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Operant Conditioning Action results in consequence –Decision B.F. Skinner Three term contingency –Stimulus - response - outcome Outcomes –Positive/negative;

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Presentation on theme: "Operant Conditioning Action results in consequence –Decision B.F. Skinner Three term contingency –Stimulus - response - outcome Outcomes –Positive/negative;"— Presentation transcript:

1 Operant Conditioning Action results in consequence –Decision B.F. Skinner Three term contingency –Stimulus - response - outcome Outcomes –Positive/negative; reinforcement/punishment

2 Differences from Classical Usually assumed to be under “conscious” control Operant conditioned after the behaviour –Outcome feeds back to alter response

3 Probabilities Hierarchy of behaviours (actions) –Probability Operant conditioning changes events and/or consequences Results in adjustment of probability hierarchy

4 Shaping Directed learning Behavioural outcome more certain –Select a specific response to occur in a specific way Gradual process Chaining –Forward and backward

5 Reinforcement Schedules Fixed ratio Fixed interval Variable ratio Variable interval

6 Reinforcement Consistency Continuous schedules Intermittent schedules Response-reinforcer? –Technically, only FR-1 is continuous Systematic reinforcer –Any fixed schedule (FR or FI)

7 Extinction Response - outcome pattern disrupted Easiest for: –Continuous reinforcement/punishment –Low schedules Variable ratio schedules hardest to extinguish

8 Reinforcers Primary Secondary Speed of learning Extinction Money

9 Delay Immediate reinforcement Delayed reinforcement Generally, delayed harder to condition –Difference with well conditioned system

10 Changing Schedules Cost of response Contingency –Rate of reinforcement Modification –Decrease –Increase Delay

11 Applications Discriminative stimulus –“Blue-light special,” coloured sale tags, logos (if previous positive experience with product) –Christmas music in October Positive reinforcement –Give-aways, purchase points, Canadian Tire money, parking lot barbeques Negative reinforcement –Purchase to avoid pushy sales pitch

12 VR schedule –Lotteries, door prizes, etc. Shaping –Free trial periods, leading signs/displays (get person into store area) Punishment –Unusual in advertising/marketing –Commercials showing customer who suffers from not using product (observational learning)

13 Ecological Design Structuring the environment Facilitation of particular behaviour(s) –Increase/decrease probability of response Store layout, purchase locations, noises, odors, lighting A type of shaping of a response

14 Behaviour Modification Application of operant theory to change behaviour Primary application of operant principles Skinner’s behaviour analyst techniques

15 Behav. Mod. in Marketing Role of marketing as influencing, modifying, and controlling consumer behaviour to achieve purchasing objectives An applied field –Not aimed at developing theory, but applying theory Observable behaviour –No inferred behavioural constructs

16 Economic Psychology Integration of psychology and economic analysis Marketing –Not a discipline –An application area for the social sciences and other disciplines EcPsyc offers detailed analysis of consumer-firm interactions

17 Behavioural Perspective Model Gordon R. Foxall Operant behaviourist paradigm Modern marketing firms –Embedded in networks of marketing relationships –Extra-firm environment (e.g., consumers) drive marketing behaviour –Reinforcement/punishment shift firm’s behaviour Applies also to behaviour of individuals comprising the firm (e.g., employees, owners, shareholders, etc.)

18 A Firm’s Purpose To make marketing relationships more economic –Production and selling are independent of firms Don’t need firms to do these –Creation and maintenance of marketing is what firms do

19 Uhm… So? Operant conditioning theory and firms Economic behaviour is instrumentally conditioned Behaviour that operates on the environment to produce consequences changes the future rates of behaviour Reinforcement/punishment shifts economic (market) factors

20 Consumer Behaviour Economic purchasing and consumption activities Basic three-term contingency applies –Stimulus - response - outcome Plus, consumer behavioural setting and learning history

21 Behav. Persp. Model and Consumer’s Choice Consumer choice reduces aversive consequences of facing multiple equivalent options

22 Model Consumer behaviour setting Consumer’s learning history Consumer behaviour Aversive consequences Utilitarian reinforcement Informational reinforcement

23 Marketing Management in BPM Influence two factors Consumer behaviour settings –Social, physical, temporal, and regulatory discriminative stimuli Utilitarian and information reinforcers –Actual outcome and knowledge gained

24 Managing Reinforcers Three ways Enhancing effectiveness of reinforcers Controlling the schedules of reinforcer delivery Increasing the quantity or quality of reinforcers

25 Complexities Multiple systems operating simultaneously Is operant conditioning separable from classical? Do stimuli fulfill role of CS, S D, or both?

26 Role of Operant Reinforcer in Classical Conditioning In classical conditioning –US presented regardless of CR –Defining feature –But, operant reinforcement can slip in Operant reinforcement via –1. Reinforcing CR directly e.g., food (US) coming after CR –2. CR increases “value” of US e.g., salivation (CR) makes swallowing food (US) easier

27 Omission Control Procedure US presentation depends on occurrence of CR –CS presented; if no CR, US follows –CS presented; if CR, no US follows Therefore, US can’t operantly reinforce CR

28 Omission Control CS US CR Trial with a CR CS US CR Trial without a CR Blocks of sessions % of CRs Omission control Standard classical conditioning

29 Conclusion Can have classical conditioning without operant reinforcement But what about classical conditioning in operant conditioning?

30 Associative Structure in Operant Conditioning Basic form of association –S-R –S-O Pavlovian processes Can keep instrumental reinforcement out of classical conditioning, but not vise versa Stimulus Outcome Instrumental response

31 S-R, S-O, r g -s g Thorndike’s Law of Effect –Focus on S-R association Hull and Spence –Law of Effect plus a classical conditioning process r g -s g –Fractional anticipatory goal response; sensory feedback

32 Fractional Anticipatory Goal Response S D influences r g -s g (expectancy of reward from classical conditioning) through sensory substitution-like process Motivation Stimulusrgrg sgsg ResponseOutcome Timeline

33 Prediction According to rg-sg –CR occurs before operant response –But, not always true –e.g., lever pressing and salivation –CR should occur before operant, but it doesn’t

34 Central Emotional State Classical conditioning in operant conditioning Not for learning response For CES (Central Emotional State) CES --> motivation, “mood”

35 Modern Two-Process Theory Classical in operant conditioning Neutral stimulus --> elicit motivation (CES) CES elicited by CS corresponds to US –CES a characteristic of CNS = “mood” CES doesn’t produce only one response –e.g., anger --> multiple responses CES conditioned during ordinary operant training –CES conditioned to situational cues or discriminative stimulus –CES motivates operant behaviour

36 Prediction Rate of instrumental response will be modified by presentation of CS Consider –In operant conditioning, CES develops to motivate operant response –CS from classical conditioning also elicits CES –Therefore, giving CS during operant conditioning will alter CES that motivates/maintains operant response

37 Conditioned Emotional Response Suppression ratio CES elicited by CS --> decrease response

38 “Explicit” Predictions Emotional states US CS Appetitive Aversive (e.g., food)(e.g., shock) CS+ Hope Fear CS-Disappointment Relief

39 Behavioural predictions Aversive US Instrumental scheduleCS+(fear)CS-(relief) Positive reinforcementdecreaseincrease Negative reinforcementincreasedecrease

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