamination of Mexican rice by US GM rice

112 Biopharming USDA conceals crop locations from public and neighboring farmers, in most cases hides identity of drug or chemical being tested, citing trade secrets USDA conceals crop locations from public and neighboring farmers, in most cases hides identity of drug or chemical being tested, citing trade secrets Even state agriculture regulators often unaware of info re drug or chemical involved Even state agriculture regulators often unaware of info re drug or chemical involved

113 Major Biopharm Crops Corn Corn Soybeans Soybeans Tobacco Tobacco Rice Rice Other organisms: Other organisms: Fish: tilapia/clotting factor VII Fish: tilapia/clotting factor VII Cattle: biopharming via milk Cattle: biopharming via milk

114 Examples of biopharmed crops Drug/ChemicalUse Test Crop Laccase Textiles, adhesives Corn Folic acid VitaminTomatoes ErythropoeitinAnemiaTobacco

115 Examples of biopharmed crops Drug/ChemicalUse Test Crop Essential fatty acids Cell membrane production Soybeans SARS vaccine ImmunizationTomato Vaccine against pollen allergies ImmunizationRice

116 Examples of biopharmed crops Drug/ChemicalUse Test Crop Traveler’s and other Diarrheas (*including use of human genes in outdoor plants) Immunization/ Drug Rice, Potatoes and Corn Insulin Treatment of Diabetes Safflower Acanthocyanin Antioxidant, anti- cancer agent Tomatoes

117 Potentially Harmful Biopharmaceuticals SubstanceUse Known or Potential Effects Aprotinin in corn Blood clotting Pancreatic disease, allergic reactions Anti-sperm antibody in corn Contraception Adverse reproductive impacts

118 Potentially Harmful Biopharmaceuticals SubstanceUse Known or Potential Effects Trypsin in corn Enzyme - research, industrial uses Occupational asthma Avidin in corn Research Vitamin B deficiency, allergic reactions Tricosanthin in tobacco Failed anti-HIV drug Highly toxic - allergic reactions, induced abortions

119 Plant cell culture “biopharming” Dow AgroSciences has won USDA approval of a chicken vaccine against Newcastle Disease produced in fermented tobacco plant cells Dow AgroSciences has won USDA approval of a chicken vaccine against Newcastle Disease produced in fermented tobacco plant cells Not strictly biopharming; more like cell culture Not strictly biopharming; more like cell culture

120 Opposition to Biopharming National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Sciences Union of Concerned Scientists Union of Concerned Scientists British Medical Association (favors moratorium on all GM foods) British Medical Association (favors moratorium on all GM foods) Consumers Union Consumers Union

121 Opposition to Biopharming Grocery Manufacturers of America Grocery Manufacturers of America National Food Processors Association National Food Processors Association Organic Consumers Association Organic Consumers Association Friends of the Earth Friends of the Earth Others Others

122 Biopharm Proponents Claims Inflated/Unrealistic Containment-related costs may equal or exceed purported reduced drug production costs Containment-related costs may equal or exceed purported reduced drug production costs Increased economic liabilities assumed by food manufacturers, farmers, and pharma crop companies for potential contamination of food supply Increased economic liabilities assumed by food manufacturers, farmers, and pharma crop companies for potential contamination of food supply

123 Biopharm Proponents Claims Inflated/Unrealistic Farmers are unlikely to be major beneficiaries: Farmers are unlikely to be major beneficiaries: Market forces, including foreign competition, will drive down farmer compensation Market forces, including foreign competition, will drive down farmer compensation Acreage required very small compared with commodity crop acreage, such that only a small number of growers will be needed Acreage required very small compared with commodity crop acreage, such that only a small number of growers will be needed

124 Biopharm Proponents Claims Inflated/Unrealistic Rural communities are unlikely to be major beneficiaries unless: Rural communities are unlikely to be major beneficiaries unless: The local pharma crop brings in substantial research contracts for universities and private research firms The local pharma crop brings in substantial research contracts for universities and private research firms Pharmaceutical processing companies locate in the area Pharmaceutical processing companies locate in the area

125 Biopharming in HI: First Federal District Court Ruling (8/06) USDA violated the Endangered Species Act and the National Environmental Policy Act in granting pharma crop permits in HI USDA violated the Endangered Species Act and the National Environmental Policy Act in granting pharma crop permits in HI Failure to protect HI’s 329 endangered and threatened species Failure to protect HI’s 329 endangered and threatened species Failure to conduct even preliminary investigations prior to its approval of the plantings Failure to conduct even preliminary investigations prior to its approval of the plantings Appeals expected Appeals expected

126 Genetic Modification of Trees Purposes: Purposes: Faster growing, stronger wood, greater wood and paper yields Faster growing, stronger wood, greater wood and paper yields Hardier trees requiring less chemical bug and weed killers Hardier trees requiring less chemical bug and weed killers Yet Roundup-Ready poplar first GM- tree, and Bt-poplars among first trees marketed Yet Roundup-Ready poplar first GM- tree, and Bt-poplars among first trees marketed

127 Genetic Modification of Trees Purposes: Purposes: Disease-resistance Disease-resistance Cold-tolerance Cold-tolerance Decrease amount of toxic chemicals needed to process trees into paper Decrease amount of toxic chemicals needed to process trees into paper Change color when exposed to bioterrorism agents Change color when exposed to bioterrorism agents

128 Genetic Modification of Trees Purposes: Purposes: Mercury-splicing bacteria for soil cleanup Mercury-splicing bacteria for soil cleanup Removes Hg 2+ ions from contaminated soil and converts it into volatile elemental mercury, which is released into the atmosphere, is converted by phytoplankton to organic mercury, is dispersed widely, and then works its way up the food chain Removes Hg 2+ ions from contaminated soil and converts it into volatile elemental mercury, which is released into the atmosphere, is converted by phytoplankton to organic mercury, is dispersed widely, and then works its way up the food chain Danbury, CT field trials (hat making industry – the “Danbury shakes”) Danbury, CT field trials (hat making industry – the “Danbury shakes”) Supported by EPA Supported by EPA

