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Mini – dictionary of sustainable management english – finnish – french –german– italian- slovak Cooler World.

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Presentation on theme: "Mini – dictionary of sustainable management english – finnish – french –german– italian- slovak Cooler World."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mini – dictionary of sustainable management english – finnish – french –german– italian- slovak Cooler World

2 Alphabetical index AC Ecomunicipalities Accountability Carrying capacityEconomic dimension Agriculture CompostableEcosystem Air pollution Compost toiletsEco villages Automation Conserve (to)Energy saving lamps B Cross-cultural experienceEnvironmental badge Bearable D Environmentalist Basic needs Deforestation Environmental sustainability Bio-diversity E Equitable Earth charterEthical values Extinctions

3 FH L Food processingHydraulic turbinesLight pollution Forestry I Living conditions Fossil fuelsIndustrial revolution Long term capacity G Intergenerational equity Genetic diversity

4 M PollutionRevive growth Management of human consumption Population control S Mechanical engineering Poverty Scrappage bonus Meet needsPreserve(to)Self sufficient N R Social dimension Natural cycles Radioactive contamination Soil contamination Noise pollution Renewable energies Solar chimney power plants P Resource base Photovoltaics

5 Sustainability V Sustainable development Viable Sustainable tourism W Synthetic fertilizerWaste separation T Water pollution Transition Water shortage

6 Accountability 1000 Vastuullisuus (fi) Responsabilité (fr) Rechenschaftspflicht (ge) Responsabilità (it) Zodpovednosť (sk) Accountability is a new social standard for building sustainability. AccountAbility 1000 is a not-for-profit certification and research organization founded in the UK in 1995. The 1000 Series is AccounAbility’s guidelines for reporting on social, environmental and ethical performance. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

7 Agriculture Maatalous (fi) Agriculture (fr) Landwirtschaft(ge) Agricoltura (it) Poľnohospodárstvo (sk) Agriculture is the economic activity that consists in the cultivation of species vegetables. The main purpose of agriculture is to obtain produced of the plants to use to alimentary scope or not, but other purposes are possible also that they do not preview necessarily the removal of the products. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

8 Air Pollution Ilmansaasteet (fi) Pollution de l’air (fr) Luftverschmutzung (ge) Inquinamento atmosferico (it) Znečistenie ovzdušia (sk) The release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide,chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

9 Automation Automaatio (fi) Automatisation (fr) die Automation (ge) Automazione (it) Automatizácia (sk) The term identification technology that uses automation control systems (such as logic circuits or processors) to control machines and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. It is accomplished by performing repetitive tasks or complex, but even if you have to call security or certainty of the Tourism is the practice, the action taken by those traveling and visiting places for the purpose of entertainment, knowledge and education. action or simply for convenience. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

10 Bearable Siedettävää (fi) Durable (fr) Erträglich (Ge) Sopportabile (it) Znesiteľný (sk) Capable of being borne though unpleasant. In reference to the sustainability the term indicate it can / need to adopt best practice to do e.g. “the weather more bearable”. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

11 Basic needs Perustarpeet( fi) Besoins fondamentaux (fr) Grundbedürfnisse (ge) Bisogni fondamentali (it) Základné potreby (sk) The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty. It attempts to define the absolute minimum resources necessary for long-term physical well being, usually in terms of consumption goods. A traditional list of immediate "basic needs" is food (including water), shelter, and clothing. Many modern lists emphasize the minimum level of consumption of 'basic needs' of not just food, water and shelter, but sanitation, education and healthcarepoverty. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

12 Bio-diversity Biologisen (fi) Bio diversité (fr) Biologische Vielfalt (ge) Bio-diversità (it) Bio-diverzita (sk) Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or an whole planet. Rapid environmental changes generally cause extinctions. The 99.9 percent of species that existed on Earth are now extinct. extinctions Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

13 Carrying capacity Sietokykyä (fi) Capacité de charge (fr) Tragkraft (ge) Capacità di carico (it) Nosnosť (sk) The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available in the environment. In population biology, carrying capacity is defined as the environment's maximal load, which is different from the concept of population equilibrium. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

