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Atom – the smallest unit of matter “indivisible” Helium atom.

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Presentation on theme: "Atom – the smallest unit of matter “indivisible” Helium atom."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Atom – the smallest unit of matter “indivisible” Helium atom

3 Valence Electrons Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest occupied energy level of the atom. Valence electrons are the only electrons generally involved in bond formation.

4 Electron Configuration of Sodium 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Which is the valence electron for Na? Answer: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1

5 Na, 11 e

6 Na +, 10e

7 electron shells a)Atomic number = number of Electrons b)Electrons vary in the amount of energy they possess, and they occur at certain energy levels or electron shells. c)Electron shells determine how an atom behaves when it encounters other atoms

8 Electrons are placed in shells according to rules: 1)The 1st shell can hold up to two electrons, and each shell thereafter can hold up to 8 electrons.

9 Octet Rule = atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have 8 electrons C would like to N would like to O would like to Gain 4 electrons Gain 3 electrons Gain 2 electrons

10 Why are electrons important? 1)Elements have different electron configurations  different electron configurations mean different levels of bonding

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13 Electron Dot Structures Symbols of atoms with dots to represent the valence-shell electrons H  He:            Li  Be   B   C   N   O  : F  : Ne :                    Na  Mg   Al   Si   P   S  : Cl  : Ar :        

14 Electron Dot Structure or Lewis Dot Diagram A notation showing the valence electrons surrounding the atomic symbol.

15 Chemical bonds: an attempt to fill electron shells 1.Ionic bonds – 2.Covalent bonds – 3.Metallic bonds

16 Learning Check A. X would be the electron dot formula for 1) Na2) K3) Al B. X would be the electron dot formula 1) B2) N3) P

17 IONIC BOND bond formed between two ions by the transfer of electrons

18 Formation of Ions from Metals Ionic compounds result when metals react with nonmetals Metals lose electrons to match the number of valence electrons of their nearest noble gas Positive ions form when the number of electrons are less than the number of protons Group 1 metals  ion 1+ Group 2 metals  ion 2+ Group 13 metals  ion 3+

19 When Na, (Z= 11) loses its valence electron, what element does its configuration look like ? a.Neon b.Potassium c.Beryllium d.Sodium Check your Neighbor

20 When the valence shell is full, the atom is stable, less likely to react. Example: Noble (Inert Gases) Kr A Stable Octet

21 Formation of Sodium Ion Sodium atom Sodium ion Na  – e   Na ( = Ne) 11 p + 11 p + 11 e - 10 e

22 Formation of Magnesium Ion Magnesium atom Magnesium ion  Mg  – 2e   Mg (=Ne) 12 p + 12 p + 12 e- 10 e

23 Equations for the Formation of Cations H.  H + + e - Li.  Li + + e - Mg :  Mg e -

24 Equations for the Formation of Anions... : F : + e -  : F - :....

25 Some Typical Ions with Positive Charges (Cations) Group 1Group 2Group 13 H + Mg 2+ Al 3+ Li + Ca 2+ Na + Sr 2+ K + Ba 2+

26 Learning Check A. Number of valence electrons in aluminum 1) 1 e - 2) 2 e - 3) 3 e - B. Change in electrons for octet 1) lose 3e - 2) gain 3 e - 3) gain 5 e - C.Ionic charge of aluminum 1) 3- 2) 5- 3) 3 +

27 Solution A. Number of valence electrons in aluminum 3) 3 e - B. Change in electrons for octet 1) lose 3e - C.Ionic charge of aluminum 3) 3 +

28 Learning Check Give the ionic charge for each of the following: A. 12 p + and 10 e - 1) 02) 2+3) 2- B. 50p + and 46 e- 1) 2+2) 4+3) 4- C. 15 p + and 18e- 2) 3+ 2) 3-3) 5-

29 Ionic Compounds Are made up of: –a metal and a nonmetal ion. –polyatomic ions.

30 Ions from Nonmetal Ions In ionic compounds, nonmetals in 15, 16, and 17 gain electrons from metals Nonmetal add electrons to achieve the octet arrangement Nonmetal ionic charge: 3-, 2-, or 1-

31 Fluoride Ion unpaired electronoctet     1 - : F  + e  : F :     (= Ne) 9 p+ 9 p + 9 e- 10 e ionic charge

32 Ionic Bond Between atoms of metals and nonmetals with very different electronegativity Bond formed by transfer of electrons Produce charged ions all states. Conductors and have high melting point. Examples; NaCl, CaCl 2, K 2 O

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34 Ionic Bonds: One Big Greedy Thief Dog!

