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A Brief History of Palestine Forged in Continuous Conflict Week 2.

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1 A Brief History of Palestine Forged in Continuous Conflict Week 2

2 Palestine has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including the Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, Tjekker, Ancient Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, early Muslims (Umayads, Abbasids, Seljuqs, Fatimids), Crusaders, later Muslims (Ayyubids, Mameluks, Ottomans), the British, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1948–1967, on the "West Bank") and Egyptian Republic (in Gaza), and modern Israelis and Palestinians.

3 Recap: We noted that we cannot understand modern Israel without studying its Past. Caveat: History, at best, can relate only what probably happened. Canaanites early Semitic tribe: Canaan grandson of Noah Canaanites descendants of Canaan (Gen.), Means “purple” in Hurrite language, Greeks called Canaanites “Phoenicians” (Purple People) Color Purple refers to purple clothing dye they extracted from sea shells Important that we understand their neighbors to put biblical stories in their own context. Sources Biblical Archeological

4 Recap 3500 B.C. – 2500 B.C. agriculture just beginning Early steps toward transformation from nomadic existence to village dwelling Allows specialization that enables Civilization Egyptians build pyramids, invent mining, use Papyrus, invent calendar, invent sail, beer Mesopotamia: independent invention of beer, wheel, bronze, cuneiform writing, use of draft animals in farming, irrigation in Sumer 2100 B.C. Epic of Gilgamesh - Flood story with ark and animals (Tablet 11) People were polytheistic – Abraham called by God to go from Ur to Canaan ~1100 miles. (Gen. 12) Isaac (ancestor of Jews) and Ishmael (ancestor of Arabs) born in Canaan (Gen ). Time is now about 1800 B.C.

5 The Situation Palestine located in Fertile Crescent, between Egypt and a continual line of alien forces, each hostile to Egypt, each of which wants to control the trade routes through the area.

6 What’s going on in the neighborhood? 1813 B.C. – 1781 B.C. Northern Mesopotamia controlled by Amorites (Semitic tribe) 1792 B.C B.C. Hammurabi unites Mesopotamia into Kingdom of Babylon, establishes first known code of laws B.C. Hammurabi’s son and successor dies, Euphrates suddenly changes course. Babylon begins decline B.C. Egyptian Pharaoh Amenemhet III dies, dynasty begins decline 1700 B.C.– 1650 B.C. Hittites rise (probably from Black Sea area), sack Hattusa, rebuild it as Hittite capitol 1595 B.C. Hittites take Babylon

7 A little Genealogy Nahor was the Father of Terah (Gen. 11:22) Nahor II was the son of Terah, uncle and husband of Milcah, married her in Ur, but then moved to Haran. Father of Bethuel. Bethuel was, the father of Rebecca and Laban. Rebecca married Isaac. Isaac and Rebecca had 2 sons Esau and Jacob Laban had 4 daughters. Bilhah and Zilpah were handmaidens to Leah and Rachel. Jacob married all 4. Jacob had 12 sons and at least one daughter (Dinah). Jacob wrestled with a man (Gen. 32:24), God (Gen. 32:28), or with an Angel (Hosea 12:4) (Josephus), and thereafter his name was changed to Israel.

8 1640 B.C. Egypt invaded by Hyksos (Semitic Canaanites) with horse-driven chariots, northern half of Egypt taken. Egyptians still rule in the south B.C. –Joseph sold into Egypt (Gen 37:12). Joseph becomes Viceroy B.C. - Famine forces Jacob (Israel) and 12 sons settle in Egypt (Gen. 47:1) B.C. Ahmose I defeats and expels Hyksos. Founded 18 th Dynasty. Canaanites reduced to slavery (Gen. 47:13-26)

9 A New Political Reality – 5 major powers The Egyptian New Kingdom Egypt restored its control over Nubia, in Palestine, clashed with the Mitannians and the Hittites. Amenhotep I ( B.C.), Thutmose I ( B.C.) Queen Hatshepsut ( B.C.), regent for her young stepson (Thutmose III, Egypt’s greatest military hero), but she rose to become a pharaoh B.C. Thutmose III defeats Canaanites at Kadesh world’s first great empire, Nubia to the Euphrates River in Asia. Amenhotep IV (Akenaten)(1352 B.C B.C.) was a monotheist. Caused turmoil. Allowed only temples to Aten. Nefertiti. Tutankhamen (1336 B.C B.C.) restored Amun. Marries Anksenamun his half-sister B.C. Ankhsenamun, writes to Hittite King asking him to send a son to be her husband and King of Egypt.

