Presentation on theme: "Properties of the Periodic Table Families Chemistry Fall 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Properties of the Periodic Table Families Chemistry Fall 2009
Octet Rule Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share e- in order to get a full set of 8 valence e- Useful for determining the type of ions likely to form Elements on the right side of the periodic table tend to gain e-; forming negative ions Elements on the left side of the periodic table tend to lose e- and form positive ions Why do elements on the right side gain e – and elements on the left side lose e-?
Family 1A Alkali metals Easily lose a valence e- and form a ion with a +1 charge Soft enough to cut with a knife Highly reactive – too reactive to be found free in nature; good conductors of heat and electricity Example: NaCl in salt water
Family 1A - Lithium Lightest alkali metal Found in water, soil, and rocks Least reactive of alkali metals Compounds of lithium found in batteries and dehumidifiers Used to strengthen glass and treat bipolar disorders
Hydrogen Placed in 1A because it has 1 valence e- H shares many properties with nonmetals and metals Highly reactive http://www.open2.net/s ciencetechnologynature /worldaroundus/akalime tals.html http://www.open2.net/s ciencetechnologynature /worldaroundus/akalime tals.html
Group 2A – Alkaline Earth Metals Form compounds with oxygen called “oxides” Shiny solids that are harder than alkali metals Lose 2 valence e- to form ions with a 2+ charge
Calcium Found widely in nature- rocks, coral reefs Needed to maintain healthy teeth and bones Decomposition of calcium carbonate forms lime – used to manufacture steel, paper, and glass.
Magnesium Abundant Can be formed into any shape Alloys are strong and lightweight
Group 3A – The Boron Family Found in nature combined with other elements B, Al, Ga lose 3 e- to form ions with a +3 charge Thallium loses only the p valence e- to form ions with a 1+ charge
Boron Borax comes from California’s Mojave Desert Cleaning agent and fireproof insulation Boric acid used as disinfectant and eyewash Boron nitride – 2 nd hardest known material Super abrasives
Aluminum Most abundant metal in earth’s crust Recycling aluminum is energy efficient compared to extracting it from its ore Widely used – alum in antiperspirants and aluminum oxide in many gems
Carbon Can form many different compounds Diamonds are hard, graphite is soft – allotrope C atoms in graphite share e- with other C atoms to form layers that slide C atoms share e- with other C atoms in diamonds to form a 3-D solid
Silicon Computer chips and solar cells Can be found in quartz crystal, sand, and glass
Nitrogen Abundant in the atmosphere Proteins contain N Bacteria in soil convert N from the atmosphere to nitrogen compounds that are easier to use by organisms Ammonia – colorless gas, irritating odor
Phosphorus Phosphate compounds can be found in cheese, laxatives, baking powders, flame- retardant fabric, grease remover in cleaning products Essential for plant growth (fertilizers) – can be harmful to the environment
Bismuth A compound of Bismuth is an active ingredient in a remedy for nausea and diarrhea
Oxygen 6 valence e-; tend to gain two e- to form ions with a 2- charge; can also share 2e- Ozone - unstable gas Most abundant element in Earth’s crust Forms compounds with every element except He, Ne, and Ar
Sulfur Used to make acids to be used in fertilizers, steel, paper, and paints Hydrogen sulfide used as an energy source in the ocean Hydrogen sulfide released from volcanoes Tarnish silver
Selenium Supplements Found in eggs, fish, and grains. Works with vitamin E to prevent cell damage Used in solar cells - converts light into electricity Locoweed – toxic levels to grazing animals copiers
Fluorine Form compounds with almost all metals Form ions with a 1- charge Added to toothpaste and drinking water to protect tooth enamel from decay Nonstick coating for cookware
Chlorine Highly reactive Deadly gas Compounds of chlorine are used as bleaching agents, stain removal Cl compounds are used by dentists and hydrochloric acid is used to digest food, rust removal, plastic production
Iodine Body needs iodine to maintain a healthy thyroid gland Seafood and iodized salt are excellent sources of iodine Kills bacteria – used by campers to disinfect water
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