129 Genetic Modification of Trees 230 experiments thus far involving at least 16 countries and 24 species, more than half since experiments thus far involving at least 16 countries and 24 species, more than half since 2002 Sites kept secret Sites kept secret One Canada plot of Bt spruce and poplars planted outside Quebec City, 2006 One Canada plot of Bt spruce and poplars planted outside Quebec City, 2006 Trees sterile Trees sterile Hawaiian papaya trees (genetically-modified to resist ring spot virus) – devastated $22 million papaya economy, as Canada and Japan refused to purchase Hawaiian papaya trees (genetically-modified to resist ring spot virus) – devastated $22 million papaya economy, as Canada and Japan refused to purchase

130 Genetic Modification of Trees Risks same as for GE crops Risks same as for GE crops UN Convention on Biological Diversity has called for moratorium (3/06) UN Convention on Biological Diversity has called for moratorium (3/06)

131 Genetic Modification of Vertebrates WA, OR and MD banned GE salmon, which can escape their “farms” and interbreed with wild stocks, possibly hastening the extinction of wild salmon WA, OR and MD banned GE salmon, which can escape their “farms” and interbreed with wild stocks, possibly hastening the extinction of wild salmon 15% of farmed fish escape their pens 15% of farmed fish escape their pens

132 Biopharming of Vertebrates Oncomouse – GM to predispose it to cancer (used in research) Oncomouse – GM to predispose it to cancer (used in research) Mousepox virus GM to produce IL-4 (immunocontraceptive) inadvertently killed 3/5 of infected mice, even those genetically resistant to mousepox Mousepox virus GM to produce IL-4 (immunocontraceptive) inadvertently killed 3/5 of infected mice, even those genetically resistant to mousepox

133 Biopharming of Vertebrates Transgenic sheep produce alpha-1- antitrypsin Transgenic sheep produce alpha-1- antitrypsin “Enviropig” – GM to digest phytates, decrease phosphate in excrement “Enviropig” – GM to digest phytates, decrease phosphate in excrement Pigs modified with roundworm gene to make their own (heart healthy) omega-3 fatty acids Pigs modified with roundworm gene to make their own (heart healthy) omega-3 fatty acids

134 Biopharming of Vertebrates Pigs modified to produce proteins in their semen Pigs modified to produce proteins in their semen Cows genetically-modified so that udders produce lysostaphin, which promotes resistance to Staph aureus (the major cause of mastitis) Cows genetically-modified so that udders produce lysostaphin, which promotes resistance to Staph aureus (the major cause of mastitis)

135 Biopharming of Vertebrates Hens engineered to produce miR24 (experimental melanoma drug) and human interferon-beta-1a (multiple sclerosis treatment) and to pass on these genes to the next generation Hens engineered to produce miR24 (experimental melanoma drug) and human interferon-beta-1a (multiple sclerosis treatment) and to pass on these genes to the next generation Rats GM to secrete malaria vaccine in their milk Rats GM to secrete malaria vaccine in their milk

136 Biopharming and Genetic Modification of Vertebrates Goats GM to make anti-nerve gas agent Goats GM to make anti-nerve gas agent EU recently declined to approve antithrombin made in goats EU recently declined to approve antithrombin made in goats 2009: FDA approves first drug produced by vertebrate biopharming (goat milk Atryn, Ovation Pharmaceuticals, for hereditary antithrombin deficiency) 2009: FDA approves first drug produced by vertebrate biopharming (goat milk Atryn, Ovation Pharmaceuticals, for hereditary antithrombin deficiency) Knock-out mice (lacking gene regulating fear)! Knock-out mice (lacking gene regulating fear)!

137 Biopharming of Vertebrates California banned sale of GM Glofish, zebra fish that glow in the dark California banned sale of GM Glofish, zebra fish that glow in the dark “Ruppy” (Ruby Puppy) “Ruppy” (Ruby Puppy) Glows red under UV light Glows red under UV light Developed in South Korea, 2009, using red fluorescent gene from sea anemones Developed in South Korea, 2009, using red fluorescent gene from sea anemones Artist Eduard Kac: Artist Eduard Kac: glow-in-the-dark rabbit glow-in-the-dark rabbit “plantimal” (petunia-human hybrid) “plantimal” (petunia-human hybrid)

138 Patenting Life Forms More patenting of life-forms, turning common goods into corporate commodities More patenting of life-forms, turning common goods into corporate commodities Patenting of living organisms ruled permissible by U.S. Supreme Court in Diamond v. Chakrabaty, 1980 (oil- digesting bacterium) Patenting of living organisms ruled permissible by U.S. Supreme Court in Diamond v. Chakrabaty, 1980 (oil- digesting bacterium)

139 Patenting Life Forms/Genes Thousands of patents taken out on human gene sequences Thousands of patents taken out on human gene sequences 20% of human genome included in patent claims (34% of identified genes) 20% of human genome included in patent claims (34% of identified genes) Including BRCA-1 and -2 (breast and ovarian cancer), congenital long QT syndrome, CFTR (linked to cystic fibrosis) Including BRCA-1 and -2 (breast and ovarian cancer), congenital long QT syndrome, CFTR (linked to cystic fibrosis) Lawsuits from patients, others challenging claims Lawsuits from patients, others challenging claims

140 Patenting Life Forms Nearly ¾ of patents taken out by U.S. corporations based on publicly-financed research Nearly ¾ of patents taken out by U.S. corporations based on publicly-financed research Chilling effect on research Chilling effect on research J Craig Ventner Institute has filed application to patent a minimal genome J Craig Ventner Institute has filed application to patent a minimal genome 400 genes required to sustain life 400 genes required to sustain life Aim is to corner market in synthetic life forms designed to produce ethanol or hydrogen fuel Aim is to corner market in synthetic life forms designed to produce ethanol or hydrogen fuel

