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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division The ability of organisms to reproduce best distinguishes living things from non-living matter The continuity of life is based upon the reproduction of cells, or cell division Cell division is integral part of cell cycle

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of cell division Prokaryotes (no nucleus: bacteria – simple life forms) – Binary fission Eukaryotes (contain a nucleus) – Mitosis: Growth, development & repair Asexual reproduction (yields genetically identical cells) Occurs in somatic (body) cells – Meiosis: Sexual reproduction (yields genetically different cells with half the # of chromosomes) Occurs in specific reproductive cells Yields gametes (e.g., eggs & sperm) or spores

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Eukaryotic cell division consists of: – Mitosis, the division of the nucleus – Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

6 Concept 12.1: Mitotic cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells Cells duplicate their genetic material before they divide, ensuring that each daughter cell receives an exact copy of the genetic material, DNA A dividing cell duplicates its DNA, allocates the two copies to opposite ends of the cell, and only then splits into daughter cells

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material A cell’s endowment of DNA (its genetic information) is called its genome DNA molecules* in a cell are packaged into chromosomes *Prokaryotes- circular DNA Eukaryotes- linear DNA

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus Somatic (non-reproductive) cells (normally) have two sets of chromosomes Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) (and spores) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of chromatin, a complex of DNA and protein that condenses during cell division

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA associates with special proteins to form more stable structure called chromosomes (different proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, so chromosomes built different) Chromosomes are found inside nucleus in eukaryotes Human - 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs (1 set of 23 from egg, 1 set of 23 from sperm) Each chromosome contains many genes Gene is a segment of DNA that is responsible for controlling a trait (e.g., coding for a specific protein)

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

11 Human female karyotype

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human male karyotype

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Phases of the Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of – Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis and cytokinesis) – Interphase (cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division) Interphase (about 90% of the cell cycle) can be divided into subphases: – G 1 phase (“first gap”) – S phase (“synthesis”) – G 2 phase (“second gap”)

14 LE 12-5 G1G1 G2G2 S (DNA synthesis) INTERPHASE Cytokinesis MITOTIC (M) PHASE Mitosis

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Distribution of Chromosomes During Cell Division In preparation for cell division, DNA is replicated and the chromosomes condense Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids, which separate during cell division The centromere is the narrow “waist” of the duplicated chromosome, where the two chromatids are most closely attached

16 LE 12-4 Chromosome duplication (including DNA synthesis) 0.5 µm Centromere Sister chromatids Separation of sister chromatids CentromeresSister chromatids

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mitosis is conventionally divided into five phases: – Prophase – Prometaphase – Metaphase – Anaphase – Telophase Cytokinesis is well underway by late telophase

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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20 1.Prophase -Chromatin condenses, this causes the chromosomes to begin to become visible -Centrosomes separate, moving to opposite ends of the nucleus -The centrosomes start to form a framework used to separate the two sister chromatids called the mitotic spindle, that is made of microtubules - Nucleolus disappears

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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24 2. Prometaphase - Nuclear envelope fragments - Chromosomes become more condensed - A kinetochore is formed at the centromere, the point where the sister chromatids are attached - Microtubules attach at the kinetochores

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

26 3. Metaphase - Chromosomes align on an axis called the metaphase plate - Note: the spindle consists of microtubules, one attached to each chromosome

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

28 4.Anaphase - Each centromere splits making two chromatids free - Each chromatid moves toward a pole - Cell begins to elongate, caused by microtubules not associated with the kinetochore

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

30 5. Telophase Formation of nuclear membrane and nucleolus Short and thick chromosomes begin to elongate to form long and thin chromatin Formation of the cleavage furrow - a shallow groove in the cell near the old metaphase plate Cytokinesis = division of the cytoplasm

31 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

32 Mitosis in an onion root

33 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look The mitotic spindle is an apparatus of microtubules that controls chromosome movement during mitosis Assembly of spindle microtubules begins in the centrosome, the microtubule organizing center The centrosome replicates, forming two centrosomes that migrate to opposite ends of the cell, as spindle microtubules grow out from them An aster (a radial array of short microtubules) extends from each centrosome

34 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The spindle includes the centrosomes, the spindle microtubules, and the asters Some spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes and move the chromosomes to the metaphase plate

35 LE 12-7 Microtubules Chromosomes Sister chromatids Aster Centrosome Metaphase plate Kineto- chores Kinetochore microtubules 0.5 µm Overlapping nonkinetochore microtubules 1 µm Centrosome

36 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings In anaphase, sister chromatids separate and move along the kinetochore microtubules toward opposite ends of the cell The microtubules shorten by depolymerizing at their kinetochore ends

37 LE 12-8b Chromosome movement Microtubule Motor protein Chromosome Kinetochore Tubulin subunits

38 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nonkinetochore microtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other, elongating the cell In telophase, genetically identical daughter nuclei form at opposite ends of the cell

39 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytokinesis: A Closer Look In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage, forming a cleavage furrow In plant cells, a cell plate forms during cytokinesis

