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Chapter 14 The Gathering Tempest, 1853-1860 Web. The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois Land west of the Missouri to.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 The Gathering Tempest, 1853-1860 Web. The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois Land west of the Missouri to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 The Gathering Tempest, Web

2 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois Land west of the Missouri to be organized into two territories Kansas west of Missouri; Nebraska west of Iowa and Minnesota Territorial legislatures would decide on slavery Missouri Compromise explicitly repealed Caused firestorm of opposition in North

3 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 (cont.) Many opposed any expansion of slavery into the territories One vocal opponent was Abraham Lincoln of Illinois Completed destruction of Whigs as national party Damage began with divisive election of All northern Whigs voted against Kansas-Nebraska bill Party completely lost its southern support Emergence of new Republican Party Hodgepodge of former Whigs, Free-Soilers, antislavery Democrats

4 Immigration after 1840s Significant increase in immigration after million in decade after 1845 Most Roman Catholics Political power of immigrants also increased Coalesced around issues of temperance and schools Emergence of the American Party (Know-Nothings)

5 Immigration after 1840s Immigration after 1840s (cont.) Supported multifaceted anti-immigrant/nativist agenda Appealed to northern Whigs who had not already become Republicans Scored big gains in elections in 1854 Redirected by Republicans in 1855 toward cause ofd antislavery Split along sectional lines over slavery after Decreasing immigration meant decline in nativism

6 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Immigration to the United States

7 Bleeding Kansas Struggle for control of Kansas became intense after 1854 Missourians crossed border to vote illegally for slave government Majority favored free-soil and opposed slavery Kansas thereafter became the leading issue in national politics Two competing legislatures by 1856 Dispute led to caning of Senator Charles Sumner in May 1856 All out violence broke out in spring of 1856 John Brown’s raid on Pottawatomie Virtual civil war in Kansas territory

8 Election of 1856 Republicans first truly sectional party in American history Anti-slavery and old Whig support for internal improvements Ran John C. Frémont Democrats endorsed popular sovereignty Nominated James Buchanan American Party nominated ex-Whig Millard Fillmore Buchanan elected Allowed South to go on offensive over slavery

9 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Counties Carried by Candidates in the 1856 Presidential Election

10 Dred Scott Case, 1857 Involved question of whether residence in an anti- slave territory made a slave free Supreme Court heard case Majority of justices from south Declared Missouri Compromise ban oin slavery in the Territories unconstitutional Hinged on defense/protection of private property Created intense partisan feelings throughout country Intensified, rather than settled, slave controversy

11 Lecompton Constitution in Kansas, 1857 Effort to legitimize pro-slavery government and prepare Kansas for entry into Union as a slave state Maneuvering to keep anti-slave settlers from voting in order to guarantee acceptance of a constitution that included slavery Buchanan administration recognized pro-slavery constitution and recommended statehood for Kansas Generated controversy in Congress, which eventually defeated statehood measure Issue split Democratic Party and discredited Stephen Douglas with party Almost guaranteed election of a Republican president in 1860

12 The U.S.Economy in the 1850s North becoming industrial More than a decade of unprecedented growth after 1845 Role of slavery in creating distinct “North” and “South” U.S,. Second-leading industrial producer in the worlds by later 1850s U.S. pioneered in mass production of interchangeable parts Helped by high level of U.S. education South relied increasingly on slavery Region had what some called “colonial” economy “King Cotton” defined region’s economy Defended slave system as better than the free market Writings of George Fitzhugh

13 Panic of 1857 Both Domestic and International causes Massive unemployment and widespread hardship Prosperity had returned by 1858 Economic crisis intensified sectional hostility South fared better than rest of country North blamed South for blocking tariffs that could have protected northern industry Even simple issues thereafter became occasions for sectional dispute Homestead proposal to grant land to those who worked it Transcontinental railroads Construction of agricultural and mechanical colleges

14 Northern Ideology of Free Labor All work in a free society was honorable Slavery degraded manual labor by equating it with bondage Central component was social mobility Incompatible with slavery Became key feature of Republican Party’s platform Buttressed by8 Hinton Rowan Helper’s The Impending Crisis of the South (1857) Called on non-slaveholding whites to overthrow the slave system Virtually banned in the South Huge impact in North Republican Party even used as campaign propaganda

15 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Over election to U.S. Senate from Illinois in 1858 Lincoln argument that nation could not remain forever half-slave and half-free Douglas professed no interest in slavery per se and defended its existence in the South Lincoln elevated to national prominence Douglas won senate seat but lost favor in South because he failed to vigorously defend the expansion of slavery into the territories

16 John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry, 1858 Attempt to seize federal arsenal and foment a slave uprising Raid subdued quickly Generated fears of slave insurrection in South Northerners saw Brown as martyr to anti-slavery cause Helped to contribute to unraveling of Union Web


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