141 Synthetic Biology (Synbio) Creation of DNA and organisms from scratch Creation of DNA and organisms from scratch aka “genetic engineering on steroids” aka “genetic engineering on steroids” 2002: Polio virus created at SUNY Stony Brook over two years 2002: Polio virus created at SUNY Stony Brook over two years 2004: Synthetic virus made in 14 days 2004: Synthetic virus made in 14 days 2005: Mt Sinai, CDC researchers resurrect lethal 1918 flu virus and publish details of complete genome sequence 2005: Mt Sinai, CDC researchers resurrect lethal 1918 flu virus and publish details of complete genome sequence

142 Synbio and Patents 2008: First GM human embryo created 2008: First GM human embryo created 2008: Agribusiness has applied for over 500 patents for “climate ready genes” 2008: Agribusiness has applied for over 500 patents for “climate ready genes” 2000s: Craig Venter’s Venter Institute applies for numerous process and outcome patents 2000s: Craig Venter’s Venter Institute applies for numerous process and outcome patents

143 Synbio and Beyond Biohackers (home and community laboratory creation of GM organisms) Biohackers (home and community laboratory creation of GM organisms) Next up: cloning of extinct species, “Pleistocene rewilding” Next up: cloning of extinct species, “Pleistocene rewilding”

144 Harassment of Scientists Ignacio Chapela – Mexican Corn contamination Ignacio Chapela – Mexican Corn contamination U.C. Berkeley, Novartis U.C. Berkeley, Novartis Arpad Pusztai – adverse renal, immunological, and growth effects of GM potatoes in rats Arpad Pusztai – adverse renal, immunological, and growth effects of GM potatoes in rats British Government, Rowett Research Institute British Government, Rowett Research Institute

145 Harassment of Scientists Similar to previous harassment of Similar to previous harassment of Derek-Bryce Smith and Herbert Needleman (lead poisoning) Derek-Bryce Smith and Herbert Needleman (lead poisoning) Betty Dong, UCSF (Synthroid, Boots-Knoll Pharmaceuticals) Betty Dong, UCSF (Synthroid, Boots-Knoll Pharmaceuticals) Nancy Oliveri, University of Toronto (desferoxamine, Apotex) Nancy Oliveri, University of Toronto (desferoxamine, Apotex) Tyrone B Hayes, U.C. Berkeley (atrazine toxicity, Syngenta) Tyrone B Hayes, U.C. Berkeley (atrazine toxicity, Syngenta) Withholding data, publication delays Withholding data, publication delays

146 The (Biotech) War on Iraq Mesopotamia’s fertile crescent (Iraq) where agriculture began Mesopotamia’s fertile crescent (Iraq) where agriculture began Order 81 of Coalition Provisional Authority sets regulations favoring the patented seeds of large multinationals Order 81 of Coalition Provisional Authority sets regulations favoring the patented seeds of large multinationals Texas A and M has begun a $107 million program to “reeducate” Iraqi farmers to grow industrial-sized harvests for export Texas A and M has begun a $107 million program to “reeducate” Iraqi farmers to grow industrial-sized harvests for export

147 Famine and GE Foods Food dictators who control GE seeds and plants attempted, through the UNFAO and the WHO, to use the famine in Zambia to market GE foods through aid programs, even though… Food dictators who control GE seeds and plants attempted, through the UNFAO and the WHO, to use the famine in Zambia to market GE foods through aid programs, even though… More than 45 African (and other) countries expressed a willingness to supply local, non-GE relief More than 45 African (and other) countries expressed a willingness to supply local, non-GE relief

148 Famine and GE Foods Zambia did not wish to pollute its crops with GE foods, which would have prevented it from exporting home-grown crops to many other countries which do not accept GE imports (further weakening its already fragile economy) Zambia did not wish to pollute its crops with GE foods, which would have prevented it from exporting home-grown crops to many other countries which do not accept GE imports (further weakening its already fragile economy)

149 Famine and GE Foods Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Angola have also refused GM food aid Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Angola have also refused GM food aid Diversion of food crops to biofuels contributing to rise in food prices Diversion of food crops to biofuels contributing to rise in food prices

150 Agricultural Employment Agriculture = largest industry on earth Agriculture = largest industry on earth Agriculture accounts for 70% of employment and 35% of GNP in sub-Saharan Africa Agriculture accounts for 70% of employment and 35% of GNP in sub-Saharan Africa Only 2% of US workforce employed in agriculture (vs. 84% in 1810) Only 2% of US workforce employed in agriculture (vs. 84% in 1810)

151 GE Foods and World Hunger For the first time in history, there are now an equal number of people – 1.1 billion – who get too much to eat as those who don’t have enough to eat For the first time in history, there are now an equal number of people – 1.1 billion – who get too much to eat as those who don’t have enough to eat Hunger and malnutrition kill almost 6 million children per year worldwide Hunger and malnutrition kill almost 6 million children per year worldwide

152 GE Foods and World Hunger: Terminator Technology Genetic Use Restriction Technology (“GURT”) Genetic Use Restriction Technology (“GURT”) v-GURTS (aka “terminator technology”): Makes seeds sterile, via insertion of gene that stops manufacture of protein needed for germination, so they cannot be cropped and resown v-GURTS (aka “terminator technology”): Makes seeds sterile, via insertion of gene that stops manufacture of protein needed for germination, so they cannot be cropped and resown t-GURTS (aka “traitor technology”): Inserts modifying gene such that genes governing good growth, germination, and other desirable characteristics can be activated only when the plant is sprayed with a proprietary chemical, which is sold separately t-GURTS (aka “traitor technology”): Inserts modifying gene such that genes governing good growth, germination, and other desirable characteristics can be activated only when the plant is sprayed with a proprietary chemical, which is sold separately

153 GE Foods and World Hunger: Terminator Technology Overturns traditional agricultural practices of over a billion farmers Overturns traditional agricultural practices of over a billion farmers Instead of saving seeds for the next year’s crop, forced to buy seeds annually from biotech companies Instead of saving seeds for the next year’s crop, forced to buy seeds annually from biotech companies Terminator plants still produce pollen, and their genes could make non-GM crops sterile as well Terminator plants still produce pollen, and their genes could make non-GM crops sterile as well

