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1. Warm-up Questions 2. Listen – Retell – Discuss 3. Thomas Jefferson Before Reading_Main Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Brief.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Warm-up Questions 2. Listen – Retell – Discuss 3. Thomas Jefferson Before Reading_Main Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Brief."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Warm-up Questions 2. Listen – Retell – Discuss 3. Thomas Jefferson Before Reading_Main Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading A Brief Introduction to Thomas Jefferson Jefferson’s Chronology The Declaration of Independence Jefferson and the French Revolution

2 Before Reading_1.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Warm-up Questions 1. Do you admire any great political figures or statesmen both at home and abroad? Who are they? And why?

3 Before Reading_1.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Zhou Enlai was one of the major leaders of the Chinese Communist movement. He was the first premier of the People's Republic of China, a post he held until his death in He was educated in Japan and Europe and achieved high rank in the Communist movement at an early age. He was well known as a skilled international negotiator. ■

4 Before Reading_1.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading The Chinese revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen had a tremendous impact on the development of modern China. Sun was the catalyst in the overthrow of Manchu rule. ■

5 Before Reading_1.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading As prime minister of Britain during World War II, Churchill roused the British to stand against Nazi Germany. The sight of Churchill, with his cigar and two fingers raised in a "V for victory" salute, inspired Britons to rise to what he called "their finest hour." ■

6 Before Reading_2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Napoleon Bonaparte was the greatest military genius of the 19th century. He conquered most of Western Europe and Egypt for France, while instituting reforms in these new territories aimed at guaranteeing civil liberties and improving the quality of life. He crowned himself emperor of France in 1804 and introduced reforms intended to unify the revolution-fractured nation. Many of Napoleon's reforms are still in effect today. ■

7 Before Reading_3.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 2. Of the American presidents, how many do you know? Can you recognize the people in the following pictures and say something about them?

8 Before Reading_3.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading George Washington ( ): Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution, statesman and first President of the United States, born in Westmoreland County, Virginia on February 22, ■

9 Before Reading_3.11 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Abraham Lincoln ( ): the 16th President of the United States, born on February 12, 1809 in a backwoods cabin three miles south of Hodgenville, Kentucky, preserved the Union during the Civil War and brought about the emancipation of the slaves. ■

10 Before Reading_3.12 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Franklin D. Roosevelt ( ): the 32nd President of the United States; elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the great depression and led country during World War II. ■

11 Before Reading_3.13 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Bill Clinton (1946-): the 42nd President of the United States ( ) and the first president born after World War II, elected to a second term in ■

12 Dirty Farmer? While serving as America's vice president, Thomas Jefferson, dressed in dirty working clothes, entered Baltimore's finest hotel one evening and asked for a room. The owner, a certain Mr. Boyden, turned him away. Soon thereafter Boyden, informed of the identity of his distinguished visitor, promptly dispatched several servants to find him and offer as many rooms as his heart desired. Jefferson, having found a room in another hotel, sent Boyden's representative away with the following message: "Tell Boyden that I value his good intentions highly, but if he has no room for a dirty farmer, he shall have none for the vice president." Before Reading_3.14 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Listen – Retell – Discuss Directions: How much do you know about Thomas Jefferson's personality? Now listen to a short story about him and then retell and discuss it in small groups. ■

13 Before Reading_3.15 A Brief Introduction to Thomas Jefferson Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Thomas Jefferson ( ) is best remembered as a great President and as the author of the Declaration of Independence. He also won lasting fame as a diplomat, a political thinker, and a founder of the Democratic Party. Jefferson's interests and talents covered an amazing range. He became one of the leading American architects of his time and designed the Virginia Capitol, the University of Virginia, and his own home, Monticello. He greatly appreciated art and music and tried to encourage their advancement in the United States. Jefferson invented a decoding device, a lap desk, and an improved type of moldboard plow. His collection of more than 6400 books became a major part of the Library of Congress. Jefferson revised Virginia's laws and founded its state university. He developed the decimal system of coinage that allows Americans to keep accounts in dollars and cents. ■

14 Before Reading_3.15 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Jefferson did not consider himself a professional politician. Instead, he regarded himself as a public-spirited citizen and a broadminded, practical thinker. He preferred his family, his books, and his farms to public life. But he spent most of his career in public office and made his greatest contribution to his country in the field of politics.

15 Before Reading_3.16 Jefferson's Chronology Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Date Event April 13, 1743 Born at Shadwell, Goochland County (now Albemarle County), Virginia Attended the College of William and Mary, where he studied law.

16 Before Reading_3.17 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Date Event 1769 Joined the Virginia colonial legislature Began to build a mansion home he designed, called Monticello Married a well-to-do widow, Martha Wayles Skelton. They had six children. Only two daughters lived to be adults.

17 Before Reading_3.18 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Date Event 1776 Asked by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia to draft the Declaration of Independence. 1776—1779 Represented the state of Virginia at the Continental Congress. 1779—1781 Chosen as the governor of Virginia His wife Martha died. 1785—1789 Acted as American minister to France.

