Presentation on theme: "Mrs. Snyder English 9 February 1, 2012. Who Was George Orwell? Born as Eric Blair in 1903 in India, which was part of the British Empire at the time."— Presentation transcript:
Who Was George Orwell? Born as Eric Blair in 1903 in India, which was part of the British Empire at the time Became a socialist (he believed in social ownership of production and economy), and fought in the Spanish Civil War in 1936 He wrote literary criticism, poetry, fiction and was a journalist under the penname George Orwell
George Orwell He did not approve of the Soviet Union during the 1930’s and 1940’s (now known as Russia and surrounding areas), which was under control of the Communist party He was a critic of both capitalism and communism, and became an advocate of freedom He is mostly known for his anti-communist novels Animal Farm and 1984
Communism: is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, stateless society which is based upon common ownership of the means of production. Capitalism: an economic ideology that includes private ownership of the means of production, creation of goods or services for profit or income, competitive markets, voluntary exchange and wage labor. What Orwell was Against
Totalitarianism: a government that concentrates all the power in the hands of the state, suppress the individual, and control every aspects of people’s lives through coercion (threats or intimidation). What Orwell was Against
Animal Farm Animal Farm, written in 1945, is an allegorical fable used to tell the history of Soviet communism Certain animals in the novella are based directly on Communist Party leaders
A story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one. An example of an allegory that you may be familiar with is the Disney Pixar film Wall-E. It is an allegory about how the human race is ruined by our dependence on technology, and is redeemed by a robot that refuses to follow our orders. Wait…what’s an allegory?
Well, what’s a fable? A fable is usually a tale about animals who are personified (given human-like qualities) and behave as though they were humans A moral- -a rule of behavior--is woven into the story An example of a fable is Disney’s The Lion King
Allegorical Fable Put them together and you get an allegorical fable - A short narrative making a moral point, traditionally by means of animal characters who speak and act like human beings.
Russia was under control of a dynasty. In the early 1900s, Russia’s Czar Nicholas II faced an increasingly discontented populace. Freed from feudal serfdom (bondage and slavery) in 1861, many Russian peasants were struggling to survive under an oppressive government. By 1917, amidst the tremendous suffering of World War I, a revolution began. In two major battles, the Czar’s government was overthrown and replaced by the Bolshevik leadership of Vladimir Lenin. When Lenin died in 1924, his former colleagues Leon Trotsky, hero of the early Revolution, and Joseph Stalin, head of the Communist Party, took over and established a new government based on the tenets of communism, which included the equal distribution of wealth and the promotion of atheism and gender equality. History Behind Animal Farm
Eventually, Trotsky and Stalin struggled for power. Stalin won the battle, and he deported Trotsky into permanent exile, where he had Trotsky executed. Once in power, Stalin began to move the Soviet Union into the modern industrial age. His government seized land in order to create collective farms. Many peasants refused to give up their land, so to counter resistance, Stalin used vicious military tactics. Rigged trials led to executions of an estimated 20 million government officials and ordinary citizens. The government controlled the flow and content of information to the people, and all but outlawed churches. Stalin’s Uprising
To protect himself and his government from treachery, Stalin not only increased the government’s spying, carried out by the KGB (secret police) but he turned Soviet citizens against one another. Terrified of imprisonment, torture, work in the Gulags (labor camps) and execution, people spied on and turned in their coworkers, neighbors, and even family members. In total, tens of millions of people experienced Stalin’s terror firsthand. Stalin’s Control
In the 1930’s, Stalin gave Soviet support to Spain in the Spanish Civil War, in which the country was trying to defend itself against the German and Japanese forces of fascism. (This is the war in which George Orwell fought, against fascism but also against the Soviets.) Stalin remained in control of the Soviet Union until his death in 1953. Stalin’s Control
Animal Farm’s Debut Orwell began writing Animal farm in 1944, and a few months later, the novella hit the bookshelves in England and recounted, allegorically, much of this history.
Napoleon = Joseph Stalin Napoleon Boar who leads the rebellion against Farmer Jones After the rebellion’s success, he systematically begins to control all aspects of the farm until he is an undisputed tyrant. Joseph Stalin The communist dictator of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953 who killed all who opposed him. He loved power and used the KGB (secret police) to enforce his ruthless, corrupt antics.
