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Strategies for Teaching Anatomy & Physiology Hugh W. Harling EdD, LAT, ATC Methodist College, Fayetteville NC

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Presentation on theme: "Strategies for Teaching Anatomy & Physiology Hugh W. Harling EdD, LAT, ATC Methodist College, Fayetteville NC"— Presentation transcript:

1 Strategies for Teaching Anatomy & Physiology Hugh W. Harling EdD, LAT, ATC Methodist College, Fayetteville NC

2 Overview Learning Process Learning Process Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Text / Book Based Resources Text / Book Based Resources Internet Resources Internet Resources Fun Ideas / Explanations Fun Ideas / Explanations Q & A Q & A

3 Learning  Process of change  Acquisition of new knowledge, skills or attitudes  From study or life experiences  Occurs over a period of time  Lifelong process  American Red Cross Fundamentals of Instructor Training, 2001

4 MARS Motivation Motivation Association Association Repetition Repetition Senses Senses American Red Cross Fundamentals of Instructor Training, 2001 American Red Cross Fundamentals of Instructor Training, 2001

5 Motivation Any suggestions here I would appreciate ! Any suggestions here I would appreciate ! Difficult since students come to class with variety of backgrounds. Difficult since students come to class with variety of backgrounds. One of the hardest things to do is motivate ALL students. One of the hardest things to do is motivate ALL students. Even harder to sustain motivation – everyone has good days and bad. Even harder to sustain motivation – everyone has good days and bad. Contract for Grade ? Contract for Grade ?

6 Association One of the big keys to learning. One of the big keys to learning. Describes how things fit together and effect each other. Describes how things fit together and effect each other. Often Study systems in isolation and fail to connect from one to others. Often Study systems in isolation and fail to connect from one to others. As we know, when one system of the body fails, it affects the others, some very quickly (AMI) others very slowly (Osteoporosis) As we know, when one system of the body fails, it affects the others, some very quickly (AMI) others very slowly (Osteoporosis)

7 Repetition No substitute for repetition No substitute for repetition Athletes spend hours fielding, throwing or hitting, … They are training their BRAIN and body. Athletes spend hours fielding, throwing or hitting, … They are training their BRAIN and body. You are asking your students to train their brains and one must practice to be able to perform when needed. You are asking your students to train their brains and one must practice to be able to perform when needed.

8 Senses The more hands-on the better The more hands-on the better More about this later More about this later

9 Technology has limits ? Free iPods for Duke students College says popular MP3 music players will be used to download lectures and books as well as songs. Free iPods for Duke students College says popular MP3 music players will be used to download lectures and books as well as songs. Stretch students Stretch students

10 Use games Brings out competitiveness / pre-test preparation Brings out competitiveness / pre-test preparation Jeopardy – multiple levels, teams Jeopardy – multiple levels, teams Word Search Word Search Newspaper accuracies & inaccuracies (Bonus points ?) Newspaper accuracies & inaccuracies (Bonus points ?) Wrong word use – correction Wrong word use – correction Crossword puzzles Crossword puzzles Songs / sayings – let them make up their own Songs / sayings – let them make up their own

11 Use Pictures & Video / DVD A picture (or graph, or…) is worth a thousand words A picture (or graph, or…) is worth a thousand words Make use of textbook graphic packages Make use of textbook graphic packages Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (www.lww.com) Aclund’s Atlas of Human Anatomy Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (www.lww.com) Aclund’s Atlas of Human Anatomywww.lww.com

12 Textbook Resources Scott & Fong, Body Structures and Functions Scott & Fong, Body Structures and Functions Delmar's Anatomy & Physiology Challenge CD- ROM included free with each book. Delmar's Anatomy & Physiology Challenge CD- ROM included free with each book. Gross anatomy photos with the line illustrations presented throughout the book for a side-by-side comparison. Gross anatomy photos with the line illustrations presented throughout the book for a side-by-side comparison. New Online Companion includes exercises, quizzes, animations, and additional teaching hints. A Powerpoint presentation with slides per chapter is also included. New Online Companion includes exercises, quizzes, animations, and additional teaching hints. A Powerpoint presentation with slides per chapter is also included. Lab Activities have been added to each chapter to bring a new interactive dimension to learning. Lab Activities have been added to each chapter to bring a new interactive dimension to learning.