18 Before Reading_3.19 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Served as the nation's first secretary of state under President George Washington. Date Event 1789—1793 Served as vice President under John Adams. 1797—1801 Event

19 Before Reading_ Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Became the President of the United States. Date Event 1801—1809 Founded the University of Virginia Date

20 Before Reading_ Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Died on the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Date Event July 4, 1826

21 Before Reading_ The Declaration of Independence Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading In April 1775, colonists in Massachusetts took up arms against British troops. The American Revolution had begun. The following year, the Continental Congress in Philadelphia asked Jefferson to write a document declaring America's independence from Britain. The Continental Congress approved Jefferson's work with few changes. The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, The bonds that tied the colonies to Britain were broken. Jefferson wanted the reasons for America's independence stated clearly so the world would understand. He wrote "all men are created equal," with rights to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." Governments are created to secure people's rights. The people could change a government that no longer protected their rights. ■

22 Before Reading_ Jefferson and the French Revolution Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Jefferson served as minister to France from 1785 to 1789 when revolution was imminent in France. He sympathized with the revolution, feeling it was similar in purpose to the American Revolution. Thanks to his political writings and his legal reforms in Virginia, French reformers regarded Jefferson as a champion of liberty. Marquis de Lafayette, who had fought for America’s Independence, and other advocates of democratic principles often sought his advice. ■

23 Globe Reading_main 1. Part Division of the Text 2. Questions and Answers 3. Further Understanding for Parts 2~3 Background Information for Some Key Words Table Completion Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

24 Globe Reading.1 Part Division of the Text Main IdeasLinesParts 11 — 3 24 — — 62 A brief introduction to Thomas Jefferson. Some ideas and principles given by Thomas Jefferson. His talents in many fields and his contribution to USA. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

25 Globe Reading.2-part1.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Questions and Answers 1. Why is Thomas Jefferson less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln? Washington is well-known for his leadership in the American Independence War. Lincoln is well-known for his role in abolishing slavery in the United States. 2. Why do we associate the name of Thomas Jefferson with the Declaration of Independence? He was the writer of the Declaration of Independence. 3. Why was Jefferson chosen to write the Declaration of Independence? He was a good and tireless writer whose complete works fill more than fifty volumes.

26 Globe Reading.2-part1.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 4. What was Jefferson’s attitude towards “people of humble origins”? In a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, he went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters, looked into their cooking pots and ate their bread. 5. Why did he insist upon having a free press? A free press could tell the truth. 6. What was the philosophy underlying Jefferson’s determination never to answer his critics? There were two sides to every question. If one took one side with decision and acted on it with effect, those who took the other side would of course resent his actions. So he believed in conflict rather than unquestioning agreement. 7. Why does the author say that American education owes a great debt to Thomas Jefferson? Because Jefferson believed that only a nation of educated people could remain free.

27 Globe Reading.2-part2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Background Information for Some Key Words The James River is a river, about 547 km (340 m) long, rising in central Virginia and flowing eastward into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is navigable to Richmond for large craft. It was named after James I, King of England from 1603 to ■

28 Globe Reading.2-part3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Canoe A canoe is a relatively small boat, typically human-powered, but also commonly sailed. Canoes are pointed at both ends and usually open on top. ■

29 Globe Reading.2-part2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Marquis de Lafayette Marquis de Lafayette ( ) was a French general and statesman. Born to a wealthy noble family, he was a young man when he sailed to America to help in the American Revolution. He also commanded the National Guard ( 国民自卫军 ) and played an important role in the French Revolution. ■

30 Globe Reading.2-part2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Philadelphia Philadelphia is the largest city of Pennsylvania. Founded in 1682, Philadelphia is known as the Birthplace of the Nation because of its role in America's struggle for independence from Britain. Both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States were drafted in the city and signed in Philadelphia's historic Independence Hall. The name Philadelphia was derived from the Greek words meaning “city of brotherly love." Modern Philadelphia has worked hard to become one of the great commercial, cultural, and educational centers in the United States. ■

31 1. an expert in agriculture, archeology and medicine 2. a good and tireless writer 3. a man who made great contribution to American education Globe Reading.2-part2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Table Completion Directions: In these two parts, the writer tells us something about Jefferson’s principles and his contributions to USA. Complete the following table with the information from the text. his attitude to working his attitude to learning his opinion on judgment his way of doing things his attitude to the future and the young Attach importance to personal investigation. Learn from ordinary people. Depend on one’s own judgment. Stick to one’s own way. Be optimistic about the future and the young. his contributions to USA

32 Article Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Jefferson died long ago, but many of his ideas are still of great interest.

33 Article1_S Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Bruce Bliven Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations.

34 Article1_W Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Bruce Bliven Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations.

35 Article1_S Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations. What does this sentence imply? He is a person of foresight. Many of his ideas are not out of date. Bruce Bliven

36 Article1_S Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations. 1. Explain the grammatical structure of the sentence. 1) 主句 Jefferson believed 为一般过去时,而后面从句却用了一般 现在时,说明叙述的内容为人们普遍接受的客观道理。 2) 谓语动词的 believed 引导两个由 that 引导的宾语从句, 在非正式 文体中,引导第一个宾语从句的 that 一般可省略,第二个则不能省 略,以免引起歧义。 The boys learned yesterday that the planets are circling about the sun. I understand (that) you have studied Chinese, and that you have written Chinese poetry. She denied (that) she had seen the man and that she had been in touch with him. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 杰斐逊认为,一个自由的人除了从书本中获取知识外,还可以从许多 别的来源获得知识;他认为,亲自作调查是很重要的。 Bruce Bliven An Example: More Examples:

37 Article1_S Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations. What’s the function of “while” in this sentence? Here “while” means “whereas”, introducing sth. different. Jane was dressed in brown while Mary was dressed in blue. You like sports, while I’d rather read. Bruce Bliven More Examples:

38 Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations. Article1_W_obtain1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading obtain: vt. get through effort Information about visas and passports can be obtained from your local library. CF: get, obtain, achieve & acquire 这些动词均有 “ 得到,获得,取得 ” 的意思。 I obtained this record for you with difficulty. 你可以从当地图书馆得到有关签证和护照的信息。 get 是最常用、最口语化的词。可以指以任何方式得到某物(积极主动或 消极被动),并不强调通过预先的或主观的努力,与具体名词和抽象 名词均可搭配。 obtain 为正式用语,指经过长时间的努力或有计划的行动而得到所希望得 到的东西或达到预定的目标。 achieve 表示克服困难之后取得成功或实现预期目标。 acquire 指经过一定努力或一定过程,使原有的东西获得更多,并成为永 久所有;也指一点点地慢慢地通过长期不懈的努力而获得诸如知 识、才干、良好习惯等。常与抽象名词搭配。 Bruce Bliven