154 GE Foods and World Hunger: Terminator Technology In 2000, the world’s governments imposed a de facto moratorium on developing, or even testing, the technology under the UN Convention on Biological Diversity In 2000, the world’s governments imposed a de facto moratorium on developing, or even testing, the technology under the UN Convention on Biological Diversity U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and UK trying to overturn U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and UK trying to overturn Upheld by UN CBD in 3/06 Upheld by UN CBD in 3/06 Terminator technology opposed by World Council of Churches Terminator technology opposed by World Council of Churches

155 GE Foods and World Hunger GE foods promoted as the solution to world hunger GE foods promoted as the solution to world hunger No commercially available GE crop that is drought-resistant, salt- or flood-tolerant, or which increases yields (USDA) No commercially available GE crop that is drought-resistant, salt- or flood-tolerant, or which increases yields (USDA) Undermine food and nutritional security, food sovereignty and food democracy Undermine food and nutritional security, food sovereignty and food democracy One week of developed world farm subsidies = Annual cost of food aid to solve world hunger One week of developed world farm subsidies = Annual cost of food aid to solve world hunger

156 GE Foods and World Hunger Increasing reliance on GE food Increasing reliance on GE food Consolidates corporate control of agriculture Consolidates corporate control of agriculture Crops supplied mainly by a handful of multinational corporations Crops supplied mainly by a handful of multinational corporations Transmogrifies farmers into bioserfs Transmogrifies farmers into bioserfs Each year more than 2 million tons of GMO food, often unlabelled, is sent by the U.S. to developing countries Each year more than 2 million tons of GMO food, often unlabelled, is sent by the U.S. to developing countries

157 GE Foods and World Hunger There is already enough food to feed the planet There is already enough food to feed the planet UN FAO: Enough food to provide over 2700 calories/day to every person UN FAO: Enough food to provide over 2700 calories/day to every person Almost ½ of American food goes to waste Almost ½ of American food goes to waste Feeding everyone requires political and social will Feeding everyone requires political and social will Irony that the U.S., home to many GE firms, has rates of child poverty and hunger among the highest in the industrialized world Irony that the U.S., home to many GE firms, has rates of child poverty and hunger among the highest in the industrialized world

158 GE Foods and World Hunger UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (2008): Poverty exacerbated by GM seeds UN Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (2008): Poverty exacerbated by GM seeds UN International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science, and Technology for Development (2008): “GE crops are unlikely to achieve the goal of feeding a hungry world” UN International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science, and Technology for Development (2008): “GE crops are unlikely to achieve the goal of feeding a hungry world”

159 GE Foods and World Hunger GE crops undermine food and nutritional security, food sovereignty and food democracy GE crops undermine food and nutritional security, food sovereignty and food democracy Increasing reliance on GE food Increasing reliance on GE food Consolidates corporate control of agriculture Consolidates corporate control of agriculture Transmogrifies farmers into bioserfs Transmogrifies farmers into bioserfs

160 GE Foods and World Hunger World food prices rising dramatically World food prices rising dramatically US food bank demand up, supplies down US food bank demand up, supplies down Future wars Future wars World hunger will not be solved through large- scale molecular manipulation of food crops whose cultivation has been carefully perfected over 10,000 years World hunger will not be solved through large- scale molecular manipulation of food crops whose cultivation has been carefully perfected over 10,000 years

161 2008 US Farm Bill Cost = $289 billion over 5 yrs. Cost = $289 billion over 5 yrs. Most goes to large agribusiness Most goes to large agribusiness Crop subsidies ($43 billion) allow land to lie fallow, artificially inflate prices Crop subsidies ($43 billion) allow land to lie fallow, artificially inflate prices

162 2008 US Farm Bill Crop insurance ($23 billion) Crop insurance ($23 billion) Foreign food aid < $200 million Foreign food aid < $200 million US total just over $2 billion (half of all international food aid) US total just over $2 billion (half of all international food aid)

163 Monetization and Food Aid US food aid purchased from already- subsidized US agribusiness US food aid purchased from already- subsidized US agribusiness US shipping lines transport food to aid organizations in developing countries US shipping lines transport food to aid organizations in developing countries Undermines local farmers and destabilizes local agriculture Undermines local farmers and destabilizes local agriculture

164 Monetization and Food Aid US spends $3-$5 billion/yr to prop up prices of GM crops on world market US spends $3-$5 billion/yr to prop up prices of GM crops on world market EU has almost entirely phased out monetization EU has almost entirely phased out monetization UN World Food Programme (the world’s largest distributor of food aid) has rejected monetization and refuses monetized food aid UN World Food Programme (the world’s largest distributor of food aid) has rejected monetization and refuses monetized food aid

165 Consolidation and Industrialization of US Agriculture 6.8 million farms in 1935 (vs. < 2 million today) 6.8 million farms in 1935 (vs. < 2 million today) The average farmer now feeds 129 Americans (vs. 19 in 1940) The average farmer now feeds 129 Americans (vs. 19 in 1940) Americans spend less than 10% of their incomes on food, down from 18% in 1966 Americans spend less than 10% of their incomes on food, down from 18% in 1966 Subsidies mean one dollar can buy 1,200 calories of potato chips or 875 calories of soda or 250 calories of vegetables or 170 calories of fresh fruit Subsidies mean one dollar can buy 1,200 calories of potato chips or 875 calories of soda or 250 calories of vegetables or 170 calories of fresh fruit

166 Solutions Outlaw GM crops Outlaw GM crops Labeling laws Labeling laws Allow informed consumer choice Allow informed consumer choice Rep. Dennis Kucinich’s House bills to require labeling, expand FDA oversight, increase regulations re biopharming, and expand research to help developing nations feed themselves Rep. Dennis Kucinich’s House bills to require labeling, expand FDA oversight, increase regulations re biopharming, and expand research to help developing nations feed themselves

167 Solutions Expose and oppose industry attempts to pre- empt labeling initiatives/laws Expose and oppose industry attempts to pre- empt labeling initiatives/laws GM-free zones GM-free zones >4500 in Europe (but EU allows GM crops to be used without labeling in animal feed) >4500 in Europe (but EU allows GM crops to be used without labeling in animal feed) Others in Canada, Australia, and the Philippines Others in Canada, Australia, and the Philippines Swiss passed 5 yr. ban on biopharming by referendum (2/06) Swiss passed 5 yr. ban on biopharming by referendum (2/06)

