Presentation on theme: "Classification of Motor Tasks Undergraduate Motor Learning Emily H. Wughalter, Ed.D."— Presentation transcript:
Classification of Motor Tasks Undergraduate Motor Learning Emily H. Wughalter, Ed.D.
2 What is a taxonomy? A taxonomy is a system for classifying tasks.
3 Poulton’s (1957) conceptualization of motor skills was based upon the predictability of the environment. He categorized open and closed skills into two discrete categories.
4 According to Poulton’s classification system, an open skill is one where little predictability of the environment exists.
5 According to Poulton, a closed skill is one that is predictable.
6 Knapp (1968) Knapp viewed the open and closed skills on a continuum. On Knapp’s continuum a skill might move from open to closed or visa versa depending on the level of expertise of a performer, also depending on environmental conditions.
7 Information Processing Input Internal and External Stimuli Central Processing Perception Decision Effector Output Movement Process and Product
8 Knapp’s Continuum Closed Open Perceptual Habitual
9 Gentile and her colleagues (1972, 1975, 1987, 2000) defined open skills as those where the relevant factors in the environment are moving, and closed skills as those where the relevant factors in the environment are stationary. An open skills is externally paced. A closed skill is self paced.
10 Basketball Dribbling Rallying in racquetball
15 Running hurdles High jumping
17 Open Skills Spatial and temporal factors Predictability is limited Moving factors
18 Closed Skills Spatial factors only Environment is highly predictable Relevant factors are stationary
22 Adaptive Movement Adaptive movement is goal directed movement. It can be: –A. Movement made to change or maintain the position of the body. –B. Movement made to change or maintain the position of an object –C. Any combination of A and B.
23 Movement of the body refers to whether the body is stable or moving.
24 Manipulation of an object is labeled as Limb Transport Manipulation (LTM). An object can be manipulated or not (LTM or No LTM)
25 Movement of the Body
26 Closed Open No LTM LTM No LTM LTM Stability Transport
27 Intertrial variability is related to the changes in the movement pattern caused by changes in the environment from trial to trial.
28 Environmental Predictability
29 Easiest Hardest
31 Information Feedback Knowledge of performance feedback is appropriate for closed skills because of single pattern of movement emerges late in practice.
32 Information Feedback Knowledge of results feedback is appropriate for open skills because a diversity of motor patterns emerge for open skills.
33 Discrete skills are defined as those with an identifiable beginning and ending, e.g., kicking, throwing, striking….
34 Continuous skills are defined as those with no identifiable beginning and ending, e.g., running, skipping, cycling, swimming….
35 Serial skills are defined as a series of discrete skills connected together, e.g., receiving a volleyball with a bump and then going up for a spike, or fielding a baseball and throwing to first base….
37 SJSU Volleyball 2007
38 SJSU Volleyball 2007
39 Ford installs first moving assembly line 1913 Photo: Moving assembly line at Ford Motor Company's Michigan plant