Farmer Jones = Czar Nicholas II Farmer Jones The irresponsible owner of the farm Lets his animals starve and beats them with a whip Sometimes shows random kindness Czar Nicholas II Weak Russian Leader during the 1900’s Often cruel and brutal to his subjects Showed isolated kindness
Snowball = Leon Trotsky Snowball Boar who becomes one of the most valuable leaders of the rebellion After drawing complicated plans for the construction of a windmill, he is chased off of the farm forever by Napoleon’s dogs and thereafter is blamed for the animals’ troubles. Leon Trotsky A pure communist leader who was influenced by the teachings of Karl Marx He wanted to improve life for people in Russia, but was driven away by Lenin’s KGB.
Old Major = Karl Marx Old Major An old boar whose speech about the evils perpetrated by humans rouses the animals into rebelling. His philosophy concerning the tyranny of Man is named Animalism. He teaches the animals the song “Beasts of England” Dies before the revolution Karl Marx The inventor of communism Wants to unite the working class to overthrow the government Died before the Russian Revolution
Many of the ideas behind the Soviet revolution were based on the writings and teachings of Karl Marx. A German intellectual who lived in the mid-1800s, Marx believed that societies are divided into two segments, a working class and an owner class. The working class creates all the products, while the owner class enjoys all the benefits of these products. This class division leads to inequality and oppression of the working class. Marx’s objective was to create a classless society in which the work is shared by all for the benefit of all, and he believed revolution was the way to achieve this goal. Who was Karl Marx?
Other Important Characters Squealer A big mouth pig who becomes Napoleon’s mouthpiece. He has the ability to manipulate the animals’ thoughts through the use of hollow, yet convincing rhetoric. Represents the propaganda department that worked to support Stalin’s image; the members of the department would use lies to convince the people to follow Stalin.
Boxer A dedicated but dimwitted horse whom aids in the building of the windmill but is sold to a glue-boiler after collapsing from exhaustion. Represents the dedicated, but tricked communist supporters of Stalin. Many stayed loyal even after it was obvious Stalin was a tyrant. Eventually they were betrayed, ignored, and even killed by him.
Jessie and Bluebell The farm's sheepdogs, they keep tabs on the pigs and are among the first to suspect that something is wrong at Animal Farm. Represent the KGB (secret police) that kept tabs on the Russian citizens
Moses A tame raven and sometimes-pet of Jones who tells the animals stories about a paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain. Moses represents religion. Stalin used religious principles to influence people to work and to avoid revolt.
Pilkington Jones' neighbor, he finds a way to profit from Animal Farm by forming an alliance with the pigs. Muriel A goat who believes in the rebellion, she watches as Animal Farm slips away from its founding principles. Mollie A vain horse who resists the animal rebellion because she doesn't want to give up the petting and treats she receives from humans. Mollie represents vain, selfish people in Russia and throughout the world who ignored the revolution and sought residence in more inviting countries. Other Characters
Benjamin The most cynical of all the animals, the farm's donkey doubts the leadership of the pigs but is faithfully devoted to Boxer. Benjamin represents all the skeptical people in Russia and elsewhere who weren’t sure revolution would change anything. The Sheep Not tremendously clever, the sheep remind themselves of the principles of animalism by chanting "four legs good, two legs bad.“ The Dogs Napoleon’s private army that used fear to force the animals to work; they killed any opponent of Napoleon. The dogs represent Stalin’s loyal KGB (secret police). The KGB were not really police, but mercenaries used to force support for Stalin. More Characters
Animalism = Communism Animalism Taught my Old Major No rich, but no poor Better life for workers All animals are equal Everyone owns the farm Communism Invented by Karl Marx All people are equal Government owns everything People own the government
Animal Farm Rebellion = Russian Revolution Animal Farm Rebellion Was supposed to make life better for all, but... Life was worse at the end. The leaders became the same as, or worse than the other farmers (humans) they rebelled against. Russian Revolution Was supposed to fix the problems created by the Czar, but... Life was even worse after the revolution. Stalin made the Czar look like a nice guy.
Seven Principals of Animalism 1. Whatever goes on two legs is an enemy 2. Whatever goes on four legs, or has wings, is a friend 3. No animal shall kill any other animal 4. No animal shall sleep in a bed 5. No animal shall wear clothes 6. No animal shall drink alcohol 7. All animals are equal