4Europe Post-Roman Empire – IN THE EAST Byzantine Empire (330 AD – 1453 AD)Considered themselves as a continuation of RomeFocused control in the eastern MediterraneanEmphasis on trade – great wealth – What was their trade advantage?Justinian I (527 – 565 AD)Created Justinian CodeSet of thousands of laws built upon the Roman traditionInfluenced much of modern law todayMerit based government – What does this mean?People were promoted based upon skill – Why is this better?Wife – TheodoraInfluential in bringing fairness to women and non-Orthodox Christians
5Europe Post-Roman Empire – IN THE EAST Rift in the ChurchMany in Eastern Europe remained literate and practiced Orthodox ChristianityOrthodox – “officially accepted” based upon Gospels, other writingsMany in Western Europe were illiterate and varied in their practice of ChristianityConflict arises over use of iconsIcons – holy pictures of Jesus and the saintsMany in the East thought icons went against the 10 commandmentsCommandment against “false idols” - click hereWhy might many people have liked to use icons?Conflict grows and results in split in Christian Church in 1054 into Eastern Orthodox and Roman CatholicConstantinople falls to the Muslim Ottomans in 1453
6Europe Post-Roman Empire – IN THE WEST The Middle AgesUsually measured from around 500 – 1500 AD yearsa.k.a. Medieval PeriodGermanic invasions lead to:Disruption of TradeEconomic collapse – Why is trade important to the economy?Downfall of CitiesCultural/Political collapseNo more central governmentor military protectionPopulation shiftsUrban to Rural – Why?
7Europe Post-Roman Empire – IN THE WEST Germanic invasions lead to: (cont’d)Germans had no written languageLoss of scholarship, literacyLatin was no longer a common languageEastern Roman Empire (Byzantines) preferred GreekAs people went rural, dialects formed – What is a dialect?French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian developedGermanic KingdomsMuch smaller, decentralizedFranks, Goths, Vandals, etc.Franks adopt Christianity under Clovis – Why?Rise of the influence of the ChurchWith no central power, the Church steps up into the power voidThe Church begins to become more political – Is this good? Bad?
8Middle Ages - Carolingians MonastariesCenters of learning and cultureMonks remained literate, copied books by handFranks build a kingdomWith help from a Christian Church growing in power and influence – What is the benefit of the Church as an ally?Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer)Expands Frankish (Carolingian) EmpireHolds off Muslim invaders – Importance?Military GeniusFather of the Middle Ages
9Middle Ages - Carolingians CharlemagneCharles Martel’s grandsonExpanded empire to be largest in Europe at the timeDuring his reign, united most of Western Europe for the first time since the RomansPope Leo III crowned him “Roman Emperor”The story says that the Pope did this as a surprise as Charlemagne knelt to pray – What is the implication?Final strong ruler before feudalism
11Leading Toward Feudalism Treaty of VerdunCharlemagne’s grandsons split up the empire, leaving no central authority in Western EuropeA weaker Europe becomes more susceptible to invasion – Who could invade?Vikings – From the northScandinavian warrior explorers, skilled sailorsFirst Europeans to sail to North AmericaLeif Erikson – set up settlement in NewfoundlandStayed for around 10 years
12Leading Toward Feudalism Magyars – From the EastNomadic HungariansPossible descendants of HunsSkilled horsemenMuslims – From the South (Africa and Middle East)Growing empireJihad – What does Jihad mean?“Inner struggle”alternate interpretation as “outward struggle against non-believers”Invading Vikings, Magyars, and MuslimsWhat would life be like in this environment?Created constant danger for EuropeansFar flung kings could not provide protection for a widespread people – What could people do?People looked for local protection - FEUDALISM
14Feudalism - StructureFeudalism existed as a way of protecting economic interestsKing grants land to a Noble as a sort of treatyNoble becomes Lord of the landLand grants were called fiefsLord could keep all of the land or grant portions of his land (fiefs) to Vassals and/or Knights as a second agreementKnights were military menManors, self sufficient farm villages, were lived on and worked on by servant peasants called serfsFor the right to farm the land, the serfs must give back much of what they grow
16Life as a Feudal Serf Responsibilities Rights/Freedoms Restrictions Farming cropsRaising animalsGrain taxMarriage taxChurch taxTithe – 1/10 of incomeObey the Lord’s rulesHousingProtectionFood…………………Can’t leaveCan’t marry without permissionSimple dietSmall living spaceHarsh penalties for breaking rules
17Knighthood Around age 7 – Page Around age 14 – Squire Castle servant, trained in fightingAround age 14 – SquireA knight’s apprenticeAround age 21 – KnightFull-fledgedChivalryLoyalty to:Feudal lordHeavenly lordChosen Lady
18Art Inspired By Knighthood Epic PoemsEx:BeowulfThe Song of RolandThe Legend of King Arthur (various)Love Poems and SongsBorn out of a knight’s devotion to his ladyTroubadours – traveling poet-musicians
19The Age of ChivalryThe Middle Ages were an era of constant fighting between nobles over land and wealthKnights fought for nobles in exchange for landMilitary advancements:SaddlesStirrupsBattering RamMangonelTrebuchetSiege Tower
20The ChurchAll of Western Europe was Christian… leading to a huge growth in the power of the ChurchCanon Law – Church law covering religious practicesStructure of the Church:Pope – Head of the ChurchBishops – Regional leadersPriests – Local authorityWhat can happen whensomeone has a lot of power?