39 Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations. Article1_W_obtain2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Exercise: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. She finally her ambition to visit China.achieved_______ 2. First editions of these books are now almost impossible to. obtain_____ 3. It usually takes four years to a degree at a university. get ___ 4. I've been working all day, but I feel as if I've nothing. achieved_______ 5. They realized that only through struggle could they their rights. obtain_____ 6. It took him a long time to the skills he needed to become a professional artist. acquire_______ Bruce Bliven

40 Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations. Article1_W_source Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading source: n. place from which sth. comes; place where a river starts They get their money from various sources. Where does the Rhine have its source? 莱茵河的源头在哪里? CF: source & origin 这两个名词均有 “ 根源,起因 ” 之意。 source 原指 “ 水源 ” ,转义指事物的 “ 根源,起因或出处 ” 。例如: origin 指事物起始于某时或某处,或由其产生另一事,即 “ 起源,起因,由 来 ” ,有时也指 “ 出身,血统 ” 。例如: 河水是在源头还是在流出之后受到污染的 ? Is the water polluted at source or further downstream? 所有这些传染病都是由那口井引发的. That well is the source of all the cases of infection. 这些词的起源不为人所知。 The origins of some words are unknown. 他从未忘记过自己出身卑微。 He never forgot his humble origins. Bruce Bliven

41 Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations. Article1_W_personal Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading The manager will make a personal visit to the supermarket. It’s a matter of personal preference. personal: adj. done in person; belonging to a person 这是个人爱好问题。 Collocation: personal affairs 私事 a personal letter 私人信件 a personal problem 个人隐私问题 personal call 亲自拜访 Bruce Bliven

42 Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations. Article1_W_appoint voyage Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading appoint: vt. choose (someone) for a position, job, etc. Who will be appointed to the chairmanship when Mr. White leaves? CF: appoint & name 这两个动词均有 “ 任命,委任 ” 之意。 The company has appointed a new sales director. Pattern: appoint sb. as appoint sb. (to do) sth. appoint sb. to (a job, post, position, etc.) 他被委派填补那空缺。 He was appointed to the vacant post. 我们得指定一个人当秘书。 We must appoint somebody to act as secretary. 他被任命为队长。 He was named captain of the team. appoint 通常指不经过选择的官方委任。例如: name 普通用词,着重任命的结果,而不是过程。例如: Bruce Bliven

43 Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, may be less famous than George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but most people remember at least one fact about him: he wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today. Many of his ideas are especially interesting to modern youth. Here are some of the things he said and wrote: Lessons from Jefferson Go and see. Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important. When still a young man, he was appointed to a committee to find out whether the South Branch of the James River was deep enough to be used by large boats. While the other members of the committee sat in the state capitol and studied papers on the subject, Jefferson got into a canoe and made on-the-spot observations. Article1_W_on the spot on the spot: at the place of action The police were called and they were on the spot within three minutes. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Whenever she's needed, she's quickly on the spot. Bruce Bliven

44 Article2_S You can learn from everyone. By birth and by education Jefferson belonged to the highest social class. Yet, in a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, Jefferson went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters. Jefferson once said to the French nobleman, Lafayette, “You must go into the people’s homes as I have done, look into their cooking Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading pots and eat their bread. If you will only do this, you may find out why people are dissatisfied and understand the revolution that is threatening France.”

45 Article2_w Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading You can learn from everyone. By birth and by education Jefferson belonged to the highest social class. Yet, in a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, Jefferson went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters. Jefferson once said to the French nobleman, Lafayette, “You must go into the people’s homes as I have done, look into their cooking pots and eat their bread. If you will only do this, you may find out why people are dissatisfied and understand the revolution that is threatening France.”

46 You can learn from everyone. By birth and by education Jefferson belonged to the highest social class. Yet, in a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, Jefferson went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters. Jefferson once said to the French nobleman, Lafayette, “You must go into the people’s homes as I have done, look into their cooking pots and eat their bread. If you will only do this, you may find out why people are dissatisfied and understand the revolution that is threatening France.” Article2_S_1 1. Paraphrase the sentence. Judging by his family and educational background, Jefferson was a member of the group with top social status. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 按出身及其所受的教育,杰斐逊均属于最高的社会阶层。 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

47 You can learn from everyone. By birth and by education Jefferson belonged to the highest social class. Yet, in a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, Jefferson went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters. Jefferson once said to the French nobleman, Lafayette, “You must go into the people’s homes as I have done, look into their cooking pots and eat their bread. If you will only do this, you may find out why people are dissatisfied and understand the revolution that is threatening France.” 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 1. What’s the implied meaning of the sentence? The noble persons thought they were superior and looked down upon the people of humble origins and regarded talking with those people as degrading. But sometimes they had to because they had to order those people to do things for them. 然而,在那个贵族除了发号施令以外很少跟出身卑贱的人说话的 年代,杰斐逊却想尽办法跟园丁、仆人和侍者交谈。 Article2_S_2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

48 You can learn from everyone. By birth and by education Jefferson belonged to the highest social class. Yet, in a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, Jefferson went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters. Jefferson once said to the French nobleman, Lafayette, “You must go into the people’s homes as I have done, look into their cooking pots and eat their bread. If you will only do this, you may find out why people are dissatisfied and understand the revolution that is threatening France.” Article2_S_3 What’s the grammatical function of “if you will only do this”? 一般说来 , if 引导的条件状语从句中表示将来用一般现在时,而不用将 来时,但这里的 will 不是将来时,而表示一种现在的意图、意愿、决心 等。 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading If you will give up smoking, your health will improve. An Example:

