Presentation on theme: "5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 1 Problem and Potential Analysis UPA Package 5, Module 4."— Presentation transcript:
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 1 Problem and Potential Analysis UPA Package 5, Module 4
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 2 Problem Analysis Problem Analysis uses a set of techniques to analyse an existing problematic situation in a systematic way identify major problems in this context define one important problem as the starter problem visualise the cause-effect-relationships in a diagram (Problem Tree).
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 3 Problem Tree Analysis Step 1: Identify the major problems existing within the given problem situation (brain-storming). Step 2: Select the starter problem and characterise it. Step 3: Identify causes of the starter problem. Step 4: Identify effects of the starter problem. Step 5: Design a diagram showing the cause-effect-relationship in form of a tree. Step 6: Review the diagram as a whole and verify its validity and completeness.
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 4 Rules (1) Word problems as negative conditions: Residential area Low income area One problem per card! Poor living en- vironment because of lack of waste collection Poor living environment Lack of waste collection
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 5 Rules (2) A negative problem is not the absence of a solution but an existing negative state: residential area is polluted by waste no waste collection provided Avoid general, meaningless formulations: povertybad infrastructure low income
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 6 Rules (3) Identify existing problems, not possible, imagined or future ones. Around 30 – 40 well formulated and arranged cards are enough. The position on the problem tree does not indicate the importance of a problem.
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 7 Cause-Effect-Relationship The causes and effects of a problem will be analysed by separation and connection. if then Cause Effect No provision of waste containers Waste is dumped anywhere
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 8 Problem Analysis Causes Effects 12345sum inadequate housing 1----0 polluted environment 2----0 bad technical infrastructure 3-XXX3 no sanitation facilities 4-X--1 no waste collection 5-X--1 sum03011 X direct relation - no relation Vertical: Has inadequate housing an effect on polluted environment? Horizontal: Is the polluted environment a cause for inadequate housing?
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 9 Linear Problem Sequence Poor housing Low income of households Insufficient access to job opportunities in the city Rural-urban migration Insufficient rural employment
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 10 Feed Back Problem Sequence People drink infected water. Germs are transferred to utensils Food and water by flies. Flies are attracted by excreta. Unhygienic toilets are used by infected people. People are infected by deseases.
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 11 Tree Sequence City Authority unable to cope with problems Bad image of the area Segregation Poor living environment Uncontrolled waste disposal No co-operation bet- ween city departments
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 12 Problem Tree The “problem tree” is a diagram showing the cause-effect- relationship of an existing problematic situation. Causes Starter problem Effects
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 13 Problem Tree Example Formation of urban low income areas Residents do not invest Bad image of area Uncontrolled waste management Insufficient supply of containers Insufficient knowledge of maintenance Lack of funds for adequate provision of containers No co-operation between responsible departments Effects Poor living environment Insufficient knowledge of use Inability of self-organisation Causes “Starter problem” Low income areas
5.4.2 Problem and Potential Analysis 14 Potential Analysis Potentials are assets or knowable characteristics of an area which can be utilised for development efforts. Basic potentials can be natural human institutional infrastructural Derived potentials can be gained by combining existing potentials.