13 Textbook Resources Gary A. Thibodeau, PhD; and Kevin T. Patton, PhD, The Human Body in Health & Disease Gary A. Thibodeau, PhD; and Kevin T. Patton, PhD, The Human Body in Health & Disease Included FREE with the softcover text is Body Spectrum: Mosby's Electronic Anatomy Coloring Book CD-ROM Included FREE with the softcover text is Body Spectrum: Mosby's Electronic Anatomy Coloring Book CD-ROM Study Guide - Designed to help students master basic anatomy and physiology, this study guide provides students with additional self-study aids, including chapter overviews, topic reviews, application and labeling exercises, as well as answers to the questions. Study Guide - Designed to help students master basic anatomy and physiology, this study guide provides students with additional self-study aids, including chapter overviews, topic reviews, application and labeling exercises, as well as answers to the questions. Softcover text includes FREE CD-ROM and MERLIN website at:www.harcourthealth.com/MERLIN/ThibodeauPatton/h umanbody/) Study Guide by Swisher Softcover text includes FREE CD-ROM and MERLIN website at:www.harcourthealth.com/MERLIN/ThibodeauPatton/h umanbody/) Study Guide by Swisher

14 Other Text Resources Anatomy Coloring Book Anatomy Coloring Book Physiology Coloring Book Physiology Coloring Book Memory Notebook of Nursing: A collection of Visual Images and Mnemonics to increase memory and learning (Zerwekh, Claborn & Miller, ISBN ) Memory Notebook of Nursing: A collection of Visual Images and Mnemonics to increase memory and learning (Zerwekh, Claborn & Miller, ISBN ) CD-ROMs – textbook, ADAM, … CD-ROMs – textbook, ADAM, …

15 Using the Internet

16 Evaluate Your Sources Information versus marketing – blurring Information versus marketing – blurring Pharmaceutical ads – are they informational or ads or both. Pharmaceutical ads – are they informational or ads or both. Skepticism should hold true for the internet just like TV – if it is to good to be true it probably is just that or very expensive. Skepticism should hold true for the internet just like TV – if it is to good to be true it probably is just that or very expensive.

17 Evaluate Your Sources Does the author have authority on the topic? Does the author have authority on the topic? What are the author’s credentials? What are the author’s credentials? Is the information accurate for when it was written? Is the information accurate for when it was written? Is there a consensus of opinion on this topic? Is there a consensus of opinion on this topic? What are the important ideas? What are the important ideas? What is the purpose of the source? What is the purpose of the source? Is the purpose to inform, to entertain, to teach, or to influence? Is the purpose to inform, to entertain, to teach, or to influence?

18 Evaluate Your Sources Who is the author writing for? Who is the author writing for? Is it biased in any way? Is it biased in any way? Has the author looked at the material objectively? Has the author looked at the material objectively? Does the author offer several points of view? Does the author offer several points of view? How does the source help answer your question? How does the source help answer your question? Does the source provide valuable, relevant information? Does the source provide valuable, relevant information?

19 Internet Google Search – Anatomy - 5,130,000 for Anatomy (0.16 seconds) Google Search – Anatomy - 5,130,000 for Anatomy (0.16 seconds) Froogle Search – Anatomy - 27,000 confirmed / 204,000 total results for Anatomy. (0.46 seconds) Froogle Search – Anatomy - 27,000 confirmed / 204,000 total results for Anatomy. (0.46 seconds) Google Search - Physiology - 6,150,000 for Physiology (0.14 seconds) Google Search - Physiology - 6,150,000 for Physiology (0.14 seconds) Froogle Search - Physiology - 4,280 confirmed / 101,000 total results for Physiology. (0.58 seconds) Froogle Search - Physiology - 4,280 confirmed / 101,000 total results for Physiology. (0.58 seconds)

20 Numerous Useful Websites Teach Strategies Newsletter bc.com/events/strategies/newsletters/inde x.html Teach Strategies Newsletter bc.com/events/strategies/newsletters/inde x.html bc.com/events/strategies/newsletters/inde x.html bc.com/events/strategies/newsletters/inde x.html Advances in Physiology Education Advances in Physiology Education Visible Human d/GrossAnatomy/cross_section/index.html Visible Human d/GrossAnatomy/cross_section/index.html d/GrossAnatomy/cross_section/index.html d/GrossAnatomy/cross_section/index.html

21 More Helpful Internet Websites Emory Medical School – Biological & Physical Sciences Emory Medical School – Biological & Physical Sciences Radiology - Radiology - Radiology - szeged.hu/Radiology/Anatomy/ Radiology - szeged.hu/Radiology/Anatomy/http://www.szote.u- szeged.hu/Radiology/Anatomy/http://www.szote.u- szeged.hu/Radiology/Anatomy/ Anatomy of the Eye natomy.htm Anatomy of the Eye natomy.htm natomy.htm natomy.htm

22 Multiple Organ System Quiz University of Minnesota WebAnatomy en/1135/webanatomy/default.htm University of Minnesota WebAnatomy en/1135/webanatomy/default.htm en/1135/webanatomy/default.htm en/1135/webanatomy/default.htm

23 Using Other People’s Listings British Association of Clinical Anatomists aca/bacalinks.htm British Association of Clinical Anatomists aca/bacalinks.htm

24 FUN Ideas

25 Doorway Need appropriate key to enter room just as certain molecules need doorways (channels) and keys (carrier protein) to enter a cell. Need appropriate key to enter room just as certain molecules need doorways (channels) and keys (carrier protein) to enter a cell. Alter key and door no longer opens (insulin – diabetes) Alter key and door no longer opens (insulin – diabetes)

26 Idea Time - GI Sock or stockinette & golf balls – Shows peristalsis Sock or stockinette & golf balls – Shows peristalsis Chew food and swallow – shows why chew and cut foods – Fill “stomach” Chew food and swallow – shows why chew and cut foods – Fill “stomach” Open end of sock now Pyloric Sphincter – can’t empty entire contents at once, but one piece at a time. Open end of sock now Pyloric Sphincter – can’t empty entire contents at once, but one piece at a time. Can now discuss what is added by what to tract to break stuff down. Can now discuss what is added by what to tract to break stuff down.