49 You can learn from everyone. By birth and by education Jefferson belonged to the highest social class. Yet, in a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, Jefferson went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters. Jefferson once said to the French nobleman, Lafayette, “You must go into the people’s homes as I have done, look into their cooking pots and eat their bread. If you will only do this, you may find out why people are dissatisfied and understand the revolution that is threatening France.” Article2_w_by birth by birth: so far as family origin or nationality is concerned He is British by birth, although he was born in France. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading My parents are both Indian by birth, but they have American citizenship. NB: birth 除了与 by 搭配构成短语 by birth 以外,常见的短语还有 : give birth “ 生孩子;产仔 ” give birth to “ 生(孩子);产生;引起 ”

50 You can learn from everyone. By birth and by education Jefferson belonged to the highest social class. Yet, in a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, Jefferson went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters. Jefferson once said to the French nobleman, Lafayette, “You must go into the people’s homes as I have done, look into their cooking pots and eat their bread. If you will only do this, you may find out why people are dissatisfied and understand the revolution that is threatening France.” Article2_w_humble humble: adj. 1) low in position Even when she became rich and famous, she never forgot her humble background. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 学校为出身贫贱的孩子提供了很好的教育。 The school had provided a good education for children of humble backgrounds. In my humble opinion , we should never have bought the car in the first place. 2) having a modest opinion of oneself

51 You can learn from everyone. By birth and by education Jefferson belonged to the highest social class. Yet, in a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, Jefferson went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters. Jefferson once said to the French nobleman, Lafayette, “You must go into the people’s homes as I have done, look into their cooking pots and eat their bread. If you will only do this, you may find out why people are dissatisfied and understand the revolution that is threatening France.” Article2_w_go out of go out of one’s way (to do sth.): take particular trouble or make a special effort ( to do sth.) It was good of you to go out of your way to meet us at the station. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Both parties are going out of their way to reach a compromise.

52 You can learn from everyone. By birth and by education Jefferson belonged to the highest social class. Yet, in a day when few noble persons ever spoke to those of humble origins except to give an order, Jefferson went out of his way to talk with gardeners, servants, and waiters. Jefferson once said to the French nobleman, Lafayette, “You must go into the people’s homes as I have done, look into their cooking pots and eat their bread. If you will only do this, you may find out why people are dissatisfied and understand the revolution that is threatening France.” Article2_w_threaten threaten: v. hang over dangerously; utter a threat against It’s no use threatening me ─ I’m not going to do it. Pattern: threaten sb. with sth. be threatened to do sth. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 他们每次争吵时,他妻子总是威胁说要离开他。 Every time they have an argument, his wife threatens to leave him.

53 Article3_S Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.”

54 Article3_W Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.”

55 Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” Article3_S_1 1. Paraphrase this sentence. Jefferson didn’t blindly accept other people’s likes or dislikes without careful independent thought. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 未经过认真的思考,杰斐逊绝不接受别人的意见。 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

56 Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” Article3_S_2 1. Analyze the structure of the sentence. Were it left to me to decide 等于 If it were left to me to decide. 在虚拟条件状语从句中,如果从句中有 should, were 或助动词 had 时,可省略 if , 将这些词提到句首,主谓语用部分倒装结构。 2. What does the sentence imply? Jefferson was by no means an anarchist ( 无政府主义者 ) who wished to abolish all established governments. He was noted for his belief, though, that governments should play the smallest possible role in national life. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Should we want to accelerate the motion, we should have to exert some force. Had you told me the matter earlier, I would not have done the foolish thing. More Examples:

57 Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” Article3_W_reject1 reject: vt. refuse to take, believe, use or consider We rejected his idea for a music club, and decided to have an art club instead. 他向她求婚, 她拒绝了。 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading She rejected his offer of marriage. CF: reject, refuse & decline 这三个动词均含 “ 拒绝 ” 之意。 reject 多指由于某物某事某行为不能让人满意而被当面直截 了当地拒绝。 refuse 语气较重,指态度坚决,肯定无疑的拒绝。 decline 指婉言谢绝他人的帮助或邀请等。

58 Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” Article3_W_reject2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Exercise: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. He asked me to give him another loan, but I. refused ______ 2. The army doctors several recruits as unfit. 3. When asked to comment on details of the agreement, she. 4. He's in trouble but he's all my offers of help. 5. We his offer of a lift. rejected ______ declined_______ refused ______ declined_______

59 Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” Article3_W_error error: n. mistake; sth. done wrongly He found several errors in his manuscript. 这次事故是由人为过错造成的。 The accident was caused by human error. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

60 Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” Article3_W_false false: adj. not true or correct Someone shouted “fire”, but in fact it was a false alarm and there were no signs of fire. She was charged with giving false evidence in court. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Collocation: a false charge / accusation 诬告 bear / give false witness 作假证

61 Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” Article3_W_hesitate hesitate: vi. feel doubtful; be undecided I'd hesitate before accepting such an offer. 我们不惜为国献身, 更不必说吃点苦了。 We do not hesitate to give our lives for our country, let alone suffer some hardships. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

62 Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” Article3_W_prefer prefer: vt. choose sth. rather than sth. else; like sth. better He usually prefers classical music to rock. Which do you prefer, black coffee or tea? Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Pattern: prefer to sth. prefer to do sth. prefer sb. to do sth. prefer to+ v. rather than + do sth. prefer + that-clause (should be/be)

