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1 FROM GREEK CHORUS TO ODYSSEUS THE ROLE OF THE LIBRARY COMMUNITY IN CHANGING SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION ACRL/NY Symposium Baruch College 3 December 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "1 FROM GREEK CHORUS TO ODYSSEUS THE ROLE OF THE LIBRARY COMMUNITY IN CHANGING SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION ACRL/NY Symposium Baruch College 3 December 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 FROM GREEK CHORUS TO ODYSSEUS THE ROLE OF THE LIBRARY COMMUNITY IN CHANGING SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION ACRL/NY Symposium Baruch College 3 December 2004

2 2 GREEK CHORUS A company of actors who comment by speaking or singing in unison on the action of a classical play. Laughter on American television has taken the place of the chorus in Greek tragedy…In other countries, the business of laughing is left to the viewers. Here, their laughter is put on the screen, integrated into the show. It is the screen that is laughing and having a good time. - Jean Baudrillard (1986)

3 3 SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION KEY ISSUES Imbalance in information price relative to value and source costs. Time lag between authorship, peer review, publication, and dissemination. Imbalance in information authorship, ownership, and proprietary rights. Unrecognized as public policy issue.

4 4 INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Journal cancellations/reduced acquisitions Improved document delivery service models Cooperative collection development Site licensing for electronic information resources Consortial licensing by groups of institutions

5 5 Lessig Constraints On Open Access To Information Market Law Norms Technology INFORMATION

6 6 SCHOLARLY ACTIVITY Creation of knowledge and evaluation of its validity Preservation of information Transmission of information to others Technologies Economics Institutions

7 7 THE URGE TO PUBLISH Communication Academic Culture Preservation of Ideas Prestige and Recognition Profit

8 8 SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION CONCERNS Choking on the Proliferation Location of Quality Marking Corporate Economy Overtakes Guild Economy Dysfunctional Market Intellectual Property Ownership Darwinian/Capitalistic/Socialist Solutions New Models of Digital Scholarship

9 9 Roots Of Dysfunction Scholarship Commerce Goal wide distribution maximize shareholder of work value Strategy publish control information access and price Reward reputation, tenure increased financial promotion, compensation return

10 10 THE JOURNEY OF ODYSSEUS FROM TROY TO ITHACA THE JOURNEY OF THE LIBRARY COMMUNITY FROM MARKET COMPETITION TO OPEN ACCESS

11 11 SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING AND ACADEMIC RESOURCES COALITION SPARC

12 12 SPARC MESSAGES Barrier-Free Access to Research Risks of Industry Consolidation Protect/Expand Author Rights Community Control of Scholarly Communication Incubation of Alternative Channels Hope/Power/Action through Collaboration

13 13 SPARC PROGRAMS  Publishing Partnerships  Create Change  Leading Edge  Scientific Communities  Declaring Independence  Gaining Independence  Consulting Group/ Legal Services  Institutional Repository  Open Access  Next Step

14 14 ARL OPEN ACCESS AGENDA Open Access: works created with no expectation of financial remuneration and made available at no cost to reader on the public Internet for purposes of education and research. Readers of open access works could read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link for any lawful purpose, without financial, legal or technical barriers. Open Archives Initiative Keystone and Tempe Principles Public Library of Science

15 15 ARL OPEN ACCESS AGENDA Society benefits from the open exchange of ideas. Limitations on access to copyrighted materials negatively impact the creation, dissemination and use of intellectual property. Copyright exists for the public good. Federal investment in R&D is leveraged by access to research results.

16 16 OPEN ACCESS MODELS Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities Budapest Open Access Initiative Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing free, irrevocable, worldwide right of access license to distribute, transmit, display, make derivative works, make printed copies with attribution online repository for distribution, interoperability and long-term archiving quality assurance and recognition in evaluation

17 17 WHAT IS OPEN ACCESS? Immediate free availability on the public Internet Research literature that scholars produce without expectation of payment An access model not a business model Open archives can exist alongside traditional publishing Open-access journals require alternative business models to replace subscription-based models

18 18 FLAVORS OF OPEN ACCESS Open access – immediate free availability on the public Internet Discretionary open access – open access at author discretion, typically for payment of a fee Embargoed open access – gated access within embargo period (varying from a few months to two years), with no-fee access after embargo period lapses Reverse embargo – no-fee access for first one to six months after publication, with gated access thereafter

19 19 NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH PROPOSAL NIH grantees requested to deposit final accepted manuscripts (author’s word processing file after all modifications due to peer review) in PubMed Central Freely available to public 6-months after publication PMC will replace with published version if publisher agrees Shared with other international repositories to maximize archiving

20 20 WHAT COMES AFTER NIH? International movement in biomedicine spurred by NIH leadership Other US agencies? Institutional repositories Journal publishing business model experiments Deconstructing the journal  Registration – Establishing intellectual ownership  Certification – Certifying quality/validity.  Awareness – Assuring accessibility.  Archiving – Preserving for future use.

