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Chapter 2 The Challenge to Spain and the Settlement of North America Web.

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1 Chapter 2 The Challenge to Spain and the Settlement of North America Web

2 Protestant Reformation Affected European Exploration Context Calvinist ideas posed challenge to Catholicism French Huguenot movement, Dutch Reformed Church, and Presbyterian church of Scotland all embraced Calvinist principles Gave rise to Puritanism in England France, the Netherlands, and England, all powerful Protestant countries, challenged Spanish power in Europe – and abroad

3 French Exploration Giovanni da Verrazano explored Atlantic coast from Carolinas to Nova Scotia in 1534 Jacques Cartier explored St.;Lawrence Valley between 1534 and 1543Samuel de Champlain led eleven voyages to Canada by 1645 Established colony at Acadia (Nova Scotia) Founded Quebec in 1608 Sought friendly relations with Native Americans

4 Early New France Catholicism declared only acceptable religion in 1625 Important role of Jesuit Missionaries Totally opposed to presence of Protestants in colony Believed the Indians could retain their traditions while still accepting Catholicism Concentrated attention on five confederated Huron nations Mastered Indian languages and cultures’ Only Europeans who measured up to Indian standards of bravery Lost ground after 1640s and especially after the crown assumed control of New Frances after 1663

5 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. New France and the Jesuit Missions

6 New France under Crown Control Tried to transform colony into model absolutist society Professional soldiers to provide defense Concerted measures to increase the colony’s population Population increased from 3,000 to about 14,000 between 1664 and 1700 Largest cities were Quebec, Three Rivers and Montreal

7 New France Under Crown Control New France Under Crown Control (cont.) Wheat farming took hold Fur trade also important Several hundred settled in the Mississippi valley in what became the Illinois country Imported slaves from Louisiana for wheat farming Frenchmen also settled in the Caribbean Founded sugar colonies on Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe, and Martinique Sugar Islands worth far more than Canada

8 Dutch Overseas Empire Became leaders in spread of personal liberties and religious toleration Political power was decentralized Local leaders favored free trade and resisted monarchical control Dutch East India Company chartered in 1602 Replaced Portuguese in Spice Islands

9 Dutch Overseas Empire Dutch Overseas Empire (cont.) Dutch West India Company chartered in 1621 Controlled African slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America New Netherland established in 1624 on present/day Manhattan Depended on goodwill of nearby Indians Traded furs from urban centers; dud not venture inland Established large estates (“patroonships”) North America’s first experiment in ethnic and religious toleration Population rose markedly after 1647

10 New Sweden Founded in 1638 at present-day Wilmington near the mouth of the Delaware River on land claimed by New Netherland Primarily Swedish and Lutheran in orientation Conflict with New Netherland Threatened by English expansion from Virginia and New England

11 Early English Exploration Interest in Exploration emerged slowly Role of English Reformation Rise of Puritans and Separatists and their role in overseas expansion Example of Ireland English formed their preconceptions about American Indians largely from contact with the Irish Sir Humphrey Gilbert efforts to subdue the Irish in the 1560s Use as springboard for colonizing America Claimed Newfoundland in 1583 Colonization efforts of Sir Walter Raleigh (or Raleigh) Roanoke Island founded in 1585 No sign of colony left in 1590

12 The Early Virginia Colony London Company launched expedition in 1607 Settled on James River and founded Jamestown Jamestown settlement No obvious source of wealth; colonists focused on sheer survival Settlers survived only because of friendly Indians Colony almost abandoned in 1610 Tide turned thereafter Role of Tobacco in colony’s early survival Economic diversification attempts failed Permitted to select own assembly, the house of Burgesses Conflict with Indians decimated colony in 1622 Crown assumed control of the colony in 1624, making Virginia a royal colony

13 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Virginia Company Charter, 1606

14 Royal Virginia Colony thrived between 1622 and the 1640s Indian wars almost continuous until 1632 Tobacco exports financed purchase of indentured servants Social mobility allowed former servants to purchase own land until prices dropped in 1660 Thereafter, richest 15 percent of population dominated society