63 Judge for yourself. Jefferson refused to accept other people’s opinions without careful thought. “Neither believe nor reject anything,” he wrote to his nephew, “because any other person has rejected or believed it. Heaven has given you a mind for judging truth and error. Use it.” Jefferson felt that the people “may safely be trusted to hear everything true and false, and to form a correct judgment. Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” Article3_W_latter latter: adj. nearer to the end The latter point was of great importance. 两者中后者比前者好得多。 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Collocation: the latter part of his life 他的晚年 the latter half of the month 后半月,下半月 Of the two the latter is far better than the former. NB: 常与 the latter 搭配使用的是 the former “ 前者的(两者中先提到的) ” 例如: Many support the former alternative, but personally I favour the latter (one). 很多人都赞成前一种办法, 但我个人喜欢后一种。 Jack and Bill are twins, but the latter is taller than the former. 杰克和比尔是孪生兄弟,不过比尔个子要高点。 the latter days of summer 夏末

64 Article4_S Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Do what you believe is right. In a free country there will always be conflicting ideas, and this is a source of strength. It is conflict and not unquestioning agreement that keeps freedom alive. Though Jefferson was for many years the object of strong criticism, he never answered his critics. He expressed his philosophy in letters to a friend, “There are two sides to every question. If you take one side with decision and act on it with effect, those who take the other side will of course resent your actions.”

65 Article4_W Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Do what you believe is right. In a free country there will always be conflicting ideas, and this is a source of strength. It is conflict and not unquestioning agreement that keeps freedom alive. Though Jefferson was for many years the object of strong criticism, he never answered his critics. He expressed his philosophy in letters to a friend, “There are two sides to every question. If you take one side with decision and act on it with effect, those who take the other side will of course resent your actions.”

66 Do what you believe is right. In a free country there will always be conflicting ideas, and this is a source of strength. It is conflict and not unquestioning agreement that keeps freedom alive. Though Jefferson was for many years the object of strong criticism, he never answered his critics. He expressed his philosophy in letters to a friend, “There are two sides to every question. If you take one side with decision and act on it with effect, those who take the other side will of course resent your actions.” Article4_W_conflict conflict: The statements of the two witnesses’ conflict. 他们对事件的说法与我们的说法截然不同。 Their account of events conflicts with ours. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. vi. be opposed; clash Some people feel there is a great deal of conflict between religion and science. The two companies come into frequent conflicts as a result of competition. 2. n. disagreement; clash; fight Collocation: conflict of interest 利益冲突 an inner conflict 内心冲突 an armed conflict 武装冲突 in conflict with 和 … 冲突

67 Do what you believe is right. In a free country there will always be conflicting ideas, and this is a source of strength. It is conflict and not unquestioning agreement that keeps freedom alive. Though Jefferson was for many years the object of strong criticism, he never answered his critics. He expressed his philosophy in letters to a friend, “There are two sides to every question. If you take one side with decision and act on it with effect, those who take the other side will of course resent your actions.” Article4_W_agreement agreement: n. having the same opinion; thinking in the same way They are basically in agreement on this matter. 我们同意他们的决定。 We are in agreement with their decision. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

68 Do what you believe is right. In a free country there will always be conflicting ideas, and this is a source of strength. It is conflict and not unquestioning agreement that keeps freedom alive. Though Jefferson was for many years the object of strong criticism, he never answered his critics. He expressed his philosophy in letters to a friend, “There are two sides to every question. If you take one side with decision and act on it with effect, those who take the other side will of course resent your actions.” Article4_W_act on act on: act according to The police are acting on information received. He always acts on a guess. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 他总是凭猜想行事。

69 Do what you believe is right. In a free country there will always be conflicting ideas, and this is a source of strength. It is conflict and not unquestioning agreement that keeps freedom alive. Though Jefferson was for many years the object of strong criticism, he never answered his critics. He expressed his philosophy in letters to a friend, “There are two sides to every question. If you take one side with decision and act on it with effect, those who take the other side will of course resent your actions.” Article4_W_resent resent: vt. feel angry or bitter at I bitterly resent your criticism. 我们对他成为令人注目的中心人物感到忿恨。 我对你的批评十分反感。 We resent his being the center of attraction. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Pattern: resent doing sth. resent sb./sth. doing

70 Do what you believe is right. In a free country there will always be conflicting ideas, and this is a source of strength. It is conflict and not unquestioning agreement that keeps freedom alive. Though Jefferson was for many years the object of strong criticism, he never answered his critics. He expressed his philosophy in letters to a friend, “There are two sides to every question. If you take one side with decision and act on it with effect, those who take the other side will of course resent your actions.” Article4_W_action Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading action: n. the process of doing things; sth. done Her quick action saved his life. 一个演员的台词和动作应当一致。 An actor’s words and actions should agree.

71 Article5_S Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Trust the future; trust the young. Jefferson felt that the present should never be chained to customs which have lost their usefulness. “No society,” he said, “can make a perpetual constitution, or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs to the living generation.” He did not fear new ideas, nor did he fear the future.” How much pain,” he remarked, “has been caused by evils which have never happened! I expect the best, not the worst. I steer my ship with hope, leaving fear behind.”

72 Article5_W Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Trust the future; trust the young. Jefferson felt that the present should never be chained to customs which have lost their usefulness. “No society,” he said, “can make a perpetual constitution, or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs to the living generation.” He did not fear new ideas, nor did he fear the future.” How much pain,” he remarked, “has been caused by evils which have never happened! I expect the best, not the worst. I steer my ship with hope, leaving fear behind.”

