Presentation on theme: "The Middle Ages. The Roman Empire Post-Roman Empire."— Presentation transcript:
The Middle Ages
The Roman Empire
Europe Post-Roman Empire – IN THE EAST Byzantine Empire (330 AD – 1453 AD) Considered themselves as a continuation of Rome Focused control in the eastern Mediterranean Emphasis on trade – great wealth – What was their trade advantage? Justinian I (527 – 565 AD) Created Justinian Code Set of thousands of laws built upon the Roman tradition Influenced much of modern law today Merit based government – What does this mean? People were promoted based upon skill – Why is this better? Wife – Theodora Influential in bringing fairness to women and non-Orthodox Christians
Europe Post-Roman Empire – IN THE EAST Rift in the Church Many in Eastern Europe remained literate and practiced Orthodox Christianity Orthodox – “officially accepted” based upon Gospels, other writings Many in Western Europe were illiterate and varied in their practice of Christianity Conflict arises over use of icons Icons – holy pictures of Jesus and the saints Many in the East thought icons went against the 10 commandments Commandment against “false idols” - click hereclick here Why might many people have liked to use icons? Conflict grows and results in split in Christian Church in 1054 into Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Constantinople falls to the Muslim Ottomans in 1453
Europe Post-Roman Empire – IN THE WEST The Middle Ages Usually measured from around 500 – 1500 AD years a.k.a. Medieval Period Germanic invasions lead to: Disruption of Trade Economic collapse – Why is trade important to the economy? Downfall of Cities Cultural/Political collapse No more central government or military protection Population shifts Urban to Rural – Why?
Europe Post-Roman Empire – IN THE WEST Germanic invasions lead to: (cont’d) Germans had no written language Loss of scholarship, literacy Latin was no longer a common language Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantines) preferred Greek As people went rural, dialects formed – What is a dialect? French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian developed Germanic Kingdoms Much smaller, decentralized Franks, Goths, Vandals, etc. Franks adopt Christianity under Clovis – Why? Rise of the influence of the Church With no central power, the Church steps up into the power void The Church begins to become more political – Is this good? Bad?
Middle Ages - Carolingians Monastaries Centers of learning and culture Monks remained literate, copied books by hand Franks build a kingdom With help from a Christian Church growing in power and influence – What is the benefit of the Church as an ally? Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) Expands Frankish (Carolingian) Empire Holds off Muslim invaders – Importance? Military Genius Father of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages - Carolingians Charlemagne Charles Martel’s grandson Expanded empire to be largest in Europe at the time During his reign, united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans Pope Leo III crowned him “Roman Emperor” The story says that the Pope did this as a surprise as Charlemagne knelt to pray – What is the implication? Final strong ruler before feudalism
Leading Toward Feudalism Treaty of Verdun Charlemagne’s grandsons split up the empire, leaving no central authority in Western Europe A weaker Europe becomes more susceptible to invasion – Who could invade? Vikings – From the north Scandinavian warrior explorers, skilled sailors First Europeans to sail to North America Leif Erikson – set up settlement in Newfoundland Stayed for around 10 years
Leading Toward Feudalism Magyars – From the East Nomadic Hungarians Possible descendants of Huns Skilled horsemen Muslims – From the South (Africa and Middle East) Growing empire Jihad – What does Jihad mean? “Inner struggle” alternate interpretation as “outward struggle against non-believers” Invading Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims What would life be like in this environment? Created constant danger for Europeans Far flung kings could not provide protection for a widespread people – What could people do? People looked for local protection - FEUDALISM
Leading Toward Feudalism
Feudalism - Structure Feudalism existed as a way of protecting economic interests King grants land to a Noble as a sort of treaty Noble becomes Lord of the land Land grants were called fiefs Lord could keep all of the land or grant portions of his land (fiefs) to Vassals and/or Knights as a second agreement Knights were military men Manors, self sufficient farm villages, were lived on and worked on by servant peasants called serfs For the right to farm the land, the serfs must give back much of what they grow
Life as a Feudal Serf Responsibilities Restrictions Rights/Freedoms Farming crops Raising animals Grain tax Marriage tax Church tax Tithe – 1/10 of income Obey the Lord’s rules Housing Protection Food ………………… Can’t leave Can’t marry without permission Simple diet Small living space Harsh penalties for breaking rules
Knighthood Around age 7 – Page Castle servant, trained in fighting Around age 14 – Squire A knight’s apprentice Around age 21 – Knight Full-fledged Chivalry Loyalty to: Feudal lord Heavenly lord Chosen Lady
Art Inspired By Knighthood Epic Poems Ex: Beowulf The Song of Roland The Legend of King Arthur (various) Love Poems and Songs Born out of a knight’s devotion to his lady Troubadours – traveling poet-musicians
The Age of Chivalry The Middle Ages were an era of constant fighting between nobles over land and wealth Knights fought for nobles in exchange for land Military advancements: Saddles Stirrups Battering Ram Mangonel Trebuchet Siege Tower
The Church All of Western Europe was Christian… leading to a huge growth in the power of the Church Canon Law – Church law covering religious practices Structure of the Church: Pope – Head of the Church Bishops – Regional leaders Priests – Local authority What can happen when someone has a lot of power?
