Presentation on theme: "By: Brian Oldakowski Shane DeStefano Jeff Schmidt & Dustin Schneider"— Presentation transcript:
1By: Brian Oldakowski Shane DeStefano Jeff Schmidt & Dustin Schneider ToxicologyBy: Brian OldakowskiShane DeStefanoJeff Schmidt& Dustin Schneider
215.1 Toxicology BasicsDisease occurs when there is an imbalance resulting from a poor adjustment between an individual and the environment.Disease depends on:Physical environmentBiological environmentLifestyleIndustrial societies eliminated diseases but now there are more acute diseases.Environment around us can cause serious health problems and diseases. ( soil, rock, water, and air)
4TerminologyPollution- occurrence of unwanted change in environment caused by introduction of harmful materials of production of harmful conditions (becoming impure, dirty, unclean)Contamination- presence of undesirable material that makes something uselessToxic- materials that are poisonous to people and other living thingsToxicology- a science that studies chemicals that are known to be or could be toxic or study of poisons that effects living organisms ( involves clinical, industrial, economic, and legal problems)
5Terminology cont.Carcinogen- particular type of toxin that increases the risk of cancer. Most feared toxin in society.Synergism- interaction of different substances resulting in a total effect greater than the effect of separate substances togetherPoint sources- sources of pollution that are easily found and stationary. ( Smokestacks, pipes, accidental spills)Area sources- also called non-point sources, diffused sources of pollution such as urban runoff or automobile exhaust. Hard to stop since wide dispersion of emissions.Mobile sources- pollutants from place to place ( automobiles, trucks, buses, trains)
7Measuring PollutionHow to measure pollutants or toxins is widely reportedDepends on the substancePesticides or small pollutants are measured by parts per million or billion (ppm, ppb)Water pollution is measured by milligrams per liter (mg/L) or micrograms per liter (µg/L)Air pollutants are measured by micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m^3)
815.2 Infectious AgentsInfectious diseases may be spread from interactions between food, water, air, or soulEnvironmental health concerns- can be controlled by manipulating the environmentMost common environmentally transmitted infectious diseases- Legionellosis, Giardiasis, Salmonella, and Malaria
9Toxic heavy MetalsMajor metals- mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel, gold, platinum, silver, bismuth, arsenic, etc.Body burden- the content of heavy metals in the bodyBiomagnification- the accumulation or increase in concentration of a substance in living tissue as it moves through a food web (Mercury)
11Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Properties of POPs:They have a carbon-based molecular structure, often containing highly reactive chlorineSynthetic chemicalsThey are not easily broken down in the environmentToxicFat soluble and accumulate in living tissueCan be transported by wind, water, and sediments
13Other Pollutants Radiation Thermal Pollution- heat released into water produces undesirable effectsParticulates- small particles of dustAsbestos- several minerals that take the form of small, elongated particles, or fibersElectromagnetic fieldsNoise pollution
1415.3 General Effects of Pollutants Almost every part of the body is affected by one pollutant of another.Most pollutants affect multiple parts of the body.Ex. Lead affects the brain and skin.
16Dose ResponseThe effect of a certain chemical on an individual depends on the dose.Dose dependency is demonstrated by the dose response curve
17Ecological Gradients Tolerance Acute, Chronic Effects Organisms can develop tolerance to certain pollutants.Behavioral, Physiological, and Genetic Tolerance.Acute, Chronic EffectsEx. Someone exposed to a large dose of radiation is killed shortly thereafter. Vs. Someone exposed to the same total dose of radiation over a very long period of time lives longer.
1815.4 Risk AssessmentRisk assessment is the process of determining potential adverse environmental health affects to people exposed to pollutants and potentially toxic materials.
19Steps of AssessmentIdentification of the hazard- This is the first step of risk assessment. Identification consists of testing materials to see if exposure to them is likely to cause environmental health problems. This can be done by examining previously exposed populations, testing on animals, or molecular analysis of the material.Dose-Response Assessment- This step is used to determined the relationship between the dose, or amount, of a chemical and its affect on the health of the recipient. Some studies are done by giving high doses of chemicals to animals. These results are not always accurate .
20Steps Cont.Exposure Assessment- This test evaluates the intensity, duration, and frequency of human exposure to a particular chemical pollutant or toxin. Hazard is directly proportional to the total population exposed. This is hard to assess because doses can be as small as part as parts per million, billion or even trillion.Risk Characterization- This last step is used to delineate health risk in terms of the magnitude of the potential environmental health problem that might result from exposure to a specific material. To do this , the material needs to be identified, complete the dose-response step and exposure assessment. Then all of the uncertainties of these steps are considered to determine risk. Results are difficult to create and often controversial.