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Minerals. Key Concept #1 What is a mineral? A mineral is a substance which has a naturally occurring inorganic definite chemical composition What would.

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Presentation on theme: "Minerals. Key Concept #1 What is a mineral? A mineral is a substance which has a naturally occurring inorganic definite chemical composition What would."— Presentation transcript:

1 Minerals

2 Key Concept #1 What is a mineral? A mineral is a substance which has a naturally occurring inorganic definite chemical composition What would be the opposite of this? man-madeorganicrandom composition ESRT Mineral Chart Click Here

3 Key Concept #2 The reason why minerals have different physical properties is due to their internal arrangement of atoms

4 Key Concept #2 An example of two minerals which have the same chemical composition but different physical properties is Click Here

5 Key Concept #3 The Main Physical Properties Used to Identify Minerals A. Color 1. a poor indicator a. minerals can be multiple colors b. many minerals are the same color

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8 Key Concept #3 The Main Physical Properties Used to Identify Minerals B. Streak the powder form of a mineralmore reliable than color

9 Key Concept #3 The Main Physical Properties Used to Identify Minerals C. Luster how light reflects off a mineral a. metallic b. non-metallic -looks like a metal -Leaves a dark (black, grey, green or brown) streak on a white streak plate -looks earthy, waxy, greasy or brilliant -leaves white or no streak on a black streak plate

10 Key Concept #3 D. Cleavage The Main Physical Properties Used to Identify Minerals -mineral breaks in a predictable pattern because of its arrangement of atoms -At least one distinct flat side when broken

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18 Key Concept #3 E. Fracture The Main Physical Properties Used to Identify Minerals -the mineral breaks randomly -Irregular sides

19 Key Concept #3 F. Hardness The Main Physical Properties Used to Identify Minerals 1. resistance to being scratched- something softer than a material cannot scratch the harder material 2. It is NOT the same as breaking! For example: You can break glass easily with steel. However, steel will not scratch glass.

20 Key Concept #3 Hardness The Main Physical Properties Used to Identify Minerals MOH’S SCALE OF HARDNESS HardnessMineralHardnessMineral 1 (softest) (hardest) TALC GYPSUM CALCITE FLUORITE APATITE ORTHOCLASE QUARTZ TOPAZ CORUNDUM DIAMOND

21 Key Concept #4 Minerals have a definite chemical composition. The two elements by mass that make up the greatest percentage of the Earth’s crust are siliconoxygen

22 Key Concept #4 Minerals have a definite chemical composition. These two elements combine to form compounds called silicates (SiO 4 )

23 Key Concept #4 Minerals have a definite chemical composition. They combine in a specific structure called a: silicon-oxygen tetrahedra

24 REVIEW- WHAT IS A MINERAL?  A mineral is naturally occurring, inorganic, and crystalline solid having a definite chemical composition  Each mineral has its own distinctive crystal structure that can lead to a very accurate ID  All minerals are solids that are composed of one or more chemical elements

25  All minerals are rocks, but not all rocks are minerals nor are they all composed of minerals- the main reason: rocks can be organic like coal  Minerals form as the result of inorganic crystallization or by the re-crystallization of atoms in various rock-forming environments

26  Minerals can be identified by color, streak, luster, hardness, density, cleavage, crystal structure and other characteristics (ex. magnetism, response to hydrochloric acid, etc)


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