21 21 REPOSITORY MOVEMENT  Discipline Repositories  Institutional Repositories  Consortium Repositories  Departmental/School Repositories  Individual Repositories  Referatories/Virtual Repositories

22 22 CRISIS IN SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION World production of published materials continues to increase Cost of research publications continues to inflate at unprecedented rates Acquisitions budgets have not kept pace with inflation, particularly for journals More expensive commercial publishers taking over from academic/society publishers Declining percentage of acquisitions funds invested in new monographs Electronic production, storage and distribution of research information of growing importance

23 23 MONOGRAPH PUBLISHING TRENDS Decline in Monograph Purchasing by Libraries Ascendancy of Bookstore Chains and Online Book Sales Declines in Specialized Monograph Publishing Economic Pressures on University Presses/Small Academic Publishers Impact on Research in Humanities and Social Sciences Impact on Promotion/Tenure in Some Fields Experimentation with Electronic Monographs

24 24 ELECTRONIC BOOKS RANDOM FUTURE ISSUES Purchase vs. Lease Free vs. Sold Self-Published vs. Commercially Published Retrospective Works vs. New Works Text vs. Multimedia Proprietary vs. Open Formats/Readers

25 25 ELECTRONIC BOOKS RANDOM FUTURE ISSUES Offline vs. Online Access Offline vs. Online Use Individual Works vs. Searchable Database Print vs. Non-Print Consultation vs. Circulation Archived vs. Fluid Content

26 26 PUBLISHING INDUSTRY CONSOLIDATION AND MERGERS SOME BASIC FACTS History of Merger Activity Motivations for Mergers and Company Acquisitions Guild Economy to Corporate Economy Impact of Academic Publishing Marketplace Impact of Size on Pricing International Context of Publishing Industry Antitrust Legal Context

27 27 INDUSTRY CONSOLIDATION THREATENS ACCESS TO RESEARCH THE MESSAGE OF THE INFORMATION ACCESS ALLIANCE Access to a broad spectrum of research improves people’s lives. Publisher mergers are a threat to innovation because they reduce access. Publisher mergers cause consumers to pay higher prices without increased quality. The criteria used by the Department of Justice to analyze publisher mergers must change in order to preserve access to important research.

28 28 KEY COPYRIGHT DEVELOPMENTS International Agreements Laws and Legislation Court Cases Licensing Arrangements Use Guidelines Technological Controls/Digital Rights Management Ownership of Copyright

29 29 ROLE OF LIBRARIANS Knowledgable Resources for Community Promoters of Open Strategies Political and Legislative Advocates for Community Interests Educators of Community on Developments and Issues Users of Economic Clout to Influence Market

30 30 HAVE WE MADE A DIFFERENCE? Have publication prices gone down? Why? Are research results circulating more quickly? How? Are institutions or individuals asserting some control over their intellectual property? Has academic publisher consolidation been reduced? Have SPARC publishing partnerships been more additive than competitive? Are researchers/academic administrators talking more about scholarly publishing issues?

31 31 HAVE WE MADE A DIFFERENCE? Is open access truly an alternative to publisher-based scholarly publishing? In the absence of a coordinated plan for archiving of digital publications, will open access models survive? Can peer-review and open access models come together? Are editorial boards willing and able to break away from commercial publishers? Will scholarly communication be embraced as an important public policy issue? Will fair use survive the legislative battles?

32 32 HIGHER EDUCATION CORE INTERESTS Competitive Market Easy Distribution and Reuse Innovation Applications of Technology Quality Assurance Permanent Archiving

33 33 FUTURE OF PUBLISHING RESEARCH COMMUNITY STRATEGIES Market Conforming Market Distorting System Transforming System Busting

34 34 SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING 2020 Chaos Breeds Life Information Anarchy Information Fascism Information Utopia Information Theology

35 35 ODYSSEUS FROM TROY TO ITHACA Land of the Lotus-Eaters Cave of the Cyclops Winds of AEolus Magic of Circes Songs of the Sirens Heads of Scylla Whirlpool of Charybdis Allures of Calypso


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