Presentation on theme: "Feeding and swallowing in infants and children"— Presentation transcript:
1Feeding and swallowing in infants and children Types Swallowing of problems “Dysphagia” (dis'fahjuh)
2Dysphagia fall into three categories based on the phase: Oral dysphagia – Problems occur due to issues with lips, tongue, cheek muscles, and/or jaw movement. Children may hold food in mouth, have difficulty chewing, drool or spill liquids and have difficulty moving food to /from chewing surface and back of mouth.Pharyngeal dysphagia — These swallowing problems happen before food reaches the esophagus and may result from neuromuscular disease, obstructions or surgery. Patients experience difficulty starting a swallow; food goes down the wrong pipe; or there is choking and coughing. This may result in poor nutrition or dehydration, aspiration (which can lead to pneumonia and chronic lung disease). Conditions that may cause pharyngeal dysphagia include Lou Gehrig's disease, brain injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury, stroke, cervical osteophytes or other obstructions. Neurologic causes often result in Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.Esophageal dysphagia — These swallowing problems originate in the esophagus. Food or liquids "stick" in the chest or throat and sometimes come back up. Causes in children include eosinophilic esophagitis, gastroesphageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal-motility disorders, as well as later stages of some of the neurological diseases mentioned above.
3Physical FactorsThere are 4 primary areas that impact feeding & swallowing:Respiratory system - airway restrictions: lg. tonsils/ adenoids, choanal stenosis, laryngomalacia, jaw &/or tongue retractionGI system - GER and possible laryngeal closure and the sensory feedback that result may ‘train’ them to eat less or less often.Pharyngeal function-motility decreased strength or coordination and sensory (hyper/hypo)impairmentsOral function – Structure, muscle strength, coordination and sensation impact feeding and are obviously the most easily seen and reported
4Physical SymptomsRespiratory: destating, nasal flaring , change of color, coughing, gagging, needing to ‘catch breath’, mouth breathing, frequent open mouth posture, snoring/ noisy breathing, Hx of Frequent URI, recurrent PNA, ‘asthma’, gets sleepy during meals.GI: symptoms of GERD, ‘breath caught’, wet sound in throat, coughing/gaging between feedings/meals.Pharyngeal: avoiding solids, gagging on solids, oral defensiveness, and “behavioral issues” around eatingOral: prolonged eating at any stage, open mouth chewing, droolingfood preferences for smooth consistencies and crunchy food
6Poor Muscle Tone Poor Feeders Oral motor function is the very fine motor function of the oral mechanism (i.e., jaw, tongue, lips, cheeks) for purposes of eating drinking, speaking, and vegetative activities.Oral motor function requires the feedback of sensory processing to achieve the dissociation, grading, direction, timing, and coordination of mouth movement for eating, drinking, speaking, and other vegetative activities.Children with specific oral motor deficits will exhibit avoidance/ refusal of food texture types and may not adapt to different nipples/cups.
7Correlations & Complications: Premature birthCerebral PalsyDown Syndrome & other facial syn.Cleft palateGERDProlonged tube feedingSensory Integration DeficitsAll may lead to Failure to thrive
8Feeding Milestones Oral Motor Development: Nipple feeding - 36wks gestational ageSpoon feeding - introduced to 6 mos.Cup drinking - introduced by 8 - 9mos.Biting and chewing – development window 4 -8 mos. Is best time to introduceStraw drinking – about 18 mos.* Assuming normal gross & fine motor milestones met.
9Gastroesphageal Reflux Feeding difficulties due to GER
10Reflux vs. Spit upLower esophageal sphincter (LES) is less developed in infants.Relaxed or weak lower esophageal sphincter muscle can allow acidic contents of the stomach to reflux to the esophagus, oral and pharynx and oral cavity.Diagnosis of GERD is clinically inferred based onInterview of CaregiverAssociation of signs and symptoms of reflux eventsFrequent or prolonged duration of reflux eventsAbsence of alternative diagnosesCommon amongst infantsMild vomiting or regurgitation of milk, food and saliva; does not contain large amounts of foods and fluidsNot forcefulAbout 40% of infants spit up on regular basisUsually occurs after feeding or burpingTypically no further or acute distress occurs after “spitting up”Infant remains satiated until next feeding time
11GER Signs/ Symptoms may include: Heartburn Nausea Arching or stiffening of the body in response to swallowingFacial grimacing during swallowPain, irritability, constant/sudden crying after eatingFrequent coughs, hiccups; “wet burp”Frequent vomiting after eating; vomiting more than 1 hour after eating; recurrent regurgitation that persist after 1 year of agePoor weight gain/lossConstant eating or drinkingInability to tolerate certain foods; decreased acceptance or consumption of foods despite hungerCoughing, gagging, chokingFrequent sore throatsRespiratory issues (pneumonia, bronchitis, wheezing)Bad BreathDroolingFeeding therapy, planned programs, oral-motor techniques, and positioning changes will not be successful until GI symptoms/ issues are resolved
14Food AllergiesFoods that most commonly cause allergies Cow’s milk Fish. Shellfish Wheat Nuts, peanuts Soy3 most common reactionsIntestinalRespiratorySkin ReactionsCan occur immediately or up to 48 hours after eatingTypical allergic reaction manifests within 2 hoursFood allergy or reaction caused byFood poisoningEnzyme deficiencies (e.g. lactose intolerance)Flavonoids and preservatives, toxins, naturally occurring pharmacological substances
15Feeding/ Dietary Approaches If allergies or intolerance is suspectedFood diaryRecord of type, amount, timing and description of any symptoms that occur (consider keeping for a 2-4 week period)Elimination dietExclusion of suspected foods or restrictive dietMay not be nutritionally complete, should be donein conjunction with or planned with assistance of a registered dieticianSlowly reintroduce foods thereafterNutritional replacements for milk i.e., protein, calcium, riboflavin, Vitamin ALeafy greensOrange fruitsVegetablesMeatMeat alternatives (tofu, soy, legumes, poultry)