14 Climate change Ilmastonmuutos (fi) Changement climatique(fr) Klimawandel (ge) Cambiamento climatico (it) Klimatická zmena (sk) Climate change is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. n recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate. It may be qualified as anthropogenic climate change, more generally known as global warming or anthropogenic global warmingglobal warming Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

15 Compostable Kompostoitavat (fi) Compostables (fr) Kompostierbar (ge) Compostabili (it) Kompostovateľný (sk) This is pretty close to biodegradable plastic but "greener". The plastic to be considered as compostable, it must be able to break down into carbon dioxide, water and biomass at the same rate as paper. It also needs to look like compost, should not produce any toxic material and should be able to support plant life. Compostable items are made from plant materials such as corn, potato, cellulose, soy and sugar. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

16 Compost toilets Komposti wc (fi) Compost toilettes (fr) Kompost- toiletten(ge) Compost toilette (it) Suchý záchod (sk) A composting toilet is an aerobic processing system that treats excreta, typically with no water or small volumes of flush water, via composting or managed aerobic decomposition. This is usually a faster process than the anaerobic decomposition at work in most wastewater systems, such as septic systems. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

17 Conserve Conserver (fi) Conserver (fr) Erhaltung (ge) Conservare (it) Zachovať (sk) From the latin word “conservare”, comp. from “cum” (with) and “servare”(to look after ). In sustainability this term refers to water conservation, energy, biodiversity, etc. sustainability Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

18 Cross-cultural experience Monikulttuurisen kokemuksia (fi) Expériences interculturelles (fr) Interkulturelle Erfahrungen (ge) Esperienze interculturali (it) Interkultúrna skúsenosť (sk) Cross cultural communication gives opportunities to share ideas, experiences, and different perspectives and perception by interacting with local people. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

19 Deforestation Metsäkadon (fi) Déforestation (fr) Abforstung (ge) Deforestazione (it) Odlesňovanie (sk) Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a no forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to agriculture or urban use.agriculture Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

20 The Earth charter Maan charter (fi) La Charte de la Terre (fr) Die Erd-Charta (ge) La Carta della Terra (it) Charta Zeme (sk) Is an Unesco document that suggests us, how we can build building a just, sustainable and peaceful global society in the 21st century. This document is an agreement among the people of the world. The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental ethical principles to inspire in all people a new sense of global interdependence and shared responsibility for the well-being of the future generations. It is a vision of hope and a call to action. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

21 Ecomunicipality Ecomunicipality (fi –ge) Municipalités éco logiques(fr) Ecomunicipalità (it) Eko-obce (sk) An eco-municipality, (also known as an eco-town) is a local government area that has adopted ecological and social justice values in its charter. An eco-municipality is a sustainable development project that recognizes that issues of sustainability are key to all decisions made by government.sustainable developmentsustainability Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

22 Economic dimension Taloudellinen ulottuvuus (fi) Dimension économique (fr) Wirtschaftliche Dimension (ge) Dimensione economica (it) Ekonomický rozmer (sk) The economic dimension is, with the social and environmental impacts, one of the key aspects of sustainable development. Sustainability interfaces with economics through the social and ecological consequences of economic activity. Social, cultural, health-related and monetary/financial aspects have to be integrated into the environmental sustainable development Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

23 Ecosystem Ekosysteemiä (fi) Écosystème Écosystème (fr) Ökosystem (ge) Ecosistema Ecosistema (it) Ekosystém (sk) An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components (abiotic) of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

24 Ecovillages Eco kylät (fi) Eco villages (fr) Ökodörfer (ge) Ecovillaggi (it) Eko-obce (sk) Ecovillages are intentional communities with the goal of becoming more socially, economically and ecologically sustainable. Some aim for a population of 50–150 individuals because this size is considered to be the maximum social network according to findings from sociology and antropology. Ecovillage members are united by shared economical, social- economic and cultural-spiritual values. An ecovillage is often composed of people who have chosen an alternative to centralized electrical, water, and sewage systems. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

25 Energy saving lamps Energiansäästölamput (fi) Lampes à économie d'énergie (fr) Energiespar- lampen (ge) Lampade a risparmio energetico (it) Energeticky úsporné žiarivky (sk) Also called compact fluorescent lamps (CFL). These lamps are particular because they have indirect lighting issued by vapor of mercury. Compared to general service incandescent lamps giving the same amount of visible light, but they use less power and have a longer rated life. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