40 LE 12-9a Cleavage furrow 100 µm Contractile ring of microfilaments Daughter cells Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM)

41 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mitosis

42 LE 12-9b 1 µm Daughter cells Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM) New cell wall Cell plate Wall of parent cell Vesicles forming cell plate

43 LE Nucleus Cell plate Chromosomes Nucleolus Chromatin condensing 10 µm Prophase. The chromatin is condensing. The nucleolus is beginning to disappear. Although not yet visible in the micrograph, the mitotic spindle is starting to form. Prometaphase. We now see discrete chromosomes; each consists of two identical sister chromatids. Later in prometaphase, the nuclear envelope will fragment. Metaphase. The spindle is complete, and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all at the metaphase plate. Anaphase. The chromatids of each chromosome have separated, and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the ends of the cell as their kinetochore micro- tubules shorten. Telophase. Daughter nuclei are forming. Meanwhile, cytokinesis has started: The cell plate, which will divide the cytoplasm in two, is growing toward the perimeter of the parent cell.

44 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Binary Fission Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) reproduce by a type of cell division called binary fission In binary fission, the chromosome replicates (beginning at the origin of replication), and the two daughter chromosomes actively move apart

45 LE 12-11_1 Origin of replication Cell wall Plasma membrane Bacterial chromosome E. coli cell Two copies of origin Chromosome replication begins. Soon thereafter, one copy of the origin moves rapidly toward the other end of the cell.

46 LE 12-11_2 Origin of replication Cell wall Plasma membrane Bacterial chromosome E. coli cell Two copies of origin Chromosome replication begins. Soon thereafter, one copy of the origin moves rapidly toward the other end of the cell. Replication continues. One copy of the origin is now at each end of the cell. Origin

47 LE 12-11_3 Origin of replication Cell wall Plasma membrane Bacterial chromosome E. coli cell Two copies of origin Chromosome replication begins. Soon thereafter, one copy of the origin moves rapidly toward the other end of the cell. Replication continues. One copy of the origin is now at each end of the cell. Origin Replication finishes. The plasma membrane grows inward, and new cell wall is deposited. Two daughter cells result.

48 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Evolution of Mitosis Since prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes, mitosis probably evolved from binary fission Certain protists exhibit types of cell division that seem intermediate between binary fission and mitosis

49 LE Bacterial chromosome Chromosomes Microtubules Prokaryotes Dinoflagellates Intact nuclear envelope Kinetochore microtubules Kinetochore microtubules Intact nuclear envelope Diatoms Centrosome Most eukaryotes Fragments of nuclear envelope

50 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 12.3: The cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system The frequency of cell division varies with the type of cell and with cell “happiness” These cell cycle differences result from regulation at the molecular level The cell cycle appears to be driven by specific chemical signals present in the cytoplasm The levels of these chemical signals are influenced by biotic & abiotic factors

51 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Cell Cycle Control System The sequential events of the cell cycle are directed by a distinct cell cycle control system, which is similar to a clock The clock has specific checkpoints where the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is received For many cells, the G 1 checkpoint seems to be the most important one

52 LE G 1 checkpoint G1G1 S M M checkpoint G 2 checkpoint G2G2 Control system

53 LE G1G1 G 1 checkpoint G1G1 G0G0 If a cell receives a go-ahead signal at the G 1 checkpoint, the cell continues on in the cell cycle. If a cell does not receive a go-ahead signal at the G 1 checkpoint, the cell exits the cell cycle and goes into G 0, a nondividing state.

54 LE 12-16b Degraded cyclin G 2 checkpoint S M G2G2 G1G1 Cdk Cyclin is degraded MPF Cyclin Cdk Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle accumulation Cyclin

55 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stop and Go Signs: Internal and External Signals at the Checkpoints An example of an internal signal is that kinetochores not attached to spindle microtubules send a molecular signal that delays anaphase Some external signals are growth factors, proteins released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide For example, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates the division of human fibroblast cells in culture

56 LE Petri plate Scalpels Without PDGF With PDGF Without PDGF With PDGF 10 mm

57 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Another example of external signals is density- dependent inhibition, in which crowded cells stop dividing Most animal cells also exhibit anchorage dependence, in which they must be attached to a substratum in order to divide

58 LE 12-18a Cells anchor to dish surface and divide (anchorage dependence). When cells have formed a complete single layer, they stop dividing (density-dependent inhibition). If some cells are scraped away, the remaining cells divide to fill the gap and then stop (density-dependent inhibition). 25 µm Normal mammalian cells

59 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cancer cells exhibit neither density-dependent inhibition nor anchorage dependence

60 LE 12-18b Cancer cells do not exhibit anchorage dependence or density-dependent inhibition. Cancer cells 25 µm

61 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells Cancer cells do not respond normally to the body’s control mechanisms Cancer cells form tumors, masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue If abnormal cells remain at the original site, the lump is called a benign tumor Malignant tumors invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize, exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body, where they may form secondary tumors


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