168 Solutions Norwegian government planning to build artificial cave in frozen mountain at edge of Arctic Circle to preserve 2 million varieties of seeds from ??? Norwegian government planning to build artificial cave in frozen mountain at edge of Arctic Circle to preserve 2 million varieties of seeds from ??? Marker-Assisted Selection – faster alternative to selective breeding that does not involve mixing genes from different organisms Marker-Assisted Selection – faster alternative to selective breeding that does not involve mixing genes from different organisms

169 Solutions New ballot initiatives and legislation New ballot initiatives and legislation Marin, Mendocino, Santa Cruz, and Trinity Counties (CA) ban GMO crops Marin, Mendocino, Santa Cruz, and Trinity Counties (CA) ban GMO crops Bans defeated in Sonoma, Butte, Humboldt, and San Luis Obispo Counties Bans defeated in Sonoma, Butte, Humboldt, and San Luis Obispo Counties CA bill to allow farmers to sue GM-crop manufacturers CA bill to allow farmers to sue GM-crop manufacturers

170 Solutions New ballot initiatives and legislation New ballot initiatives and legislation Vermont now requires manufacturers of GM seeds to label and register their products Arkansas banned GE rice Vermont now requires manufacturers of GM seeds to label and register their products Arkansas banned GE rice Minnesota gives its DOA the power to regulate all GE crops; commissioner has authority over GE plantings Minnesota gives its DOA the power to regulate all GE crops; commissioner has authority over GE plantings Boulder, CO banned GE crops on public lands Boulder, CO banned GE crops on public lands

171 Solutions New ballot initiatives and legislation New ballot initiatives and legislation Hawaii law placed 10 year moratorium on GE coffee and taro Hawaii law placed 10 year moratorium on GE coffee and taro CA biopharm moratorium (pending legislation) CA biopharm moratorium (pending legislation) Moscow to begin labeling GM foods Moscow to begin labeling GM foods

172 Solutions USDA is considering blocking imports of GMOs into US (even though many are the same products of US and multinational corporations already planted in the US) USDA is considering blocking imports of GMOs into US (even though many are the same products of US and multinational corporations already planted in the US) Reasons: Reasons: Foreign GMOs would threaten US agriculture Foreign GMOs would threaten US agriculture They may affect the health of US citizens They may affect the health of US citizens The may affect the environment The may affect the environment

173 Oregon Biopharm Bill Passed OR House 55-0, OR Senate 29-1, signed by governor Passed OR House 55-0, OR Senate 29-1, signed by governor State to negotiate MOU with USDA and then write OR-specific rules State to negotiate MOU with USDA and then write OR-specific rules Unclear if wishes of Biopharm ad hoc Committee’s recommendations for MOU will be honored Unclear if wishes of Biopharm ad hoc Committee’s recommendations for MOU will be honored

174 Oregon Biopharm Bill: Recommendations for MOU Permit ODA and public health officials to view confidential business information re: biopharm crops Permit ODA and public health officials to view confidential business information re: biopharm crops Both ODA and Public Health Dept. Directors must approve biopharm crop permits before field trials Both ODA and Public Health Dept. Directors must approve biopharm crop permits before field trials Express preference for non-food crops, or crops grown indoors in a secure greenhouse; require written justification for outdoor food crops Express preference for non-food crops, or crops grown indoors in a secure greenhouse; require written justification for outdoor food crops

175 Oregon Biopharm Bill: Recommendations for MOU Require FDA preliminary opinion on safety of biopharm crop; disclose to state officials Require FDA preliminary opinion on safety of biopharm crop; disclose to state officials Require demonstration of adequate insurance to cover potential damages of an inadvertent release Require demonstration of adequate insurance to cover potential damages of an inadvertent release Charge the biopharm company to cover costs of Oregon’s monitoring activities Charge the biopharm company to cover costs of Oregon’s monitoring activities Establish public communications plan, including channels for scientific opinions and opportunity for public comments Establish public communications plan, including channels for scientific opinions and opportunity for public comments

176 Solutions Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (of the Convention on Biological Diversity) Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (of the Convention on Biological Diversity) Agreed upon by 130 nations in 2000 Agreed upon by 130 nations in 2000 Went into effect in 2003 after 50 nations signed Went into effect in 2003 after 50 nations signed Allows countries to bar imports of GMO seeds, microbes, animals or crops that they deem a threat to their environments Allows countries to bar imports of GMO seeds, microbes, animals or crops that they deem a threat to their environments

177 Solutions Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Does not cover processed foods made from GMO crops Does not cover processed foods made from GMO crops Requires international shipments of GMO grains to be labeled Requires international shipments of GMO grains to be labeled U.S. has not signed/ratified, and actively opposes U.S. has not signed/ratified, and actively opposes

178 Solutions Ireland pledges to go GM-free – 2007 Ireland pledges to go GM-free – 2007 Scotland, Wales, Switzerland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Austria, and Greece prohibit planting of GM organisms Scotland, Wales, Switzerland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Austria, and Greece prohibit planting of GM organisms Moscow now requires labeling of GM foods Moscow now requires labeling of GM foods Danish law compensates farmers whose fields have become contaminated with GMOs; government seeks recompense from the farmer whose field originated the genetic contamination, assuming the culprit can be pinpointed Danish law compensates farmers whose fields have become contaminated with GMOs; government seeks recompense from the farmer whose field originated the genetic contamination, assuming the culprit can be pinpointed

179 Solutions Campaign finance reform – local and national Campaign finance reform – local and national Public education – particularly in science/environmental science Public education – particularly in science/environmental science Close revolving door between industry and government regulatory bodies Close revolving door between industry and government regulatory bodies

180 Solutions Involve religious groups Involve religious groups Genetic modification listed as one of Vatican’s seven “modern deadly sins” Genetic modification listed as one of Vatican’s seven “modern deadly sins” Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility’s 2008 boycott against sugar made from Monsanto’s GM sugar beets Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility’s 2008 boycott against sugar made from Monsanto’s GM sugar beets

181 Solutions Support local, organic agriculture and patronize farmers’ markets Support local, organic agriculture and patronize farmers’ markets Average American meal travels miles to reach your table Average American meal travels miles to reach your table 17X fewer fuel costs for local foods 17X fewer fuel costs for local foods Avoids redundant trade Avoids redundant trade

182 Solutions: Organics Worldwide organic market $46 billion (2009) Worldwide organic market $46 billion (2009) Organic food market has grown 25%/yr since 1980 Organic food market has grown 25%/yr since 1980 Organic food in Europe can contain maximum 0.9% GM content Organic food in Europe can contain maximum 0.9% GM content 10% in U.S. 10% in U.S.