21The ChurchGermanic peoples united to create the Holy Roman Empire in 962Otto I defeats the invading Magyars and unites central Europe162 years after Charlemagne, Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope – Why title it Holy Roman Empire when it’s a bunch of Germans?Not much of an empireLasted in some form until 1806The two main powers in the Middle Ages were the Church and the Empire – Why doesn’t the empire get rid of the Church?The Emperor was the head of government powerThe Pope was the head of religious powerOften the two would clashThe Emperor could attempt to appoint regional bishops and priests, infringing on Church powerThe Pope could excommunicate the Emperor, affecting the people of his reign
22The Crusades Armed pilgrimages of Christian Europeans To attack the holy land, Muslims, other non-Christians… eventually, whatever they wantFirst Crusade began in 1095Christians gained control of the holy lands, only to lose them back to the Muslims shortly thereafterDifferent Crusades continued through the 1400’sAt least 9 different crusades of varying size and successThe Crusades were probably just as much about power, influence, and wealth as they were about religionAlthough those participating DEFINITELY thought they were doing God’s will – as did the Muslim defendersWho was right?
23Development of England Magna CartaEnglish nobles revolted against King John’s ruleWeakened the throneGuaranteed certain basic rights:No taxation without representationTrial by juryProtection under law – Sound familiar?Why would the King sign this?Parliament is formed in 1295 by King EdwardLegislative body to speak for the peopleCalled citizens, knights, bishops, and lords to serve – True representation?Called any time a new tax was neededHouse of Lords, House of Commons
24Development of FranceEstates-General is formed by King Philip IV in 1302Created to gather support in a dispute with the Catholic ChurchPrimary role was to advise the KingWhy does this make sense for the king?Made up of: --Guesses???--First Estate – Church leaders – Why were they the first estate?Second Estate – NobilityThird Estate – Commoners, mostly merchantsWhy is the Third Estate a big deal?Want to see some drama?
25Commercial Revolution Growth in agriculture and craftsmanship led to a growth in tradeMarkets and Fairs – more travelInternational TradeEspecially regional sea trade – Where?Rise of a wealthy merchant classBetween Nobles and PeasantsCredit, Checks, BorrowingAll became commonTransition from the manor backinto the town/city
26THE BLACK DEATH A Weakened Church Council of Constance New Pope elected, others forced to resignThe Church loses a lot of momentumWhere will people turn?John Wycliffe – thinker/reformerJesus is the authority, not the PopeJan Hus – thinker/reformerThe Bible is the authority, not the PopeThe Church had no answer for…THE BLACK DEATHTell me about the Black Death – At least 5 sentences.
27Bubonic Plague Came to Europe from Asia through Italian merchant ships Entered Europe in 1347, had spread throughout by 1351 – How?Caused by bacteria – Yersinia Pestis – spread by fleas – How?One Third of European population diedThis was the first, and most devastating, of many outbreaks of the plagueSeen by many as the end of the world, or as God’s punishmentWhy?Symptoms:Swollen lymph glands (buboes) in neck, armpit, and groin regionsBlackening of flesh due to gangreneFeverVomiting bloodDeath within 2-7 daysHow did this lead to the weakening of the Church?
33Hundred Years’ WarWar between England and France over control of the French throne1337 – 1453Rise of the LongbowUp to 200 yard rangeFall of the Age of ChivalryKnights/Cavalry not as importantFrance eventually winsRise of nationalism
34Why did Feudalism end? Here are some reasons… Weakening of the Church Commercial Revolution and rise of the merchant classCreated a middle class, disrupting the structure of loyaltiesThe Black DeathWith fewer people to farm, etc… people could demand higher wagesHundred Years War and rise of NationalismPower consolidated with the central Kings, rather than regional Nobles