17Challenges Can permanently impair their long-term growth Often have a low percentile for weight and heightCan interfere with a child’s ability to learn properly and progress academicallyCan lead to hospitalizationsAffect the child’s socialization and self-esteem(Ernsperger & Stegen-Hansen, 2004)
18Some StatisticsNearly 80% of children with severe mental retardation have feeding difficulties and inadequate diets (William, Coe, & Synder, 1998)75% of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders experience atypical feeding patterns & have limited food preferences (Mayes and Calhoun, 1999)45% of typically developing children experience some level of eating problems during childhood (Bentovim, 1970)
19Picky Eaters vs. Resistant Eaters Picky eaters may have certain limitations or aversions to foods but they eventually eat enough of a variety of foods to maintain a balanced and healthy dietResistant eaters are on the extreme end of the continuum and have serious food aversions and/or medical impairments that prevent them from eating a balanced diet(Ernsperger & Stegen-Hansen, 2004)
20Characteristics of a Resistant Eater Limited food selection. Total of foods or less.Limited food groups. Refuses one or more food group.Anxiety and/or tantrums when presented with new foods. Gag or become ill when presented with new foods.Experiencing food jags. Require one or more foods be present at every meal prepared in the same manner.May be diagnosed with a developmental delay or MR.(Ernsperger & Stegen-Hansen, 2004)
21Food Neopobia Scale (FNS) Simple 10-item questionnaire developed by Pliner and Hobden (1992) that can be administered to determine if the child is a resistant eater.A score greater that 35 is considered high; and that child may benefit from a comprehensive tx programTypically developing two-to-four-year-olds experience food neophobia for short periods of time. By age five most children have decreased their fear of new foods and are willing to try new and novel foods.SEE HANDOUT!
22Resistant eaters and Developmental Disabilities There is a high correlation between problem eating and children with disabilities.Specific characteristics include:- Sensory Integration dysfunction- Immature respiration- Delayed oral-motor development- Limited communication skills- Rigid behaviors/routines
23Sensory Integration Dysfunction Proprioceptive difficulties include positioning and movement of the limbs and head, and motor planning. (ex: jaw opening, holding utensils, positioning in a chair, spilling cups etc…)Vestibular difficulties include balance and movement from the eyes, neck, and head. (ex: focusing on how they are moving, body position, fear of falling)Tactile Sensory difficulties can include hyposensitive or hypersensitive (ex: little or no reaction to pain, difficulty holding and using utensils, rub or bite their skin vs. prefer food to be the same temperature, avoid lumpy or mixed textured foods, dislike messy activities)(Ernsperger & Stegen-Hansen, 2004)
24Sensory Integration Dysfunction (con’t) Taste Sensory difficulties include how the taste buds of the tongue receive and interpret information (ex: difficulty transitioning from water to juice or accept milder dilute tastes)Olfactory Sensory difficulties include smell perception (ex: children with chronic congestion or open mouth posture may not interpret flavors effectively)Visual Sensory difficulties include when the brain is unable to link visual info with auditory, touch, and movement sensations or it inadequately processes the sensory messages (ex: cover one eye or squints, have difficulty shifting eye gaze from one object to the other etc..)Auditory Sensory difficulties include localizing the direction of sound and figure/ground discrimination , i.e. between a wide variety of environmental and speech sounds (ex: Overly stressed and anxious by loud noises, unable to follow multi-step verbal instructions, trouble attending to verbal instructions etc…)(Ernsperger & Stegen-Hansen, 2004)
26We work with:Inconsistent or poorer oromotor skills with regard delayed &/or atypical development, i.e. fewer readiness behaviors spoon feeding/ solids/cup drinking/ ineffective chewing/ open mouth posturesAny client who displays oral-motor difficulties as compared to their typically developing peers for feeding and speech:Reduced mobilityReduced agilityReduced precisionReduced endurance
27Aims of treatmentTo increase the Somatosensory awareness of the oral mechanismTo normalize oral tactile sensitivityTo improve feeding skills and nutritional intakeTo increase differentiation of oral movements thruDissociation: The separation of movement, based on stability and adequate strength, in one or more muscle groups.Grading: The controlled segmentation of movement through the mid range of any particular ROM.And by decreasing “Fixing”: An abnormal posture used to compensate for reduced stability which inhibits mobility.To improve the precision of volitional movements of oral structures for speech production
28Who to refer?Low birth wts. with slow gain. – children below 10th percentile.Babies/kids not gaining well and taking more than 30 minutes to complete an age appropriate feeding.Resistant/ picky eaters.Clumsy, poorly ‘coordinated kids, especially with:Any droolers, open mouth posture kids (if not mouth breathing b/c of huge tonsils)Children not babbling by 9 mos. and 15mo. olds with no true words.Children whose parents do not understand most of what they say in context.Children who ‘undertsand’everything said to them, but have no or few true words.
29References:Ernspereger, L., & Stegen-Hanson, T. (2004). Just Take a Bite. Easy, Effective Answers to Food Aversions and Eating Challenges.Mayes & Calhoun, (1999). Symptoms of Autism in Young Children and Correspondence with the DSM. Infants and Young Children., v. 12.Pliner and Hobden (1992). Development of a Scale to Measure the Trait of Food Neophobia in Humans, Appetite, v. 19.Williams, K., Coe, D., & Snyder, A. (1998). Use of Texture fading in the Treatment of Food Selectivity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, v. 31Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Clinical Practice Guidelines: Joint Recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN)Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 49: European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepalogy, and Nutrition