Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1991. Definitions Capitalism = An economy where the production and selling of goods/services are privately owned; Goods and services."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War
Definitions Capitalism = An economy where the production and selling of goods/services are privately owned; Goods and services are purchased by those who can afford them. Government interference to preserve competition and protect citizens. Communism = A totalitarian gov’t that plans and controls the economy; Government controls human rights. A single political party holds power; All goods are equally shared by the people based on need
USA vs. USSR Government Leader(s) Economy Economic Focus Classes (poor, middle, etc.) Private Property Trading w/ others CommunismCapitalism All controlled by gov’t Strong National Usually a Dictator Improve life for workers No Want exclusive rights Nat’l and State gov’t 3 Branches Gov’t mostly does not interfere Survival of the Fittest Yes Free, open trade
Causes Before WWII Communists overthrew Russian gov’t (Bolshevik Revolution) Communists surrendered during WWI (Quit on Allies) 1930s - Stalin’s kills all political opponents (purges) Distrust over Western appeasement to Hitler (Austria, Czech.) Signed the Nazi- Soviet Pact US troops sent to fight against Bolsheviks during Russian civil war (Red Army vs. White Army) After WWI - US gov’t feared communist takeover – Red Scare Palmer Raids arrested and deported thousands of suspected communists Refused to recognize the Soviet gov’t until 1933
Causes During WWII Believed US/GB purposefully waited to create a 2nd front in France to weaken the Soviet Union Feared the Soviet Union would surrender and sign a separate peace with Germany (just like WWI) _________________________________________________________________
Improve your knowledge Yalta was the penultimate of the wartime allied conferences. It dealt mainly with the settlement of post-war Europe. Allegedly FD Roosevelt was too ill to withstand Stalin’s demands, and his successor, Harry S Truman, took a tougher line. By the time of the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, the West had the bomb and was anxious to restrict Russia.
Yalta Conference 1945 FDR, Churchill, Stalin met to discuss post-war plans Agreed that Germany would be divided up into four parts (GB; US; (USSR; France; GB; USA) Each had their own ideas/wants FDR – wanted Soviet help in defeating Japan after Germany surrendered Churchill – wanted free elections in Eastern Europe; esp. Poland Stalin – wanted influence in Eastern Europe for USSR’s own future safety; Germany permanently divided The United Nations would be created with Soviet membership (not allowed to join League of Nations after WWI)
YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post- war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
Improve your knowledge Truman had been horrified at the pre-war Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand upto any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”. Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to secure upcoming elections in Italy and the advance of Communist trade unions in France. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
Improve your knowledge The Marshall Plan reflected the strength of the US economy and offered huge sums to enable the war shattered economies of Europe to rebuild and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism, Czechoslovakia showed interest in receiving Marshall Aid but was blocked by Russia. The Soviet system was as much dependent upon creating a self-contained economic bloc as it was in maintaining a repressive political system.
Causes After WWII Refused to hold free elections in Eastern Europe Set up communist gov’ts in most E. Eur. Nations Developed own Atomic Bomb Began building hundreds of nuclear bombs Did not tell Soviets about the Atomic Bomb prior to its use Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech condemns communism Truman Doctrine - stop the spread of communism worldwide = Containment Policy Marshall Plan - $billions sent to rebuild western Europe (esp. W. Ger, but not E. Europe) Created North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); collective defense Unified Western Germany into one nation (West Germany)
Improve your knowledge West Berlin, as an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the Communist zone, was both a nest of spies for both sides and a constant challenge to the Soviets. The Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve the city into submission and the Allied airlift signalled the West’s determination to use all resources to defend Berlin. Thereafter, it was accepted by both sides that Berlin would act as the trigger for general war. Any Russian invasion would be followed by conflict with the considerable Allied forces camped permanently on the plain of West Germany. Both sides finding Europe too dangerous a site for confrontation, looked elsewhere to compete.
United States Became the leading financial power Had the strongest military (Atomic) Believed it was our responsibility to protect other free nations Feared communist take over of Europe/Asia Pres. Truman vowed to stop the spread of communism everywhere A.k.a. = “Containment Policy” “Domino Theory” – once one country falls, they all will Marshall Plan Creation of NATO
Soviet Union Refused to leave Eastern Europe Helped create communist gov’ts in each country Wanted allies against future attacks from the West Wanted communist revolutions around the world Developed own Atomic bombs Military buildup made the Soviet Union a world power Distrusted the U.S. “Containment Policy” is a challenge to war Created own alliance – Warsaw Pact 1955 (countries they refused to leave after WWII)
Improve your knowledge Truman restricted his ant-Soviet policy to one of “containment”, resisting the advance of Communism into South Korea. After some hesitation he resisted his Commander, Gen Douglas MacArthur’s attempt to “roll-back” Communism by invading North Korea and China. MacArthur was dismissed but Truman’s successors continued to be drawn into conflicts of containment for the rest of the cold war. The beginning of the Korean War also highlighted the failings of the United Nations. Up to 1950, Russia and America had respectively blocked each other’s iniatives by using their veto powers in the Security Council. Because the Russian delegates were boycotting the UN in 1950, Truman was able to condemn the Communist invasion of S Korea and to set up a counter- attack under the banner of the UN. In contrast to the pre-War League of Nations, at least this ensured that the UN would, in future, be able to deploy force in international disputes.
European Alliances by 1955
Improve your knowledge The “Red Scare”, launched by Senator Joe McCarthy, dominated US politics for several years and helped pressure Truman into the Korean War, a costly and ultimately stalemated conflict. Given the suddeness of the fall of China, the development of the Soviet bomb, and the shocking performance of the Western secret services, the level of panic is understandable.