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Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment Update Monica K. Crane, MD Associate Director Cole Neuroscience Center, Senior Assessment Clinic Clinical Assistant Professor,

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Presentation on theme: "Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment Update Monica K. Crane, MD Associate Director Cole Neuroscience Center, Senior Assessment Clinic Clinical Assistant Professor,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment Update Monica K. Crane, MD Associate Director Cole Neuroscience Center, Senior Assessment Clinic Clinical Assistant Professor, Dept. of Medicine AlzTN meeting version 11/20/2011

2 Non-pharmacologic treatment

3 Good physical health = Great aging brain  Regular physical exercise  Positive emotions  Positive relationships  Limiting chronic stress “Memory and the Aging Brain.” Steven W. Anderson, PhD Thomas J. Grabowski, Jr. MD The University of Iowa. June 2003 Nonpharmacologic treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

4 Exercise prevents the chronic stress-adaptation failure in AD Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans Pereira AC, et al. An in vivo correlate of exercise-induces neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. PNAS. 2007; 104:5638- 5643 Lautenschlager NT et al. Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. JAMA, 2008;300:1077-1079. Colcombe SJ et al. Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. J Gerontol A Bio Sci Med SCi 2006;61:1166-1170. Kramer AF et al. Exercise, cognition and the aging brain. J Appl Physiol 2006;101:1237-1242.

5 How do health problems affect my brain? But

6 AD risk factors Fixed Risk Factors Age Family history Genetics Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Modifiable Risk Factors Lack of exercise Smoking High blood pressure and heart disease High cholesterol Poorly controlled diabetes Low education

7 FDA-approved Medications for Alzheimer’s Disease

8 Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) Donepezil, Rivastigmine, Galatamine ChEIs prevents the enzyme destruction of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach) –Acetylcholine declines in AD; loss of cholinergic input to the cortex from the basal forebrain. –Donepezil: selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor –Rivastigimine & Galatamine: Inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase & butyrylcholinesterase. Whitehouse PJ, Price DL, Struble RG, Clark AW, Coyle JT, Delon MR. Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia: loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. Science 1982;215:1237-1239. (Zarate et al 2007; Muhonen et al 2008, Dodel et al 2008; Maeng et al 2007; Ferguson et al 2007)

9 –Acetylcholine declines in AD; loss of cholinergic input to the cortex from the basal forebrain.

10 Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) Galatamine: (ER capsule), 8mg x 4 wks, 16mg x 4 wks, then 24mg thereafter. Take w food. Also as BID dose. Rivastigmine: Also FDA approved for dementia in Parkinson’s disease/ Lewy Body Disease. (Capsule) 1.5mg BID x 2 wks, 3.0mg BID x 2 wks, 4.5 mg BID x 2 weeks, then 6.0 mg BID thereafter. Take with food. (Transdermal patch): 4.6 mg q 24hrs (5 cm2 size =9 mg), then increase to 9.5mg/24 hrs after 4 weeks (10 cm2 size=18 mg). Donepezil: 5 mg daily x 4-6 weeks then increase to 10mg; may increase to 23mg after 12 weeks. FDA has been petitioned to rescind 23mg formulation. (Zarate et al 2007; Muhonen et al 2008, Dodel et al 2008; Maeng et al 2007; Ferguson et al 2007, Valeo. Neurology today 2011)

11 Memantine (Noncompetitive glutamate N- methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor blocker) –FDA approved for moderate-severe AD. –Blocks the NMDA receptor calcium channels, inhibiting the sustained, low-level influx of excitatory calcium (Ca 2+ ) ions into postsynaptic glutamatergic neurons. –May have a neuroprotective effect by preventing the negative consequences of persistent activation of the neuron. –Dose 5mg/day wk1, 5mg BID wk2, 5mg qam and 10mg qpm wk 3, 10mg bid thereafter. ER available. Source: Atri A, et al. Long-term Course and Effectiveness of Combination Therapy in Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008;22:209-221.