26 Environmental badge Ambientali badge (fi) Badge environnemental(fr) Umwelt- plakette (ge) Badge ambientale (it) Ekologická značka (sk) Already from March 1, 2007 onwards, vehicle restrictions in environmental green zones can be issued in cities and local districts in Germany. Therefore the respective zones were specially marked as being green zones by the city or municipality. The first environmental green zones are coming into force as of January 1, 2008 in the cities Berlin, Cologne, and Hanover. As from this date on Germany as well as foreign vehicles are no longer permitted to enter these zones without the environmental badge. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

27 Environmentalist Ympäristönäkökohdilla (fi) Environnemental (fr) Umweltschützer (ge) Ambientalista (it) Ekológ (sk) Are people who work to protect the environment and try to protect the natural world from effects of our industrialized societies. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

28 Environment sustainability Ympäristön kestävän (fi) Environnement durable(fr) Nachhaltigkeit im Umweltbereich (ge) Sostenibilità ambientale (it) Trvalá udržateľnosť životného prostredia (sk) Environment Sustainability is one of the three dimensions of the sustainability, that are: environmental, economic, and social. For humans, sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being. sustainabilityeconomic social Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

29 Equitable Oikeudenmukainen (fi) Equitable Equitable (fr) Angemessen(ge) Adeguato Adeguato /Equo (it) Rovnocenný (sk) Having or exhibiting equity Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

30 Ethical values Eettisten arvot (fi) Valeurs éthiques (fr) Ethische Werte (ge) Valori etici (it) Etické hodnoty (sk) In ethics, value is a property of objects, including physical objects as well as abstract objects (e.g. actions), representing their degree of importance. Ethical value denotes something's degree of importance, with the aim of determining what action or life is best to do or live, or at least attempt to describe the value of different actions. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

31 Extinctions Sukupuuttoihin (fi) Extinctions (fr) Aussterben (ge) Estinzioni (it) Vymieranie (sk) In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms, normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the group (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point). Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

32 Food processing Elintarvike (fi) Transformation des aliments (fr) Die Lebensmittelverarbeitung (ge) Trasformazione degli alimenti(it) Spracovanie potravín (sk) Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform the first ingredients in food or to transform food into other forms of consumption by humans or animals, at home or by food processing industries. Processing food typically takes clean, harvested or slaughtered animal products and uses them to produce attractive, marketable and often long-term food on the market. Similar processes are used to produce animal feed. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

33 Forestry Metsätalousministeri (fi) Forestal (fr) Forstwirtschaft (ge) Silvicoltura (it) Lesníctvo (sk) Forestry is the art and science of managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that allow forests to continue a sustainable continuation of environmental supplies and services. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

34 Fossil fuels Fossiilisten polttoaineiden (fi) Combustibles fossiles (fr) Fossiler Brennstoffe (ge) Combustibili fossili (it) Fosílne palivá (sk) Fossil fuels are the fuels formed by natural resources derived by the decomposed remains of prehistoric organisms. Generally these fossil are formed by the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals that are exposed at heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over millions of years. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

35 Genetic diversity Geneettisen monimuotoisuuden (fi) La diversité génétique (fr) der genetischen Vielfalt (ge) Diversità genetica (it) Genetická rozmanitosť (sk) Genetic diversity is the variation of heritable characteristics present in a population of the same species. It serves an important role in evolution by allowing a species to adapt to a new environment and to fight off parasites. It is applicable to domesticated species, which typically have low levels of genetic diversity. Studying genetic diversity in humans can help researchers form theories on human origins. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

36 Global warming ilmaston lämpeneminen (fi) réchauffement de la planète (fr) die globale Erwärmung (ge) Riscaldamento globale (it) Globálne otepľovanie (sk) Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20 th -century. According to the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report, global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 20th century. Most of the observed temperature increase since the mid-20 th century has been caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouses gases, which result from human activity such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation.fossil fuel deforestation Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

37 Hydraulic turbines Hydrauliset turbiinit (fi) Turbines hydrauliques (fr) Wasser- turbinen (ge) Turbine idrauliche (it) Vodné turbíny (sk) An hydraulic turbine is a rotary engine that takes energy from moving water. Water turbines were developed in the 19th century and were widely used for industrial power prior to electrical grids. Now they are mostly used for electric power generation. They harness a clean and renewable energy source. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

