9Gradient Gradient is also known as the slope. Calculate gradient by dividing the difference in elevation between two points by the horizontal distance between the same points. An easy way to remember this is to think of dividing the "rise" by the "run" (or "rise over run").Measure elevation difference using the contour lines (high elevation-low elevation) and the horizontal distance using the map scale.Make sure that your measurements are in the same units, or convert them to the same units.
12Describe relief by... Height of land Slope of the land Using actual figures taken from contours or spot heights (high & low is meaningless without actual figures)Slope of the landFlat or sloping?What direction do the slopes face? (why significant?)Gentle or steep?Bare cliffs / vegetated?Presence of features? (dry valleys / valleys)
13The presence of absence & flow of water. Drainage...The presence of absence & flow of water.Describing drainage...Presence of riversDirection of flowDense network of rivers?Single of multi-channelled?Add names / distances / heights / directions to answers
14Underground drainage: Patterns of rivers: Springs / wellsPatterns of rivers:
18When producing a sketch... Draw in pencil / label in penDraw frame to scale (for map)Lightly add guidelinesAdd title / north arrow / scaleSketch in coastline (if applicable)Label / annotate information
19Rural / Urban Settlements... Functions of a settlement?
20Settlements Site Situation The actual location of a settlement. For example; Toulouse is at Latitude 43,38 ° N, Longitude 1,22 ° E, approximately 580 km south from Paris.SituationThe location of a settlement in relation to places (human and physical) surrounding it. For example; Toulouse is a city in southwest France on the banks of the Garonne River, half-way between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
21Location Factors Wet-Point Site Dry-Point Site Building Materials DefenceFuel SupplyFood SuppliesNodal PointBridging PointShelterAspect