10 1400 B.C B.C. New Kingdom of the Hittites (the Hittite Empire) B.C. First instances of iron working in the Hittite Empire B.C B.C. The Hittite empire is at its peak B.C B.C. Hittites destroy Mitanni B.C B.C. Hittites conquer Syria B.C. Battle of Kadesh between Pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt and King Muwatalli II of the Hittites. First known peace treaty B.C. Battle of Nihriya: Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria defeats Tud ḫ alia IV of the Hittites B.C. Phrygians invade Anatolia and destroy the Hittite empire. The Hittite Empire

11 Rameses II (1303 B.C. – 1213 B.C) – Rameses the Great Father: Seti I Mother: Tuya Wife: Nefartari Reign 1279 B.C. – 1213 B.C. 66 years 2 mo B.C. Battle of Kadesh against the Hittites, Rameses II's most famous battle, located in modern day Syria B.C. First known Peace treaty. Both sides claimed the other side asked for peace. Massive building campaigns – Abu Simbel, the Ramesseum, and pi- Rameses the new capital More than any other Pharaoh, he restored the old polytheistic religion Pharaoh at time of Exodus

12 Rameses II (1303 B.C. – 1213 B.C) – Rameses the Great Father: Seti I Mother: Tuya Wife: Nefartari Reign 1279 B.C. – 1213 B.C. 66 years 2 mo B.C. Battle of Kadesh against the Hittites, Rameses 2's most famous battle located in modern day Syria B.C. First known Peace treaty. Both sides claimed the other side asked for peace. Massive building campaigns – Abu Simbal and pi-Rameses the new capital More than any other Pharaoh, he restored the old polytheistic religion Pharaoh at time of Exodus

13 Exodus Moses born under Rameses II rule Probably after 1271 B.C. Placed the Nile in a reed boat, drawn out by a daughter of Rameses and adopted (Ex 2:1) Mose means “son of” and should have included a god’s name, as in Thutmose, Ahmose Moses kills Egyptian, flees to Midian. (Ex 2:11-15) Marries Zipporah daughter of Jethro. Sees burning bush (Ex. 3:1) returns to Egypt (Ex. 4: 18), through Aaron, demands release of Hebrews (Ex. 7) 10 Plagues (Ex. 7-11) Mt. Sinai Moses receives 10 Commandments (Ex. 20:1) God bars Moses from entering Canaan.(Dut. 3:21)

14 Canaanite Campaign Joshua and Caleb were born in Egypt before the Exodus. Were two of 12 spies sent into Canaan by Moses. They wanted to enter Canaan directly, but the Hebrews thought the Canaanites were too strong. Joshua and Caleb said they could do it. (Num. 13:30) ((Qur’an (Surah 5:20-26)). Instead, the Hebrews went around. Upon Moses’ death Joshua assumes command and enters Canaan, crosses Jordan, attacks Jericho. The prevailing scholarly view is that Joshua is not a factual account of historical events. Was widespread city-destruction, but with a few exceptions (Hazor, Lachish) the destroyed cities are not the ones the Bible associates with Joshua, and the ones it does associate with him show little or no sign of even being occupied at the time Archeological and Radio carbon dating shows Jericho destroyed between 1610 B.C. and 1550 B.C., much too early B.C. “Israel” occurs in the Merneptah stele, "Israel is laid waste and his seed is not.”

15 David and Solomon Saul (1082 B.C. – 1010 B.C.) appointed the 1 st King of Israel Battles Philistines, David kills Goliath (1 Samuel 17) Saul later rejected by God for not following instructions Saul falls on sword to avoid capture by Philistines David anointed king of Judah (1010 B.C. – 970 B.C.); War ensued between Judah and Israel, Saul’s son murdered, David made King of Judah and Israel. Captured Jerusalem. Had affair with Bathsheba, wife of his friend Uriah the Hittite. Arranged for Uriah to be killed in battle. Solomon son of David and Bathsheba succeeded him (970 B.C B.C.). Built 1 st Temple. 1 of 48 Prophets (Talmud), a major prophet (Qur’an)

16 Next Time: The Exile


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