12  NIH-sponsored analysis of 382 patients over the course of 15 years  Study supports combination therapy:  Memantine + Cholinesterase inhibitors Combination Therapy: Memantine + Cholinesterase inhibitors NIH = National Institutes of Health. Source: Atri A, et al. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2008;22:209-221.

13 Investigational drugs and vitamin therapies

14 NEGATIVE THERAPIES DRUGMECHANISM OF ACTION AN1792 VaccineAbeta immunotherapy Tramiprosate alzhemed - homotaurineAbeta aggregation inhibitor Latrepiridine (Dimebon)Mitochondrial stabilizer – originally anti- histamine Tarenflurbil (Flurizan)Gamma-secretase modulator SemagacestatGamma-secretase inhibitor SimvastatinPossible membrane lipid modifier Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)Possible membrane lipid modifier or antioxidant B12, B6, Folic Acid, Vitamin E, Omega-3 fatty acids, Ginko Biloba Multiple theories, negative longitunidal studies

15 Statins: HMG CoA reductase inhibitors

16 Statin therapy Evidence shows elective statin use may reduce AD progression –Hyperlipidemia promotes Aβ production and deposition in animal models of AD and cholesterol reduction reduce Aβ deposition. Large clinical trials show no efficacy in delaying progression but NO increased AD risk. Feb 2012: FDA warned that statins could cause “fuzzy” thinking or reversible memory loss. The evidence: USE statins for patients with heart or cerebrovascular disease (regardless of AD status) Sano M et al. A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial of simvastation to treat AD. Neurology 2011;77:556-563. Siegel GJ et al. Statin therapy is associated with reduced neuropathologic changes of AD. Neurology 2008;71:383 Amarenco P, Labreuche J.Lipid management in the prevention of stroke: review and updated meta-analysis of statins for stroke prevention.Lancet Neurology 2009;8:453 – 463.

17 Supplements vs. food

18 Vitamins  versus diet/ lifestyle  Diet rich in antioxidants and vitamins beneficial but NOT pills/ supplements! Vitamin E  –No difference between placebo High doses increase stroke risk Increased relative risk of prostate cancer in men Homocysteine lowering therapy (B-vitamins)  Folic Acid B6, B12 – no benefit with supplements –The vitamins lower the homocysteine level but little else. –B12 and folic acid supplementation did not have any statistically significant effect Miller ER 3 rd et al. Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:37-46. Ford et al. Vitamins B 12, B 6, and folic acid for cognition in older men Neurology 2010;75 :1540-1547.

19 Vitamins  versus diet/ lifestyle  DHA  - Docosahexaenoic acid is an omega3 polyunsturated fatty acid found in fish. –component of synaptic plasma membranes –I n animals models, DHA may affect the rate of signal transduction, be neuroprotective. –NEGATIVE RCTs: no effect with supplementation. Ginko biloba  –Marketed as a supplement that prevents or delays cognitive decline –LARGE Randomized controlled trials were negative –A numerically greater number of subjects treated with ginko developed dementia as compared to placebo Quinn JF et al. JAMA 2010;304:1903-1911. DeKosky ST et al. JAMA. 2008;300:2253-2262. Snitz BE et al. JAMA. 2009;302:2663-2670.

20 Anti-inflammatory agents Observational study showed daily ibuprofen use (>5 YEARS) suppressed amyloid beta 1-42 production, decreased the risk of AD by 25-40%. –However, there was an increase risk of serious adverse events (GI bleeding, other bleeding events). –Animal experience indicated that NSAIDs reduce brain inflammatory markers such as activated microglia and may reduce brain deposits of Aβ No significant benefit found with prednisone, diclofenac, rofecoxib, nimesulide or naproxen. COX-2 inhibitors and nonacetylated agents not effective. Lim GP et al. Ibuprofen suppresses plaque pathology and inflammation in a mouse model for AD. J Neurosci 200;20:5709-5714. Salloway S, Mintzer J, Weiner MF, Cummings JL. Disease-modifying therapies in Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Dementia. 2008;4:65-79. Vlad SC, Miller DR, Kowall NW, Felson DT. Protective effects of NSAIDs on the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 2008;70:1672-1677.