183 Solutions: Organics Organic farming produces higher yields than non-organic farming; uses 30% less energy, less water, and no pesticides; and increases soil carbon Organic farming produces higher yields than non-organic farming; uses 30% less energy, less water, and no pesticides; and increases soil carbon Organic foods contain up to 20% higher mineral and vitamin content and 30% more antioxidants Organic foods contain up to 20% higher mineral and vitamin content and 30% more antioxidants

184 Solutions: Organics Consumers willing to pay substantial premiums to avoid GE foods Consumers willing to pay substantial premiums to avoid GE foods Whole Foods stores GMO-free Whole Foods stores GMO-free McDonalds refuses to buy GM potatoes McDonalds refuses to buy GM potatoes Organic industry being “taken over” by Wal-Mart, Coca-Cola, Phillip Morris, etc. Organic industry being “taken over” by Wal-Mart, Coca-Cola, Phillip Morris, etc.

185

186 Solutions Consumer-supported agriculture co-ops Consumer-supported agriculture co-ops 1,200 in U.S. 1,200 in U.S. Support family farms; oppose factory farms Support family farms; oppose factory farms Purchase heirloom fruits and vegetables; plant heirloom seeds Purchase heirloom fruits and vegetables; plant heirloom seeds Passed from one generation of family farmers and gardeners to the next Passed from one generation of family farmers and gardeners to the next Help to preserve agricultural biodiversity Help to preserve agricultural biodiversity Exquisite taste Exquisite taste

187 Solutions Oppose unfair farm subsidies Oppose unfair farm subsidies 10% of U.S. farms receive 65% of subsidies; 50% receive just 2% 10% of U.S. farms receive 65% of subsidies; 50% receive just 2% Since 2000, $1.3 billion paid to individuals who do no farming Since 2000, $1.3 billion paid to individuals who do no farming 72% of all food sold in U.S. comes from 7% of U.S. farms 72% of all food sold in U.S. comes from 7% of U.S. farms

188 Solutions Support independent research Support independent research GM seeds currently not made available to independent scientists GM seeds currently not made available to independent scientists Sponsored researchers must sign confidentiality agreements Sponsored researchers must sign confidentiality agreements Avoid over-fished species/GE fish Avoid over-fished species/GE fish Consider vegetarianism Consider vegetarianism Or decrease meat intake Or decrease meat intake

189 Solutions Shun the highly-processed, genetically- manipulated comestibles available in large grocery chains and the fried, fat-filled foodstuffs found in fast food franchises Shun the highly-processed, genetically- manipulated comestibles available in large grocery chains and the fried, fat-filled foodstuffs found in fast food franchises 1950: American farmers captured 50¢ of the avg. dollar spent on food 1950: American farmers captured 50¢ of the avg. dollar spent on food 1997: 7¢ 1997: 7¢ Vast majority now goes to food processors, food marketers, and agricultural input suppliers Vast majority now goes to food processors, food marketers, and agricultural input suppliers

190 Solutions Oppose IMF, World Bank, and WTO structural adjustment programs which exacerbate hunger in the developing world by forcing debtor nations to restructure their agricultural base toward export crops and away from nutritional foodstuffs for local consumption Oppose IMF, World Bank, and WTO structural adjustment programs which exacerbate hunger in the developing world by forcing debtor nations to restructure their agricultural base toward export crops and away from nutritional foodstuffs for local consumption Arctic Doomsday Seed Vault: will safeguard 4.5 million seeds Arctic Doomsday Seed Vault: will safeguard 4.5 million seeds

191 Solutions Support increased research and subsidies for alternative agriculture Support increased research and subsidies for alternative agriculture Support equitable distribution of agricultural resources among populations worldwide Support equitable distribution of agricultural resources among populations worldwide Support increased, non-GM agricultural aid to developing nations Support increased, non-GM agricultural aid to developing nations

192 Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone: rBGH (Posilac © ) Used to increase milk production by cattle Used to increase milk production by cattle Increases growth rate of cattle, which require increased protein feed Increases growth rate of cattle, which require increased protein feed One of the cheapest and most commonly- utilized forms of protein is other dead animals, via rendering One of the cheapest and most commonly- utilized forms of protein is other dead animals, via rendering Mad Cow Disease Mad Cow Disease USDA can bar meatpackers from testing slaughtered cattle USDA can bar meatpackers from testing slaughtered cattle

193 rBGH 15-17% of U.S. dairy cows injected with rBGH 15-17% of U.S. dairy cows injected with rBGH May increase costs to dairy farms May increase costs to dairy farms Increased methane emissions → global warming Increased methane emissions → global warming Causes 10% increase in milk production, but: Causes 10% increase in milk production, but: Increased food costs Increased food costs Increased greenhouse gas emissions (per FDA, NAS, and EPA) Increased greenhouse gas emissions (per FDA, NAS, and EPA) Treated cows burn out faster, slaughtered earlier Treated cows burn out faster, slaughtered earlier

194 rBGH Marketed primarily to large dairy farms, which are supplanting small dairy farms Marketed primarily to large dairy farms, which are supplanting small dairy farms Worse environmental impact records Worse environmental impact records Higher rates of workplace injuries Higher rates of workplace injuries Contribute to decreasing agricultural diversity Contribute to decreasing agricultural diversity Milk prices down Milk prices down Small dairy farmers hardest hit Small dairy farmers hardest hit Takes 1,000 gallons of water to produced a gallon of milk Takes 1,000 gallons of water to produced a gallon of milk