15 Maryland Established in 1632 as haven for persecuted English and Irish Catholics Proprietary colony, as were most new colonies after Most settlers ended up being Protestant Toleration Act of 1649 granted freedom of religion to all Christians Bicameral legislature established Agricultural products included tobacco, corn and livestock

16 Family Life in the Chesapeake Population became self-sustaining around 1680 Life expectancy lower than in England Marriage practices differed from England Importance of extended family connections Weak patriarchal ties

17 The Rise of Slavery in America Arrived in Barbados on sugar plantations in the 1650s By 1700, slaves outnumbered Europeans there Conditions for slaves were terrible’ Sugar islands far more profitable than mainland colonies well into the eighteenth century First Africans arrived in Virginia before 1619 Initially were probably indentured servants Slave system firmly established in the Chesapeake after 1680 Established racial caste system throughout the colonies

18 Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Pilgrims founded Plymouth in 1620 Initially intended to settle in Virginia Blown off course and ended up well north of Virginia’s boundaries Mayflower Compact bound settlers to accept will of the majority Received extensive help from local Wampanoag Indians Puritans secured charter in 1629 to establish colony at an unspecified location

19 Plymouth and Massachusetts Plymouth and Massachusetts (cont.) Settlers arrived in waves thereafter and established numerous towns About 13,000 settlers arrived in New England by 1641, most as families Colony’s economic success came to rest on shipbuilding As colony prospered economically, its religious foundation eroded Environment was healthy and extended life expectancy for residents Families became intensely patriarchal Puritan religious life Vital force behind Puritanism was quest for conversion –Proof that one has been saved –Could take months or years to achieve

20 Religious Dissent and the Founding of New Colonies Connecticut founded as series of separate settlements beginning in the mid 1630s Founders feared Massachusetts was too strict in certifying church members Soon established the most severe requirements for church membership in New England Rhode Island established in 1636, also originally as series of separate settlements Original settlers supported religious toleration and the separation of church and state

21 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. New England in the 1640s

22 Religious and Government Institutions in New England Congregation became dominant religious institution at local level Abolished Anglicanism: established own forms Established own forms of government and control Town meetings decided local government matters Bicameral legislature by 1640s decided colonial wide issues Body of Liberties in 1541 laid out colonists’ rights Comprehensive law code in 1648 established legal system different in many ways from English system

23 Religious and Government Institutions in New England Religious and Government Institutions in New England (cont.) Half-Way Covenant emerged to deal with lack of conversions among colonists Allowed parents who had been baptized but who had not yet experienced conversion to have their children baptized Took hold after 1670s and 1680s

24 The First Restoration Colonies Carolina founded in 1663 Former servants from Maryland and Virginia founded North Carolina Former servants from Barbados established South Carolina Proprietors drafted Fundamental Constitutions in 1669 Sought to establish ideal Aristocratic society Rejected repeatedly by colonists between 1670 and 1700 Colonists established far more diversified economy than proprietors has anticipated The two Carolinas became separate colonies in the early eighteenth century

25 The First Restoration Colonies The First Restoration Colonies (cont.) South Carolina became leader in rice production –Triggered massive growth of slavery New York established in 1664 Took over land claimed by New Netherland Conflict between English and Dutch settlers Initially, little provision for self-government New Jersey became separate proprietary colony in 1665 Offered greater self-government than New York, which made it more attractive to English settlers Continued demands for self-government resulted in convening of legislatures in 1683 Adopted a Charter of Liberties that proclaimed government by consent

26 Quaker Colonial Settlement in America Quakers had experienced persecution at hands of other Christians in England Opposed slavery, disdained formal religious trappings Supported full equality of the sexes Settled in Delaware valley between 1675 and 1690 Jockeyed with other groups for domination of West and East New Jersey and Delaware Maintained friendly relations with Indian neighbors First Frame of Government (1682) laid out initial government plan Revised in Second Frame, or Pennsylvania Charter of Liberties in 1683 Became a haven for all religious Colony quickly became an economic success Web


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