21 Insulin Resistance and AD Risk factor for AD: Type II diabetes –Impaired insulin signaling in AD, contributing to the neurodegenerative process. Exendin-4 (or Exenatide) – Phase II trials: testing the effects of novel enzyme- resistant analogues of the insulin-releasing incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Intranasal Insulin –Delayed memory was improved in the MCI group receiving 20 IU of insulin (P <.05). Among insulin- treated participants, no improvement in biomarkers. Craft S, Baker LD, Montine TJ, et al Arch Neurol. 2011;Sept 12.

22 Caffeine may decrease level of beta-amyloid in AD transgenic mice AD mice received the equivalent of 5 cups coffee/day for 2 months End result: caffeinated AD mice performed as well as normal mice Caffeinated mice brains showed ~50% reduction in beta amyloid Researchers suggested that caffeine suppresses inflammatory changes in the brain that lead to an overabundance of beta amyloid. Caffeine Reverses Cognitive Impairment and Decreases Brain Amyloid-β Levels in Aged Alzheimer's Disease Mice; Gary W Arendash, Takashi Mori, Chuanhai Cao, Malgorzata Mamcarz, Melissa Runfeldt, Alexander Dickson, Kavon Rezai-Zadeh, Jun Tan, Bruce A Citron, Xiaoyang Lin, Valentina Echeverria, and Huntington Potter; J Alzheimer's Disease, 2009:17:3. 2. Caffeine Suppresses Amyloid-β Levels in Plasma and Brain of Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice; Chuanhai Cao, John R Cirrito, Xiaoyang Lin, Lilly Wang, Deborah K Verges, Alexander Dickson, Malgorzata Mamcarz, Chi Zhang, Takashi Mori, Gary W Arendash, David M Holzman, and Huntington Potter; J Alzheimer's Disease 2009; 17:3.


24 The Cole Neuroscience Clinic mantra is… …what's good for your BRAIN is good for your heart.

25 Resources Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral Center 800-438-4380 Government Web site Alzheimer’s Tennessee

26 Intranasal insulin Insulin dysregulation contributes to AD pathophysiology Conclusion of study: Insulin resistance BAD for the brain (ie Diabetes is bad for the brain) while normal insulin activity is good. Small RCT evaluates the effects of intranasal insulin therapy on cognition, function, cerebral glucose metabolism and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or AD. 3 groups: 36 receiving 20 IU, 38 receiving 40 IU, and 30 with placebo only, for 4 months. Compared with placebo, ubjects receiving 20 IU of insulin daily showed improved delayed story recall, however no improvement was observed for participants receiving 40 IU of insulin. Also, compared with the placebo group, DSRS scores were preserved for both insulin treatment groups. Both insulin doses also appeared to preserve general cognition (ADAS-cog) as well as function(ADCS-ADL). The authors also found that participants with AD patients had preserved function as compared with placebo. Conversely, participants with aMCI showed no change regardless of treatment assignment. Stabilized or improved cognition, function and cerebral glucose metabolism for adults with aMCI or AD, Studies in progress

27 Nicotine and AD Positive Evidence that 6 months of transdermal nicotine (15 mg/day) improves cognitive test performance, but not clinical global impression of change in nonsmoking amnestic MCI pts. Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment: A 6- month double-blind pilot clinical trial Neurology January 10, 2012 78:91-101 Negative Associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease Association of environmental tobacco smoke with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease among never smokers. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, Dec 2011. Nicotine may also increase the effect of altered tau proteins, causing brain tangles to develop sooner LaFerla, FM, Bennett DA, Borwell, RC, Steven H. Ferris, SH Feb. 7-11, 2005, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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