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Physical Properties of Matter.  Physical Property – any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Properties of Matter.  Physical Property – any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Properties of Matter

2  Physical Property – any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition (makeup) of the substances in the material.  These properties are used to identify a material or chose which material to use for a certain task.  One must look at more than one physical property to make their decision.

3 Examples of physical properties  Viscosity  Conductivity  Malleability  Hardness  Melting and Boiling Point  Density

4 Viscosity  Viscosity – the tendency of a liquid to keep from flowing (its resistance to flowing)  Thick liquids have a high viscosity.  Thin, runny liquids have a low viscosity.  Viscosity is usually decreased when the liquid is heated.

5 Conductivity  Conductivity – material’s ability to allow heat to flow  Metals conduct heat well…called conductors.  If conducts heat well, usually conducts electricity well. Ouch!

6 Malleability  Malleability – the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering.  Most metals are malleable.  If not malleable, then we call substances brittle because it breaks when hammered (like ice).

7 Hardness  Compare hardness by scratching.  If a material can scratch another, then it is harder than the other material.  Stainless steel can scratch copper. Thus, steel is harder than copper.  A diamond is hardest known material.

8 Melting and Boiling Points  Melting Point – temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid  Boiling Point – temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas

9 Density Density – ratio of a substance’s mass to its volume Density = mass/Volume  Mass – g  Volume - mL or cm 3 or cc  Density – g/mL or g/cm 3

10 Densities Material Density (gm/ cm 3) Water at 4 C Water at 20 C Gasoline0.70 Magnesium1.7 Copper Gold19.3 Ice at 0 C 0.92 Air Helium

11 Separating Materials via Physical Properties  Filtration – separating materials based on the size of their particles (like straining spaghetti or tea)  Distillation – process that separates the substances in a solution based upon boiling points. Distillation is done by heating a liquid until it boils, capturing and cooling the hot vapors, then collecting the condensed vapors. As a result the impurities (or unwanteds) are left behind in the 1 st container.

12 Physical Change  Physical change – occurs when some of the properties of a material change, but the substances in the material remain the same. Examples:  Cutting hair (hair is still hair even though it looks different)  Slicing a tomato  Ironing a shirt  Freezing water into ice  Some physical changes are reversible, which means that you can take the substance back to the original.  Ice melts and can become ice again  When you cut hair off, you can’t put it back.


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