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English accents 12. British and American English.

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1 English accents 12. British and American English

2 shared development until c thereafter: reciprocal influence, particularly since c (talkies, radio, TV, travel) spelling grammar vocabulary

3 NO r dropping farmer ˈfɑːrmər > ˈfɑːmə > ˈfɑːrmɚ

4 NO r dropping beer, square, north, nurse, persuade, farmer, standard bɪr, skwɛr, nɔrθ, nɝs, pɚˈsweɪd, ˈfɑrmɚ, ˈstændɚd

5 NO BATH broadening æ → ɑː / _ [-voi +fric] bæθ → bɑːθ Compare class-classic, pass-passage. bath vs. math(s), castle vs. tassel, pass vs. gas This change was resisted in the north of England as well as in north America. pass, glass, grass, staff, raft, laugh, bath, path, after, castle

6 pass the marmalade RP: ˈpɑːs ðə ˈmɑːməleɪd GA:ˈpæs ðə ˈmɑːrməleɪd scarf, staff, stand, command, alarmed GA: skɑrf, stæf, stænd, kəˈmænd, əˈlɑrmd

7 LOT unrounding a bottle of Scotch ə ˈbɒtl əv ˈskɒtʃ > ə ˈbɑ(ː)tl əv ˈskɑ(ː)tʃ

8 loss of distinctive length big[bɪ(ː)g] God[gɑ(ː)d] manner[ˈmæ(ː)nɚ] bother [ ˈbɑ(ː)ðɚ] father[ˈfɑ(ː)ðɚ] Hello, Dali!

9 stop and start RP: ˈstɒp ən ˈstɑːt GA:ˈstɑp ən ˈstɑrt

10 developments before /r/ beerbeer andbeard biːr biːr biːrd bɪr bɪr bɪrd RP bɪə GA bɪr RP bɪəd GA bɪrd NO centring diphthongs in GenAm

11 AmE developments before /r/ beer, beardchair, Marymore, forcesure, jury biːrtʃeːrmoːrʃuːr bɪrtʃɛrmɔrʃʊr > ʃɝ serious ˈsɪriəs nearer, mirror sharing ˈʃɛrɪŋ herring

12 AmE developments before /r/ in many varieties, æ (TRAP) and ɛ (DRESS, SQUARE) merge before /r/ merry Mary married hairy Harry ˈmɛri ˈmɛri ˈmɛrid ˈhɛri ˈhɛri


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