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Carbon Authorized by: Dagmar Slezáková Radka Lenartová.

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Presentation on theme: "Carbon Authorized by: Dagmar Slezáková Radka Lenartová."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Carbon Authorized by: Dagmar Slezáková Radka Lenartová

3 Carbon  is a chemical element  typical non-metallic  is the sixth most common element in the universe (in the food, the clothes, the cosmetics, the gasoline)  is found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, and atmospheres of most planets  the atmosphere of Mars contains 96 % CO 2

4 Chemical properties  Symbol: C (lat. Carboneum)  Atomic number: 6  Group number: 14  Atomic weight: (8) g r  Electron configuration:1s 2 2s 2 2p 2  Electrons per shell: 2, 4

5 Allotropic forms 1. graphite (black) 2. diamond (colourless) 3. fullerenes (synthetic) 4. Another allotropes (synthetic): carbon nanotubes, lonsdaleite, aggregated diamond nanorods.

6 Graphite  crystallizes in the hexagonal system  is one of the softest mineral  is a conductor of electricity (because of the delocalization of the pi-cloud)  is combined with clays to form the 'lead' used in pencils

7 Diamond  crystallizes in the cubic system  is the hardest mineral known to man  is an excellent electrical insulator  is used for decorative purposes, and also as drill bits and other applications making use of its hardness

8 Cullian I (The Star of Africa)  the biggest discovered diamond in the world  was cut in 1908 in Amsterdam  is a component of crown jewellery of The United Kingdom of Great Britain (It is set in The Tower in London)

9 Fullerenes  also called "buckyballs" and "buckytubes"  the properties of fullerenes have not yet been fully analyzed  have a graphite-like structure, but instead of purely hexagonal packing, also contain pentagons (or possibly heptagons) of carbon atoms

10 Inorganic chemistry  CO 2 …carbon dioxide  H 2 CO 3 …carbonic acid  CS 2 …carbon disulfide  CO … carbon monoxide  HCN … hydrogen cyanide  CaC 2 … calcium carbide  CaCO 3 (MgCO 3 ) … calcite (magnesite), salts of carbonic acid

11 Organic chemistry I  Hydrocarbons C-C, C=C, CΞC, …  Alcohols C-OH  Phenols –OH on aromatic nucleus  Ethers C-O-C  Peroxides C-O-O-H  Aldehydes HC=O  Ketones C-CO-C  Esters R-C-OOR

12 Organic chemistry II

13 References:      Technické slovníky, Nakladatelství technické literatury, Praha 1992

14 *Thank you for your attention*


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