38 Industrial revolution Teollinen vallankumous (fi) Révolution industrielle (fr) Industrielle Revolution (ge) Rivoluzione industriale (it) Priemyselná revolúcia (sk) The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions starting in the UK, then subsequently spreading throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

39 Intergenerational equity Sukupolvien välinen oikeudenmukaisuus (fi) L'équité intergénérationnelle (fr) Generationsgerechtigkeit (ge) Equità intergenerazionale (it) Medzigeneračná rovnosť (sk) Intergenerational equity is a value concept which focuses on the rights of future generations. It is a notion that is implicit in ecological sustainability. However, since skills to facilitate thinking about long term consequences are not typically included in educational curricula, this value is presented as distinct from ecological sustainability to emphasize the need for thinking about how human actions that directly or indirectly degrade the environment in the present will affect future generations of humans and other life forms. sustainability Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

40 Light pollution Valosaastetta (fi) La pollution lumineuse (fr) Lichtverschmutzung (ge) Inquinamento luminoso (it) Svetelné znečistenie (sk) includes light trespass,over illumination and astronomical interference. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

41 Living conditions Elinolot (fi) Les conditions de vie (fr) Lebensbedingungen (ge) Condizioni di vita (it) Životné podmienky (sk) The term living conditions (quality of life) is used to evaluate the general well-being of individuals and societies. The term is used in a wide range of contexts, including the fields of international development, healthcare, and politics. Quality of life should not be confused with the concept of standard of living, which is based primarily on income. Instead, standard indicators of the quality of life include not only wealth and employment, but also the built environment, physical and mental health, education, recreation and leisure time, and social belonging. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

42 Long term capacity (planning) Resurssipohjan (fi) Capacités à long terme (fr) Langfristigen Fähigkeit (ge) Capacità (di pianificazione) a lungo termine (it) Dlhodobá schopnosť (sk) Evaluating organizational needs for a given function or service, based on historic use, staff growth or reduction and business intentions. Five-year or ten-year planning was once viewed as crucial; now three- year planning is much more common, since organizations adapt so rapidly to changing business conditions. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

43 Management of human consumption Hallinta ihmisravinnoksi (fi) Gestion de la consommation humaine (fr) Management des Menschlichen Verzehrs (ge) La gestione del consumo umano (it) Riadenie ľudskej spotreby (sk) The underlying driver of direct human impacts on the environment is human consumption. This impact is reduced by not only consuming less but by also making the full cycle of production, use and disposal more sustainable. Consumption of goods and services can be managed at all scales through the chain of consumption, starting with the effects of individual lifestyle choices and spending patterns, through to the resource demands of specific goods and services, the impacts of economic sectors, through national economies to the global economy. Key resource categories relating to human needs are food, energy, materials and water. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

44 Mechanical engineering Kone- ja metalli (fi) Coonstruction de machines(fr) Der Maschinenbau (ge) Ingegneria meccanica (it) Strojárstvo (sk) Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials sciences for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest engineering disciplines. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the industrial revolution in Europe in the 19th century; however, its development can be traced back several thousand years around the world. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

45 Meet needs Tarpeiden täyttämiseksi (fi) Répondre aux besoins (fr) Bedürfnisse befriedigen (ge) Soddisfare le esigenze (it) Uspokojovanie potrieb (sk) The satisfaction of human needs and aspirations is so obviously an objective of productive activity that it may appear redundant to assert its central role in the concept of sustainable development. All too often poverty is such that people cannot satisfy their needs for survival and well-being even if goods and services are available. At the same time, the demands of those not in poverty may have major environmental consequences sustainable development. poverty Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

46 Natural cycles Luonnonoloista (fi) Les cycles naturels (fr) Natürlichen Zyklen (ge) Cicli naturali (it) Prírodné cykly (sk) Natural cycles balance and regulate Earth and its atmosphere. Human activities can cause changes to these natural cycles. Changes to Earth’s cycles can cause changes in the climates of our planet. The major natural biochemical cycles include the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate cycles. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

47 Photovoltaics Aurinkosähköstä (fi) Photovoltaïque (fr) Photovoltaik (ge) Fotovoltaico (it) Fotovoltaika (sk) Photovoltaics is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