73 Trust the future; trust the young. Jefferson felt that the present should never be chained to customs which have lost their usefulness. “No society,” he said, “can make a perpetual constitution, or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs to the living generation.” He did not fear new ideas, nor did he fear the future.” How much pain,” he remarked, “has been caused by evils which have never happened! I expect the best, not the worst. I steer my ship with hope, leaving fear behind.” Article5_S_1 What’s the implied meaning of the sentence? The author is an optimist. He believes the young and can always keep up with the times. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

74 Trust the future; trust the young. Jefferson felt that the present should never be chained to customs which have lost their usefulness. “No society,” he said, “can make a perpetual constitution, or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs to the living generation.” He did not fear new ideas, nor did he fear the future.” How much pain,” he remarked, “has been caused by evils which have never happened! I expect the best, not the worst. I steer my ship with hope, leaving fear behind.” Article5_S_2 1. Paraphrase this sentence. Jefferson thought that people nowadays should never be limited to out-of-date customs. 2. What’s the grammatical function of “chain”? Here chain is used figuratively, meaning “bind or restrain.” 杰斐逊认为,绝不可以用那些已经无用的习俗来束缚住 “ 现在 ” 的 手脚。 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 3. Translate the sentence into Chinese.

75 Trust the future; trust the young. Jefferson felt that the present should never be chained to customs which have lost their usefulness. “No society,” he said, “can make a perpetual constitution, or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs to the living generation.” He did not fear new ideas, nor did he fear the future.” How much pain,” he remarked, “has been caused by evils which have never happened! I expect the best, not the worst. I steer my ship with hope, leaving fear behind.” Article5_S_3 1. Paraphrase the sentence. A great deal of pain and suffering has been caused by worrying about bad things which never came to pass, forgetting the fear completely. steer my ship 是隐喻 (metaphor), “ 驾驶着自己的航船 ” 未 来像航海一样,充满未知性,杰斐逊不但不惧怕,而且对未来 充满希望, 表现了其乐观和一往无前的精神。 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 2. What kind of rhetorical device is used here?

76 Trust the future; trust the young. Jefferson felt that the present should never be chained to customs which have lost their usefulness. “No society,” he said, “can make a perpetual constitution, or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs to the living generation.” He did not fear new ideas, nor did he fear the future.” How much pain,” he remarked, “has been caused by evils which have never happened! I expect the best, not the worst. I steer my ship with hope, leaving fear behind.” GR-text1 custom: n. established socially accepted practice In my country, it's the custom (for women) to get married in red. It is the custom with / of certain foreigners to do so. Article5_W_custom1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 这样做法是某些外国人的习惯。 CF: custom, convention & tradition 这三个名词均含有 “ 习惯,风俗,传统 ” 之意。 custom 指一个国家、一个民族、一个地区或一个社会的习惯、 行为方式或风俗习惯,也可指个人的习惯。例如: It is difficult to get used to another country's customs. 要适应另一国家的风俗习惯是很困难的。 It is my custom to rise early. 早起是我的习惯。

77 Trust the future; trust the young. Jefferson felt that the present should never be chained to customs which have lost their usefulness. “No society,” he said, “can make a perpetual constitution, or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs to the living generation.” He did not fear new ideas, nor did he fear the future.” How much pain,” he remarked, “has been caused by evils which have never happened! I expect the best, not the worst. I steer my ship with hope, leaving fear behind.” Article5_W_custom2 convention 多指约定俗成的行为方式, 规则或公认的标准,或指艺术上公 认的技巧。例如: Convention dictates that a minister should resign in such a situation. 依照常规大臣在这种情况下应该辞职。 tradition 广义指世代相传的伦理、行为规范和生活方式,特指因长久奉行 而几乎具有法律效力的习惯、习俗,侧重历史意义。例如: By tradition, people play practical jokes on 1 April. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 按照传统风俗, 4 月 1 日是可以开玩笑的。

78 Trust the future; trust the young. Jefferson felt that the present should never be chained to customs which have lost their usefulness. “No society,” he said, “can make a perpetual constitution, or even a perpetual law. The earth belongs to the living generation.” He did not fear new ideas, nor did he fear the future.” How much pain,” he remarked, “has been caused by evils which have never happened! I expect the best, not the worst. I steer my ship with hope, leaving fear behind.” Article5_W_leave behind leave behind: abandon; fail to take or bring along I think I’ll leave my heavy coat behind; I shan’t need it on holiday. 飞机就要起飞了,我却忘了带票。 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading The plane is about to leave, but I’ve left my ticket behind. Pattern: leave…for leave out of leave…to… leave with

79 Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, Article6_S Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...”

80 Article6_W Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...”

81 Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...” Article6_S_1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. What can we infer from the sentence? Many of the devices Jefferson invented are still remembered — a machine for copying important papers, an instrument that indicates the weather both indoors and outdoors, a rotating desk, to name only a few. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 他影响了整个美国的建筑业,他还不断地制造出各种机械装置,使日 常生活中需要做的许多工作变得更加容易。

82 Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...” Article6_W_superior Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading superior: adj. good or better in quality or value The government troops were superior in numbers. 这种布比那种好。 This cloth is superior to that. Collocation: be superior in 在 … 方面占优势 be superior to 优于 … 的;高于 … 的 NB: superior 的反义词是 inferior , “ 下等的、劣等的 ” , 常用的搭配是 “be inferior to” , 例如: These products are inferior to those we bought last year. 这些产品比我们去年买的质量差。 Women are not inferior to men. 女人并不比男人差。

83 Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...” Article6_W_existence existence: n. the state of existing Many people question the existence of God. The original manuscripts of Shakespeare’s plays are no longer in existence. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Collocation: lead / have a certain existence 过某种生活 earn one’s own existence 自谋生计 bring / call into existence 使产生;使成立 come into existence 开始存在;产生;成立 in existence 存在的;现存的;现有的

