# Billboards: Does Color Make a Difference? Rowan Crowley Ms. Hyde 8 th Grade.

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Billboards: Does Color Make a Difference? Rowan Crowley Ms. Hyde 8 th Grade

Topic Question What color combination is most memorable? V6J1X2EE2M0P7AY5D1N7H U8G3W0LK4U1R6ES4Q8B2K

Hypothesis If I test different color combinations, then white on blue will be most memorable. If I test different color combinations, then white on blue will be most memorable.

Abstract Businesses spend billions of dollars every year on advertising. Some of this money is spent on billboards. Are some color combinations more effective than others? This study was designed to determine what color combination is most memorable. Businesses spend billions of dollars every year on advertising. Some of this money is spent on billboards. Are some color combinations more effective than others? This study was designed to determine what color combination is most memorable.

Abstract (cont.) I determined what color combinations are most common as well as the median viewing time for billboards frequently seen while driving on I-85. I determined what color combinations are most common as well as the median viewing time for billboards frequently seen while driving on I-85. I then designed signs using the six most common color combinations with seven random letters and numbers on each one. I tested the signs on 25 people to see which combination they remembered best. I also had each person rank the signs according to what they thought was the easiest to remember to the hardest. I then designed signs using the six most common color combinations with seven random letters and numbers on each one. I tested the signs on 25 people to see which combination they remembered best. I also had each person rank the signs according to what they thought was the easiest to remember to the hardest.

Materials Card for testing vision Card for testing vision Stopwatch Stopwatch Clipboard Clipboard App for testing color vision App for testing color vision Colorful cards with different combinations of 7 letters/numbers on them Colorful cards with different combinations of 7 letters/numbers on them Device to use app on Device to use app on

Consent forms Consent forms Pen or pencil Pen or pencil Car and driver Car and driver Forms to record results Forms to record results Materials (cont.)

Variables Manipulated: Manipulated: colors of letters/numberscolors of letters/numbers colors of backgroundscolors of backgrounds Responding: Responding: number of correct answers subjects getnumber of correct answers subjects get order the subjects rank the signsorder the subjects rank the signs

Variables (cont.) Controlled: Controlled: time allowed to look at signstime allowed to look at signs time allowed for recollectiontime allowed for recollection size of signs and letters/numberssize of signs and letters/numbers fontfont lighting conditionslighting conditions

Step-By-Step Procedures- Background Preparation Record the major color combinations seen on all billboards between exits 46 and 63 on I-85 North and South bound – select the six most common color combinations Record the major color combinations seen on all billboards between exits 46 and 63 on I-85 North and South bound – select the six most common color combinations Record the viewing time on all billboards along the same section of highway – determine the median viewing time Record the viewing time on all billboards along the same section of highway – determine the median viewing time

Step-By-Step Procedures Explain experiment to subject and have them read and sign the consent Explain experiment to subject and have them read and sign the consent Check subject’s vision and color vision Check subject’s vision and color vision Shuffle signs Shuffle signs Give first sign to subject, face down Give first sign to subject, face down Say go, start watch and have them turn sign over and look at it Say go, start watch and have them turn sign over and look at it Take sign away after 5 seconds, wait 5 more seconds and ask subject to repeat letters/numbers out loud in the correct order Take sign away after 5 seconds, wait 5 more seconds and ask subject to repeat letters/numbers out loud in the correct order

Step-By-Step Procedures (cont.) Record number of correct letters/numbers Record number of correct letters/numbers Repeat this for all 6 signs Repeat this for all 6 signs Have subject put signs in order, looking at them, from what they think was the easiest to remember to the hardest Have subject put signs in order, looking at them, from what they think was the easiest to remember to the hardest Record their order Record their order

Data: Billboards Most Common Color Combinations: 1. White on blue (23) 2. Red on white (11) 3. White on red (9) 4. Black on white (7) 5. White on green (6) 6. White on black (5) Median Viewing Time: 5 seconds (range: 2-11s)

Color Combo Average Number Correct (out of 7) Number of Perfect Scores White on blue 5.085 Red on white 6.2015 White on red 6.2812 Black on white 5.7612 White on green 5.047 White on black 5.9611 Subject Scores

Color Combo Number of 1 st Places (6pts each) Number of 2 nd Places (5pts each) Number of 3 rd Places (4pts each) Number of 4 th Places (3pts each) Number of 5 th Places (2pts each) Number of 6 th Places (1pt each) Total Number of Points White on blue 34438382 Red on white 1221244104 White on red 637540102 Black on white 17244776 White on green 02681868 White on black 37434490 I made a scoring system for the order the subjects put the signs in. If a sign was put in 1 st place, it got 6 points, 2 nd place got 5 points, 3 rd place 4 points, 4 th place 3 points, 5 th place 2 points, and 6 th place got 1 point. Subjects Ranking of Signs

Total Scores from Subject Ranking

Color Combo Percent of Rankings that are 1 st Place Percent of Rankings that are 1 st or 2 nd Place White on blue 12%28% Red on white 48%56% White on red 24%36% Black on white 4%32% White on green 0%8% White on black 12%40% Percents from Subject Rankings

Results The color combinations of red on white and white on red were most memorable followed by black on white and white on black. The color combinations of red on white and white on red were most memorable followed by black on white and white on black. The most correct responses were with these color combinations; in addition, the subjects also thought that these color combinations were most memorable. The most correct responses were with these color combinations; in addition, the subjects also thought that these color combinations were most memorable.

Conclusion The most memorable color combinations are red words on a white background and white words on a red background. Black words on a white background and white words on a black background are also somewhat memorable. The most memorable color combinations are red words on a white background and white words on a red background. Black words on a white background and white words on a black background are also somewhat memorable.

Application The results of this project can be used by any business for their billboards. If they use a good color combination on their billboards, people are more likely to remember the message. This may give the business more customers and increase profits. The results of this project can be used by any business for their billboards. If they use a good color combination on their billboards, people are more likely to remember the message. This may give the business more customers and increase profits.

Citations http://www.marketingpilgrim.com/2007/10/wha t-top-brands-spend-on-advertising.html http://www.marketingpilgrim.com/2007/10/wha t-top-brands-spend-on-advertising.html http://www.marketingpilgrim.com/2007/10/wha t-top-brands-spend-on-advertising.html http://www.marketingpilgrim.com/2007/10/wha t-top-brands-spend-on-advertising.html http://www.musanim.com/miller1956/ http://www.musanim.com/miller1956/ http://www.musanim.com/miller1956/ Lea Numbers Produced by Precision Vision Lea Numbers Produced by Precision Vision Ishihara Test Professional by Thomas Mitchell Ishihara Test Professional by Thomas Mitchell