The Church Germanic peoples united to create the Holy Roman Empire in 962 Otto I defeats the invading Magyars and unites central Europe 162 years after Charlemagne, Otto I is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the Pope – Why title it Holy Roman Empire when it’s a bunch of Germans? Not much of an empire Lasted in some form until 1806 The two main powers in the Middle Ages were the Church and the Empire – Why doesn’t the empire get rid of the Church? The Emperor was the head of government power The Pope was the head of religious power Often the two would clash The Emperor could attempt to appoint regional bishops and priests, infringing on Church power The Pope could excommunicate the Emperor, affecting the people of his reign
The Crusades Armed pilgrimages of Christian Europeans To attack the holy land, Muslims, other non-Christians… eventually, whatever they want First Crusade began in 1095 Christians gained control of the holy lands, only to lose them back to the Muslims shortly thereafter Different Crusades continued through the 1400’s At least 9 different crusades of varying size and success The Crusades were probably just as much about power, influence, and wealth as they were about religion Although those participating DEFINITELY thought they were doing God’s will – as did the Muslim defenders Who was right?
Development of England Magna Carta English nobles revolted against King John’s rule Weakened the throne Guaranteed certain basic rights: No taxation without representation Trial by jury Protection under law – Sound familiar? Why would the King sign this? Parliament is formed in 1295 by King Edward Legislative body to speak for the people Called citizens, knights, bishops, and lords to serve – True representation? Called any time a new tax was needed House of Lords, House of Commons
Development of France Estates-General is formed by King Philip IV in 1302 Created to gather support in a dispute with the Catholic Church Primary role was to advise the King Why does this make sense for the king? Made up of: --Guesses???-- First Estate – Church leaders – Why were they the first estate? Second Estate – Nobility Third Estate – Commoners, mostly merchants Why is the Third Estate a big deal? Want to see some drama?
Commercial Revolution Growth in agriculture and craftsmanship led to a growth in trade Markets and Fairs – more travel International Trade Especially regional sea trade – Where? Rise of a wealthy merchant class Between Nobles and Peasants Credit, Checks, Borrowing All became common Transition from the manor back into the town/city
A Weakened Church Council of Constance NNew Pope elected, others forced to resign TThe Church loses a lot of momentum WWhere will people turn? John Wycliffe – thinker/reformer JJesus is the authority, not the Pope Jan Hus – thinker/reformer TThe Bible is the authority, not the Pope The Church had no answer for… THE BLACK DEATH Tell me about the Black Death – At least 5 sentences.
Bubonic Plague Came to Europe from Asia through Italian merchant ships Entered Europe in 1347, had spread throughout by 1351 – How? Caused by bacteria – Yersinia Pestis – spread by fleas – How? One Third of European population died This was the first, and most devastating, of many outbreaks of the plague Seen by many as the end of the world, or as God’s punishment Why? Symptoms: Swollen lymph glands (buboes) in neck, armpit, and groin regions Blackening of flesh due to gangrene Fever Vomiting blood Death within 2-7 days How did this lead to the weakening of the Church?
Transmission Why did it spread so fast?
Yersinia Pestis Carried in the bloodstream of rodents in central Asia Often transmitted through fleas
The “Black” Death
The Modern Plague
Hundred Years’ War War between England and France over control of the French throne 1337 – 1453 Rise of the Longbow Up to 200 yard range Fall of the Age of Chivalry Knights/Cavalry not as important France eventually wins Rise of nationalism
Why did Feudalism end? Here are some reasons… Weakening of the Church Commercial Revolution and rise of the merchant class Created a middle class, disrupting the structure of loyalties The Black Death With fewer people to farm, etc… people could demand higher wages Hundred Years War and rise of Nationalism Power consolidated with the central Kings, rather than regional Nobles