84 Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...” Article6_W_influence1 influence: She's very good at making friends and influencing people. 公众的观点常常受大众媒介的影响。 Public opinions are usually influenced by mass media. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. vt. have an effect on 影响 The two main influences in a child’s development are the family and the school. My teacher's influence made me study science at college. 2. n. power to affect sth. or sb. 影响, 影响力 Collocation: have a great / good / bad influence upon / on… 对 … 有很大 / 好 / 坏的影响 have influence over 对 … 有影响力 under the influence of 在 … 的影响下

85 Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...” Article6_W_influence2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading CF: influence, affect & impress 这三个动词均含 “ 影响 ” 之意。 influence 侧重在思想、性格、行为等方面所产生的潜移默化的影响, 也可指自然力的影响。 affect 主语通常是物而不是人,指一物对另一物产生的消极影响。 impress 强调影响既深刻又持久。 Exercise: Fill in the blanks with the words above. Change the form where necessary. 1. The tax increases have us all. affected_______ 2. Your mother was clearly not by our behaviour in the restaurant. impressed________ 3. He tried to me with his extensive knowledge of wine. impress ______ 4. Don’t let yourself be by what she said.impressed________ 5. The divorce every aspect of her life. affected_______ 6. The sights of the city never fail to foreign tourists. impress ______

86 Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...” Article6_W_constantly constantly: adv. continuously; frequently She has the television on constantly. 这地区经常遭到旱灾。 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading The area was constantly hit by drought.

87 Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...” Article6_W_perform perform: v. do, carry out Computers can perform a variety of tasks. 新汽车性能如何 ? Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading How is the new car performing?

88 Jefferson’s courage and idealism were based on knowledge. He probably knew more than any other man of his age. He was an expert in agriculture, archeology, and medicine. He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice, and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. He influenced architecture throughout America, and he was constantly producing devices for making the tasks of ordinary life easier to perform. Of all Jefferson’s many talents, one is central. He was above all a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more than fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal...” Article6_W_above all above all: most important of all Never waste anything, but above all never waste time. Children need many things, but above all they need attention. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading NB: 与 “above all” 有相似意义的表达方式有: first first of all firstly for one thing in the first instance in the first place

89 Article7_S Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading When Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of American independence, he left his countrymen a rich legacy of ideas and examples. American education owes a great debt to Thomas Jefferson, who believed that only a nation of educated people could remain free.

90 Article7_W Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading When Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of American independence, he left his countrymen a rich legacy of ideas and examples. American education owes a great debt to Thomas Jefferson, who believed that only a nation of educated people could remain free.

91 Article7_W_owe sht. to Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading When Jefferson died on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of American independence, he left his countrymen a rich legacy of ideas and examples. American education owes a great debt to Thomas Jefferson, who believed that only a nation of educated people could remain free. owe sth. to: I owe my success to my education. 他把他的成功更多地归于运气而不是能力。 He owed his success to luck more than to capacity. 1) believe (something) to be the result of (something) He owes his life to the doctor at the hospital. 我深深感激师长与父母。 I owe my teachers and parents a great deal. 2) feel gratitude (to sb.) in return for a service, favour, etc.

92 After Reading_main Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading 1. Useful Expressions 2. Spot Dictation 3. Word Completion 4. Text Review 5. Group Discussion 6. Writing Practice 7. Talking About Pictures 8. Proverbs and Quotations

93 After Reading_ 从书本中获取知识 2. 亲自作调查 3. 做现场观察 4. 研究有关某一问题的文件 5. 社会阶层 6. 发号施令 7. 出生卑微的人 8. 烧饭锅 obtain knowledge from books personal investigation make on-the-spot observations study papers on a subject social class give an order people of humble origins a cooking pot Useful Expressions Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

94 After Reading_ 1.2 判断真理与谬误的头脑 认真思考的 力量的源泉 毫不犹豫 有效地采取行动 被无用的习俗束缚住手脚 满怀希望地 把恐惧抛在后面 a mind for judging truth and error with careful thought a source of strength not hesitate a moment act on with effect be chained to customs which have lost their usefulness with hope leave fear behind Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

95 After Reading_ 存在 18. 不知疲倦的作家 19. 一切人生来平等 20. 一份丰富的思想遗产 in existence a tireless writer all men are created equal a rich legacy of ideas Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

96 stairs After Reading_ 2.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Spot Dictation Directions: Listen to the following passage and fill in the missing words. From the West Lawn, Thomas Jefferson, family, and guests could walk up the on the West Portico to reach the Parlor, one of three rooms in Monticello that were part of Jefferson’s plan for the home in The Parlor was a public room, for conversation, music, games, and reading. Jefferson wrote that music “furnishes a delightful for the hours of respite from the cares of the day, and lasts us through life.” The Parlor was the for many of these hours of “delightful recreation.” Jefferson himself played the and his wife, daughters, and granddaughters played several, including the piano, harpsichord ( 大键琴 ), and guitar. Jefferson’s namesake grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, recalled that before his grandfather “lost his for the violin, he would play on it, having his children dancing around him. ” ______ original ______ designed ________ site ___ recreation ________ violin ____, instruments_________ taste ____ ■

97 podhcrtapodhcrta ersonal rigin issatisfy esitate riticism emark alent nniversary After Reading_ 2.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Word Completion Directions: Supply the missing letters according to the definitions on the right. done in person; belonging to a person parentage; birth; beginning fail to satisfy; displease feel doubtful; be undecided unfavorable remarks or judgments say; comment special natural ability the yearly return of a special date ______ ____ ______ _____ ____ ________

98 After Reading_ 2.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Text Review Directions: Find the evidence from the text to fill in the following chart. a well-known statesman a writer a an educator an an expert in agriculture an inventor of the United States 1)The Declaration of 2) complete works of volumes philosophical instructions, ideas 1) reform 2)university founder 3)American education owes a great deal to him 4)father of the University of influential figure 1) 2) soil for daily uses thinker ______ architect_______ Independence ___________ 50___ education ________ Virginia ______ crop rotation _____ conservation_____ devices______ President ________

99 After Reading_ 2.4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Debate Directions: Prepare and debate by taking the following steps. Step 1 Form teams Make teams of four people. Half of the teams will take the side of Group A and the other half Group B. Step 2 Have a pre-debate discussion Prepare your arguments and supporting facts of the information discussed. Step 3 Hold the debate The debate begins between the two teams having contrary views. It will go on until one side fails to respond.