27 Idea Time - Cardiac PVC pipe - clogging of artery same as how a drain clogs with hair, grim, … Happens over time, … PVC pipe - clogging of artery same as how a drain clogs with hair, grim, … Happens over time, … Use playdough for plaque build-up Use playdough for plaque build-up Critical thinking what would cause the clog ? Critical thinking what would cause the clog ? How long to show versus completely clog ? How long to show versus completely clog ? If clog shifts / breaks free now anatomically what is called, where will it go, …? If clog shifts / breaks free now anatomically what is called, where will it go, …? By-pass – cut section out and reroute By-pass – cut section out and reroute Use drain cleaner to represent drugs Use drain cleaner to represent drugs Use pipe (or bottle cleaner) to represent angioblasty Use pipe (or bottle cleaner) to represent angioblasty

28 Idea Time – Respiratory System Balloons & Garbage bag Balloons & Garbage bag Balloons represent alveoli and garbage bag the lung. Balloons represent alveoli and garbage bag the lung. Pop balloon lose capacity (alveoli) but lung stays inflated Pop balloon lose capacity (alveoli) but lung stays inflated Use water in balloon to represent mucous or debris Use water in balloon to represent mucous or debris Two Garbage bags hold corners of outermost, suck in inner (Pneumothorax) Two Garbage bags hold corners of outermost, suck in inner (Pneumothorax)

29 Idea Time – Filtration / Diffusion Filtration occurs through the body (Liver, Kidneys, Spleen, nutrients from blood into cells, …) Filtration occurs through the body (Liver, Kidneys, Spleen, nutrients from blood into cells, …) Rocks over drain – small materials slip in and out of vascular system and large (proteins must stay in) unless can change shape – Rocks over drain – small materials slip in and out of vascular system and large (proteins must stay in) unless can change shape – Can also use a mesh screen formed like a tube to show flow into or out of (Tube within a tube) Can also use a mesh screen formed like a tube to show flow into or out of (Tube within a tube) Watch out for the mess Watch out for the mess

30 Diffusion Classic Experiment Classic Experiment Color / matter moves from high concentration toward areas of low concentration. Color / matter moves from high concentration toward areas of low concentration. Food coloring (or tea – sun tea anyone ?) into water Food coloring (or tea – sun tea anyone ?) into water

31 Idea Time – Musculoskeletal System 1 rope – pulling hand over hand like bring up anchor 1 rope – pulling hand over hand like bring up anchor 2 Ropes and four groups 2 Ropes and four groups One group back to back each holding pull (shorten toward each other – representing accordion action) One group back to back each holding pull (shorten toward each other – representing accordion action)

32 Ideas from Others Cell – light colored jello in cup – add candies to represent different organelles Cell – light colored jello in cup – add candies to represent different organelles Layers of skin – cake or jello & cool wipe. Layers of skin – cake or jello & cool wipe.

33 Bridging & Summarizing Bridging – connecting concepts Bridging – connecting concepts Summarizing – bring together facts & concepts Summarizing – bring together facts & concepts MUST bring example back to its technical terminology MUST bring example back to its technical terminology Will often remember the example but not why it was done or exactly what it showed Will often remember the example but not why it was done or exactly what it showed Remember, Everyone will experience the lesson differently. Remember, Everyone will experience the lesson differently.

34 Final Stop Methodist College Athletic Training Website Methodist College Athletic Training Website

35 References American Red Cross. (2001). Fundamentals of Instructor Training. American Red Cross. (2001). Fundamentals of Instructor Training. Bailey, D. (1997). Research for the Health Professional: A Practical Guide, Second Edition. F.A. Davis. Bailey, D. (1997). Research for the Health Professional: A Practical Guide, Second Edition. F.A. Davis. Blessing, J. (2001). Physician Assistant’s Guide to Research and Medical Literature. F.A. Davis. Blessing, J. (2001). Physician Assistant’s Guide to Research and Medical Literature. F.A. Davis. Zybeck, K. Methodist College Reference Librarian, Portions Adapted from: Teaching Information Literacy. Burkhardt, MacDonald, and Rathemacher. Chicago: ALA, 2003 Zybeck, K. Methodist College Reference Librarian, Portions Adapted from: Teaching Information Literacy. Burkhardt, MacDonald, and Rathemacher. Chicago: ALA, 2003


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