48 Noise pollution Melusaaste (fi) Pollution par le bruit (fr) Lärmbelästigung (ge) Inquinamento acustico (it) Nadmerná hlučnosť (sk) which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise,industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

49 Pollution Pilaantuminen (fi) Pollution (fr) Umweltverschmutzung (ge) Inquinamento (it) Znečistenia (sk) Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. The major forms are: Air pollution Light pollution Noise pollution Radioactive contamination Soil contamination Water pollution Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

50 Population control Väestönkasvun hillitseminen (fi) Contrôle de la population (fr) Bevölkerung zu kontrollieren (ge) Controllo demografico (it) Populačná kontrola (sk) Population control is the practice of artificially altering the rate of growth of a human population. It’s a government program to limit or decrease population growth with a control education, the wide availability of contraceptives, and economic incentives. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

51 Poverty Köyhyys (fi) Pauvreté (fr) Armut (ge) Povertà (it) Chudoba (sk) Poverty describes a wide range of circumstances associated with need, hardship and lack of resources. For some, poverty is a subjective and comparative term; for others, it is moral and evaluative; and for others, scientifically established. need Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

52 Preserve (to) Säilyttää (fi) Préserver (fr) Bewahren (ge) Preservare (it) Uchovať (sk) The word preserve may refer, in our field of interest, e.g. to: an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or other special interest, usually protected. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

53 Radioactive contamination Radioaktiivisten saasteille (fi) Contaminations radioactives (fr) Radioaktiven Kontaminationen (ge) Contaminazioni radioattive (it) Radioaktívna kontaminácia (sk) resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

54 Renewable energy Uusiutuvien energialähteiden (fi) Énergies renouvelables Énergies renouvelables (fr) Erneuerbare Energien (ge) Energia rinnovabile Energia rinnovabile (it) Obnoviteľné zdroje energie (sk) Renewable energy refers to any naturally occurring, theoretically inexhaustible source of energy, as biomass, solar, wind, tidal, wave, and hydroelectric power, that is not derived from fossil or nuclear fuel. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

55 Resource base Resurssipohjan (fi) Base de ressources (fr) Ressourcenbasis (ge) Risorse di base (it) Surovinová základňa (sk) Resource base are the necessary source for production, growth life of the world’s population. The most important resources base are water, energy and foods. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

56 Revive growth Elvyttää kasvua (fi) Relancer la croissance (fr) Wachstum wieder zu beleben (ge) Rilanciare la crescita (it) Oživiť rast (sk) Development that is sustainable has to address the problem of the large number of people who live in absolute poverty - that is, who are unable to satisfy even the most basic of their needs. Poverty reduces people's capacity to use resources in a sustainable manner; it intensifies pressure on the environment. Growth must be revived in developing countries because that is where the links between economic growth, the alleviation of poverty, and environmental conditions operate most directly. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

57 Scrappage bonus Ympäristölisä (fi) Bonus de mise à la ferraille (fr) Abwrack- prämie (ge) Bonus rottamazione (it) Šrotovné (sk) A scrappage bonus is a government budget program to promote the replacement of old vehicles with modern vehicles. Scrappage programs generally have the dual aim of stimulating the automobile industry and removing inefficient, high emissions vehicles from the road. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

58 Self sufficient Omavarainen (fi) Autosuffisant (fr) selbst versorgen (ge) Autosufficiente (it) Sebestačný (sk) The concept and philosophy of self sufficient refers to the condition of people, houses, cities, mechanisms, societies, industrial systems, countries that don’t require any external help, support or commercial or diplomatic interactions, this with the aim of assuring a level of constant comfort not conditioned by factors or by external nations; we speak, therefore about an extreme form or personal or collective autonomy. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

59 Social dimension Sosiaalinen ulottuvuus (fi) Dimension sociale (fr) Sozialen Dimension (ge) Dimensione sociale (it) Sociálny rozmer (sk) Social dimension must be considered alongside economic and environmental dimensions within a Triple Bottom Line Approach (incorporating the economic, social and environmental dimensions) to sustainability. While there are no definitive answers, there appear to be some key directions that arise from a studied interpretation of the concept. These include poverty reduction, social investment, and the building of safe and caring communities.economic environmental poverty Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