100 After Reading_ 2.5 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading The Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Investigation. Group A: Advantages Group B: Disadvantages Advantages to get first-hand material not to rely on false information or situations which have changed ability to ask and answer your own questions Disadvantages limitations in time and ability to travel lack of money no expertise on the subject

101 After Reading_ 2.6 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Writing Practice–Developing a Paragraph from the Topic Sentence A brief introduction. More often than not, one sentence in a paragraph tells the reader exactly what the subject of the paragraph is and thus gives the main idea. This main idea sentence is called a topic sentence or topic statement. The topic sentence states briefly an idea whose full meaning and significance are developed by the supporting details. The ways to develop a paragraph can be found in the following chart. DefinitionClassificationExampleNarration Comparison and ContrastCause and EffectProcess

102 SAMPLE After Reading_ 3.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading WAY “Honesty is the best polity” is a well-known proverb, but it is not so easy for everyone to keep (Topic sentence). Honesty means fairness and uprightness in our words and deeds (Supporting sentence 1). It is also regarded as a very important virtue in our social behavior (Supporting sentence 2). Definition

103 After Reading_ 3.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading SAMPLEWAY There are three groups of oils: animal, vegetable and mineral. (Topic sentence) Great quantities of animals come from whales. To protect the whale…(Supporting sentence 1) Vegetable oil has been known from antiquity. No household can get on... (Supporting sentence 2) Mineral oil is used to drive tanks, airplanes and warships, motor-cars and…(Supporting sentence 3) Classification

104 After Reading_ 3.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading SAMPLEWAY It is often said that differences between people can be caused by the different times when the people were born (Topic sentence). For example, people who were born between March 21 and April 20 are supposed to be active, daring, and strong…(Supporting sentence) Example

105 After Reading_ 3.2 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading SAMPLEWAY Nearly all American students in colleges and universities pay for their education (Topic sentence). There are many costs. First of all, there is tuition. At some schools, the tuition is very high, ten thousand dollars a year or more. At other schools, it may only be a few hundred dollars a year. At some community colleges, tuition is free…(Supporting sentence 1) There are other costs as well (Supporting sentence 2). Many students leave their homes to go … Finally, students must buy textbooks for their courses. Going to college…(Supporting sentence 3) Narration

106 After Reading_ 3.3 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading SAMPLEWAY Good manners are important in all countries, but ways of expressing good manners are different from country to country (Topic sentence). Americans eat with knives and forks; Japanese eat with chopsticks (Supporting sentence 1). Americans say “Hi” when they meet; Japanese bow (Supporting sentence 2). Many American men open doors for women; Japanese men do not (Supporting sentence 3). Comparison and Contrast

107 After Reading_4 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading SAMPLEWAY Recently, people’s ideas about how to spend their holidays have changed a lot. It seems that people are becoming more and more active, and they want to explore the entertainment offered by the outside world. There are several reasons why people have changed their minds about holidays (Topic sentence). With the growth of economy, people possess more money enough for them to find enjoyment in holidays (Supporting sentence 1). And more people work more intensively and have less time to relax…(Supporting sentence 2) Cause and Effect

108 After Reading_5 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading SAMPLEWAY Once you encounter a person who has stopped breathing, you should begin immediately to do mouth- to-mouth breathing (Topic sentence). First, place the victim on his back and remove any foreign matter from his mouth with your fingers. Then tilt his head backwards… Next, pull his mouth open and his jaw forward,… then…(Supporting sentences) Process

109 After Reading_6 Directions: Write a paragraph about 80 words by using the following topic sentence and supporting details. Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Homework Topic Sentence : Owing a private car has many advantages. Supporting details: 1. be convenient 2. save a lot of time 3. enjoy the leisure time 4. not rely on public transportation

110 After Reading_7.1 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading Sample: Owing a private car has many advantages. The greatest advantage of all is that the car gives its owners more convenience and saves them a lot of time, enables them to go where they please. People can cover long distances by car rapidly and comfortably. Thus, it is possible for them to enjoy the leisure time by making trips to the country or seaside during the two-day weekends and on holidays. In addition they are no longer forced to rely on public transportation and waste their time in waiting for buses or trains.

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118 After Reading_8.1 Proverbs and Quotations 1. Genuine knowledge comes from practice. 实践出真知。 2. The more you study, the more you will find yourself ignorant. 学, 然后知不足。 3. You never know what you can do till you try. — Frederick Marryat, British novelist 除非你亲自尝试一下,否则你永远不知道你能够做什么。 — 英国小说家 F. 马里亚特 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading

119 After Reading_ Only a nation of educated people could remain free. — Thomas Jefferson, American President 如果要将事情做好,就得亲自动手。 —— 美国诗人 H. W. 朗费罗 只有由受过教育的人民组成的国家才能保持自由。 —— 美国总统 T. 杰斐逊 Before ReadingGlobal ReadingDetailed ReadingAfter Reading If you would have a thing well done, you would have a thing well done, you must do it yourself. — Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, American poet 5.


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