195 rBGH OK’d for use by FDA in 1993; on market since 1994 OK’d for use by FDA in 1993; on market since 1994 FDA official (and former Monsanto attorney) Michael Taylor oversaw process – became Monsanto VP after leaving FDA FDA official (and former Monsanto attorney) Michael Taylor oversaw process – became Monsanto VP after leaving FDA GAO investigation found 3 FDA employees involved in decision had conflicts of interest and multiple ethics rules violations GAO investigation found 3 FDA employees involved in decision had conflicts of interest and multiple ethics rules violations FDA relied on industry summary of internal tests FDA relied on industry summary of internal tests GAO investigation criticized sloppy, manipulative science, lack of data on human health effects GAO investigation criticized sloppy, manipulative science, lack of data on human health effects

196 Risks of rBGH Milk contains ↑ levels of IGF-1, a suspected contributor to breast, prostate and GI cancers Milk contains ↑ levels of IGF-1, a suspected contributor to breast, prostate and GI cancers Promotes cell division and reduces apoptosis (preprogrammed cell death) in animals Promotes cell division and reduces apoptosis (preprogrammed cell death) in animals Inhibits the ability of various anti-cancer drugs to kill cultured human breast cancer cells Inhibits the ability of various anti-cancer drugs to kill cultured human breast cancer cells Along with pesticides, other endocrine disruptors, and obesity, IGF-1 may be partly responsible for earlier onset of puberty (9.9 yrs in 2006, compared with 10.9 years in 1991) Along with pesticides, other endocrine disruptors, and obesity, IGF-1 may be partly responsible for earlier onset of puberty (9.9 yrs in 2006, compared with 10.9 years in 1991)

197 Risks of rBGH IGF-1 survives pasteurization and gastric digestion (due to casein) IGF-1 survives pasteurization and gastric digestion (due to casein) Serum IGF-1 levels increase 10% above baseline Serum IGF-1 levels increase 10% above baseline Milk is the food most associated with high IGF- 1 levels Milk is the food most associated with high IGF- 1 levels IGF-1 not important in yogurt, since it is used as a food source by some of the bacteria responsible for yogurt production IGF-1 not important in yogurt, since it is used as a food source by some of the bacteria responsible for yogurt production

198 Risks of rBGH Causes heat stress, GI disturbances, ovarian and uterine disorders and mastitis in cattle Causes heat stress, GI disturbances, ovarian and uterine disorders and mastitis in cattle Antibiotic treatment of mastitis leads to increased antibiotic resistance in cattle and humans Antibiotic treatment of mastitis leads to increased antibiotic resistance in cattle and humans

199 Repressed Information on rBGH Fox News report on health risks repressed Fox News report on health risks repressed Reporter awarded $425,000 by jury which agreed that Fox “acted intentionally and deliberately to distort the plaintiffs news reporting on rBST.” Reporter awarded $425,000 by jury which agreed that Fox “acted intentionally and deliberately to distort the plaintiffs news reporting on rBST.”

200 Repressed Information on rBGH Appeals court overturned verdict: Appeals court overturned verdict: Whisteblower statute only protects people who threaten to report a violation of a law, rule, or regulation Whisteblower statute only protects people who threaten to report a violation of a law, rule, or regulation Distorting TV news is not technically illegal Distorting TV news is not technically illegal Reporters received Goldman Environmental Prize (“the Nobel Prize for the environment”) Reporters received Goldman Environmental Prize (“the Nobel Prize for the environment”)

201 rBGH (Posilac © ) Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and the European Union have banned rBGH Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and the European Union have banned rBGH However, dairy products produced by rBGH-injected cattle can be imported into many of these nations However, dairy products produced by rBGH-injected cattle can be imported into many of these nations EU Food Safety Agency updates ban 2007 EU Food Safety Agency updates ban 2007

202 rBGH (Posilac © ) The Codex Alimentarius, the UN’s main food safety body, has refused to certify rBGH as safe The Codex Alimentarius, the UN’s main food safety body, has refused to certify rBGH as safe Many dairies have gone rBGH-free, as have all four major Portland, OR hospital systems (for fluid milk) and over 160 hospitals nationwide Many dairies have gone rBGH-free, as have all four major Portland, OR hospital systems (for fluid milk) and over 160 hospitals nationwide

203 rBGH (Posilac © ) Economic/trade consequences for U.S. farmers using rBGH Economic/trade consequences for U.S. farmers using rBGH 80% of consumers want labeling 80% of consumers want labeling Much scientific evidence shows that the purported benefits of milk are in fact false Much scientific evidence shows that the purported benefits of milk are in fact false Next up: Bio Sidus company has developed genetically-modified cows which produce rBGH in their milk Next up: Bio Sidus company has developed genetically-modified cows which produce rBGH in their milk

204 Other Risks Involving Milk: Melamine Falsely elevates apparent protein content of milk, allowing milk to be watered-down Falsely elevates apparent protein content of milk, allowing milk to be watered-down Nephrotoxic, by causing crystals to form in kidneys Nephrotoxic, by causing crystals to form in kidneys 19 sentenced (including 2 – death penalty, 3 – life in prison) 19 sentenced (including 2 – death penalty, 3 – life in prison) 51,000+ children sickened in China (at least 6 deaths) in 2008/9 51,000+ children sickened in China (at least 6 deaths) in 2008/9 Melamine still found in many products sold imported from China Melamine still found in many products sold imported from China

205 PSR Campaign for Safe Food rBGH: rBGH: Goal – discontinue the production of any dairy products from cows treated with rBGH Goal – discontinue the production of any dairy products from cows treated with rBGH Oregon $600 million dairy industry Oregon $600 million dairy industry