35 1). Ionic bond – electron from Na is transferred to Cl, this causes a charge imbalance in each atom. The Na becomes (Na+) and the Cl becomes (Cl-), charged particles or ions.

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37 Example: Which of the following compounds are ionic? 1.NaCl 2.CO 2 3.CO 4.KF 5.KNO 3

38 Some Common Ions

39 COVALENT BOND bond formed by the sharing of electrons

40 Covalent Bond Between nonmetallic elements of similar electronegativity. Formed by sharing electron pairs Stable non-ionizing particles, they are not conductors at any state Examples; O 2, CO 2, C 2 H 6, H 2 O, SiC

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42 Bonds in all the polyatomic ions and diatomics are all covalent bonds

43 when electrons are shared equally NONPOLAR COVALENT BONDS H 2 or Cl 2

44 2. Covalent bonds- Two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons. Oxygen Atom Oxygen Molecule (O 2 ) Oxygen Molecule (O 2 )

45 when electrons are shared but shared unequally POLAR COVALENT BONDS H2OH2O

46 Polar Covalent Bonds: Unevenly matched, but willing to share.

47 - water is a polar molecule because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, and therefore electrons are pulled closer to oxygen.

48 POLAR COVALENT BOND A.the electrons shared by the atoms spend a greater amount of time closer to one particular atom B.This creates a partial negative end and a partial positive end

49 METALLIC BOND bond found in metals; holds metal atoms together very strongly

50 Metallic Bond Formed between atoms of metallic elements Electron cloud around atoms Good conductors at all states, lustrous, very high melting points Examples; Na, Fe, Al, Au, Co

51 Metallic Bonds: Mellow dogs with plenty of bones to go around.

52 Ionic Bond, A Sea of Electrons

53 Metals Form Alloys Metals do not combine with metals. They form Alloys which is a solution of a metal in a metal. Examples are steel, brass, bronze and pewter.

54 Chemical Formula A representation of the kinds and number of atoms in a substance.

55 Formula Unit A chemical formula that shows the lowest whole number ratio of the atoms (ions) in an ionic compound. Example: KCl, Mg Cl 2

56 The formula unit is used because ionic compounds have a lattice arrangement of ions. Ex: NaCl Which ball represents the Na?

57 NUMBER OF BONDS BETWEEN ATOMS Single bonds – one pair of electrons; longest bond length; weakest bond Cl – Be – Cl Double bonds – two pairs of electronsO=C=O Triple bonds – three pairs of electrons; shortest bond length; strongest bond N N

58 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES London Dispersion Forces (Van der Waals Forces) 1. weakest of all intermolecular forces 2. the attractive or repulsive force between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule)molecules Dipole-Dipole Interactions 1. between polar molecules Hydrogen Bonds 1. strongest of all intermolecular forces 2. hydrogen bonded to a very electronegative atom (O,N,F) H F N N

59 Electronegativity & Bond Type ElectronegativityBond TypeExample Nonpolar covalentH-H (0.0) Polar covalentH-Cl (0.9) >1.7IonicNa-Cl (2.1)

60 VSEPR Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion –A. predicts the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsionmolecules –B. Double bonds count as one pair of electrons

61 Bond Angle # atoms # e - pairs # unshared e - pairs Example Linear180°320BeCl 2 CO 2 Bent  342H2OH2O Trigonal Pyrimidal 107°441NH 3 Tetrahedral  540CH 4 Trigonal Planar 120°430BF 3

62 SO 2 Bent 104.5°

63 CO 2 Linear 180°

64 CF 2 Cl 2 Tetrahedral °

65 NH 4 + Tetrahedral °

66 O3O3 Bent °

67 BeCl 2 Linear 180 °

68 H2OH2O Bent °

69 SO 4 2- Tetrahedral °

70 NH 3 Trigonal Pyrimidal 107°

71 CH 4 Tetrahedral °

72 BCl 3 Trigonal Planar 120 °


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