60 Soil contamination Maaperän saastuminen (fi) Contamination des sols (fr) Bodenverunreinigungen (ge) Contaminazione del suolo (it) Kontaminácia pôdy (sk) Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released intentionally, by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hidrocarbons,heavy metals, MBTE,herbicides,pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

61 Solar chimney power plants Solar savupiippu voimalaitokset (fi) Centrales électriques à énergie solaire (fr) Wind-Sonne- Kraftwerk (ge) Centrali a camino solare (it) Solárne elektrárne (sk) The solar updraft tower is a proposed type of renewable- energy power plant. It combines three old and proven technologies: the chimney effect, the greenhouse effect, and the wind turbine. Air is heated by sunshine and contained in a very large greenhouse-like structure around the base of a tall chimney, and the resulting convection causes air to rise up the updraft tower. This airflow drives turbines, which produce electricity. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

62 Sustainability Kestävyyden (fi) La durabilité (fr) Nachhaltigkeit (ge) Sostenibilità (it) Udržateľnosť (sk) Sustainability is the capacity to endure. In ecology the word describes how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time. For humans, sustainability is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions.environmental economicsocial dimensions Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

63 Sustainable development Kestävä kehitys (fi) Développement durable Développement durable (fr) nachhaltige Entwicklung (ge) Sviluppo sostenibile Sviluppo sostenibile (it) Trvalo udržateľný rozvoj (sk) Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come. The most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.“ Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social challenges facing human needs carrying capacity natural systems Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

64 Sustainable tourism Kestävän matkailun (fi) Le tourisme durable (fr) Nachhaltigen Tourismus (ge) Turismo sostenibile (it) Udržateľný cestovný ruch (sk) Sustainable tourism is an industry committed to making a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people. The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development brings a positive experience for the local people, tourism companies and the tourists themselves.environment Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

65 Synthetic fertilizer Synteettiset lannoitteita (fi) Engrais synthétiques (fr) Künstlicher Dünger (ge) Fertilizzanti sintetici (it) Syntetické hnojivá (sk) Synthetic fertilizers today are composed mainly of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compounds with secondary nutrients added. The use of synthetic fertilizer has greatly improved the quality and quantity of the food available today, but their long term used has some negative effect in the environment according to some environmentalist. This kind of fertilizer comes in two forms: solid and liquid. environmentalist Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

66 Transition Siirtymäkauden (fi) Transition (fr) Übergang (ge) Transizione (it) Premena (sk) Transition is a cultural movement engaged in ferrying our society from the current economic model based on a vast availability of cheap oil and on the logic of resource consumption to a new sustainable model independent from oil and characterized by a high level of resilience.consumption Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

67 Viable Toteuttamiskelpoisia (fi) Utilisable (fr) Brauchbar (ge) Vitale/Redditizio (it) Životaschopný (sk) Viable or viability is the ability of a thing (a living organism, an artificial system, an idea, etc.) to maintain itself or recover its potentialities. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

68 Waste separation Jätteiden lajittelu (fi) Tri des déchets Tri des déchets (fr) Mülltrennung (ge) Raccolta differenziata dei rifiuti Raccolta differenziata dei rifiuti (it) Triedenie odpadu (sk) Recycling involves processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from land filling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern.consumption energy need Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

69 Water pollution Veden saastuminen (fi) Pollution de l'eau (fr) Wasserverschmutzung (ge) Inquinamento delle acque (it) Znečistenie vody (sk) by the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (intentionally or through spills) into surface waters; discharges of untreated domestic sewage, and chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, from treated sewage; release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters (including urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical fertilizers and pesticides); waste disposal and leaching into groundwater; eutrophication and littering. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

70 Water shortage Vesipula (fi) La pénurie d'eau (fr) Wasserknappheit (ge) Carenza di acqua (it) Nedostatok vody (sk) Water shortage is the possible future consequence of water crisis. Water crisis is a term used to refer to the world’s water resources relative to human demand. someone, for example the Food and Agriculture Organization, said in 2003 that there is no water crisis but steps must be taken to avoid one in the future. The major aspects of the water crisis are allegedly overall scarcity of usable water and water pollution. Alphabetical index Alphabetical index

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