206 PSR Campaign for Safe Food rBGH: rBGH: Grassroots education campaign so that citizens can make an informed choice Grassroots education campaign so that citizens can make an informed choice Oppose efforts by AFACT (Monsanto front group) and others to limit labeling at the state and federal level Oppose efforts by AFACT (Monsanto front group) and others to limit labeling at the state and federal level 8 states have attempted to ban or restrict rBGH- free dairy labeling 8 states have attempted to ban or restrict rBGH- free dairy labeling Only OH has succeeded: currently under appeal Only OH has succeeded: currently under appeal

207 PSR Campaign for Safe Food *All fluid milk products in Oregon now rBGH-free* *All fluid milk products in Oregon now rBGH-free* Tillamook cheese (2 nd largest producer in U.S. after Kraft) now rBGH-free Tillamook cheese (2 nd largest producer in U.S. after Kraft) now rBGH-free Fred Meyer, Eberhard, Alpenrose, Darigold, Yoplait, Meadow Gold, Wilcox Farms, TG Lee, Velda milk products rBGH-free Fred Meyer, Eberhard, Alpenrose, Darigold, Yoplait, Meadow Gold, Wilcox Farms, TG Lee, Velda milk products rBGH-free

208 PSR Campaign for Safe Food Dean Foods (a few plants), Publix and Safeway (fluid milk in No. CA and Pacific NW) rBGH- free Dean Foods (a few plants), Publix and Safeway (fluid milk in No. CA and Pacific NW) rBGH- free Wal-Mart (store brand), Kroger (includes Fred Meyer, QF, Ralphs, and Smith’s markets) rBGH-free Wal-Mart (store brand), Kroger (includes Fred Meyer, QF, Ralphs, and Smith’s markets) rBGH-free California Dairies, Inc. (second largest US co- op) rBGH-free California Dairies, Inc. (second largest US co- op) rBGH-free

209 PSR Campaign for Safe Food Southwest Milk, Inc. (Florida’s largest co-op) rBGH-free Southwest Milk, Inc. (Florida’s largest co-op) rBGH-free Dannon, General Mills phasing out rBGH products Dannon, General Mills phasing out rBGH products Campina (Europe’s largest dairy producer) going rBGH-free Campina (Europe’s largest dairy producer) going rBGH-free

210 PSR Campaign for Safe Food Lactaid rBGH-free Lactaid rBGH-free Bon Appetit Mgmt. Co. sourcing only rBGH-free products Bon Appetit Mgmt. Co. sourcing only rBGH-free products Starbucks company-owned stores rBGH- free (not franchises) Starbucks company-owned stores rBGH- free (not franchises) Subway, Chipotle Restaurants rBGH-free Subway, Chipotle Restaurants rBGH-free Some schools going rBGH-free Some schools going rBGH-free

211 PSR Campaign for Safe Food ANA, Health Care Without Harm, AMA President Ron Davis (’07-’08), BMJ all oppose rBGH ANA, Health Care Without Harm, AMA President Ron Davis (’07-’08), BMJ all oppose rBGH ACS – no formal position (2009); previously supported rBGH ACS – no formal position (2009); previously supported rBGH Portland, Oregon’s big four hospital systems all now serve only rBGH-free milk Portland, Oregon’s big four hospital systems all now serve only rBGH-free milk

212 PSR Campaign for Safe Food All organic milk rBGH-free All organic milk rBGH-free Sales of organic milk up 18% in 2005; demand high throughout U.S. Sales of organic milk up 18% in 2005; demand high throughout U.S. Organic milk contains more beneficial fatty acids Organic milk contains more beneficial fatty acids

213 PSR Campaign for Safe Food Biopharm Bills: Biopharm Bills: 4-year moratorium on growing biopharm or industrial crops in an outdoor environment (food and non-food) – passed State Senate (2005); no hearing in State House (2005) 4-year moratorium on growing biopharm or industrial crops in an outdoor environment (food and non-food) – passed State Senate (2005); no hearing in State House (2005) State Biopharm Commission (2006) State Biopharm Commission (2006) 2007 – new, weaker bill passed – authorizes MOU between OR DOA/DPH with USDA re oversight, creates monitoring fees 2007 – new, weaker bill passed – authorizes MOU between OR DOA/DPH with USDA re oversight, creates monitoring fees

214 PSR Campaign for Safe Food Biopharm bills: Biopharm bills: ME enacts moratorium on outdoor planting of biopharmed crops (2009) ME enacts moratorium on outdoor planting of biopharmed crops (2009) Other states with pending legislation: CA, CO, HI, MA, TX Other states with pending legislation: CA, CO, HI, MA, TX CA bill wold ban outdoor cultivation of pharma crops CA bill wold ban outdoor cultivation of pharma crops HI bill would prohibit cultivation of industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals in food or feed crops, ban outdoor testing of such crops, and create a regulatory tracking system HI bill would prohibit cultivation of industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals in food or feed crops, ban outdoor testing of such crops, and create a regulatory tracking system

215 PSR Campaign for Safe Food Health and environmental risks of food irradiation Health and environmental risks of food irradiation Particularly school lunch programs Particularly school lunch programs Carbon monoxide to keep meat red Carbon monoxide to keep meat red GE foods in feedstocks GE foods in feedstocks Agricultural antibiotic overuse Agricultural antibiotic overuse Nanotechnology and food Nanotechnology and food

216 PSR Campaign for Safe Food: Available Resources Fact Sheets on biopharming, rBGH, and food irradiation Fact Sheets on biopharming, rBGH, and food irradiation rBGH-free Dairy Products Guide rBGH-free Dairy Products Guide This presentation This presentation Detailed scientific references Detailed scientific references Donohoe MT. Genetically-Modified Foods: Health and Environmental Risks and the Corporate Agribusiness Agenda. Z Magazine 2006 (December): Available at Donohoe MT. Genetically-Modified Foods: Health and Environmental Risks and the Corporate Agribusiness Agenda. Z Magazine 2006 (December): Available at

217 Website Campaign for Safe Food, Oregon Physicians for Social Responsibility: campaignSafeFood.html Campaign for Safe Food, Oregon Physicians for Social Responsibility: campaignSafeFood.html campaignSafeFood.html campaignSafeFood.html

218 Contact Information Public Health and Social Justice Website


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