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MIND CHANGE How Digital Technologies are leaving their Mark on our Brains.

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Presentation on theme: "MIND CHANGE How Digital Technologies are leaving their Mark on our Brains."— Presentation transcript:

1 MIND CHANGE How Digital Technologies are leaving their Mark on our Brains

2 (1) The Environment is Key

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4 Developing a Mind… Newborn 3 months 15 months 2 years

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6 Maguire, E.A., et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, (8): p Change in the Brains of Taxi Drivers

7 Correlation of volume change with time as a taxi driver. Maguire E A et al. PNAS 2000;97: ©2000 by National Academy of Sciences

8 TAXI-DRIVERS: A structural change in a key brain region in London taxi drivers that is related to navigation and working memory.TAXI-DRIVERS: A structural change in a key brain region in London taxi drivers that is related to navigation and working memory. MATHEMATICIANS: Time spent as a mathematician induces increased gray matter density in the parietal cortex of mathematicians.MATHEMATICIANS: Time spent as a mathematician induces increased gray matter density in the parietal cortex of mathematicians. GOLFERS: Changes can be seen in the golfer’s brain. Larger grey matter volumes in particular brain structures were found in the skilled golfers compared to the other two groups.GOLFERS: Changes can be seen in the golfer’s brain. Larger grey matter volumes in particular brain structures were found in the skilled golfers compared to the other two groups. BASKETBALL PLAYERS: Experience-dependent plasticity is detectable in the brains of basketball players.BASKETBALL PLAYERS: Experience-dependent plasticity is detectable in the brains of basketball players. MUSICIANS: Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians, related to learning and not a predisposition to music.MUSICIANS: Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians, related to learning and not a predisposition to music. Plasticity: Repeated Behaviours

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10 ‘Thinking is… Movement Confined to the Brain’

11 PIANO PLAYING: Over 5 days, as subjects learned the one-handed, five-finger exercise through daily 2-h manual practice sessions, the cortical motor areas targeting the digits enlarged, and their activation threshold decreased.... PIANO PLAYING: Over 5 days, as subjects learned the one-handed, five-finger exercise through daily 2-h manual practice sessions, the cortical motor areas targeting the digits enlarged, and their activation threshold decreased.... JUGGLING: Structural changes occurred within 7 days of beginning training. Learning of a new task is pivotal in changing the structure of the brain rather than ongoing practice of something already learned.JUGGLING: Structural changes occurred within 7 days of beginning training. Learning of a new task is pivotal in changing the structure of the brain rather than ongoing practice of something already learned. EXAM PREPARATION: Preparation for the German “Physikum” basic medical exam. Structural changes related to learning in the hippocampus, par hippocampal gray matter and posterior parietal cortex. EXAM PREPARATION: Preparation for the German “Physikum” basic medical exam. Structural changes related to learning in the hippocampus, par hippocampal gray matter and posterior parietal cortex. LEARNING A LANGUAGE: Learning a second language increases the density of grey matter. The changes observed are correlated with skill level. LEARNING A LANGUAGE: Learning a second language increases the density of grey matter. The changes observed are correlated with skill level. Plasticity: Effects of Training

12 Effects of an ‘Enriched’ Environment ‘Isolated’ ‘Enriched’

13 Connections Give Ever Deeper MEANING over Time…

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15 The Biological Basis of the Mind Is the Personalisation of the Brain Through Unique Dynamic Configurations Of Neuronal Connections, Driven by unique Experiences

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17 ‘From the moment we become aware of others, we demand to be told stories that allow us to make sense of the world, to inhabit the mind of someone else. In old age we tell stories to make small museums of memory. It matters not whether the stories are true or imaginary. The narrative, whether oral or written, is a staple of every culture the world over. But stories demand time and concentration; the narrative does not simply transmit information, but invites the reader or listener to witness the unfolding of events’. The narrative, whether oral or written, is a staple of every culture the world over. But stories demand time and concentration; the narrative does not simply transmit information, but invites the reader or listener to witness the unfolding of events’.. Ben Macintyre

18 (2) The 21st Century Environment is Unprecedented pdate/ /brits- spend-more-time-using- technology-than-sleeping/

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21 Total hours of media/technology truncated to 3 standard deviations above mean and all total hours above that number were changed to exactly 3 standard deviations above the mean. Daily Media Usage (standard deviation) for Children, Preteens and Teens Shown in Hours:Minutes Rosen et al., (2014) Media and technology use predicts ill-being among children, preteens and teenagers independent of the negative health impacts of exercise and eating habits, Computers in Human Behavior, 35, ,

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23 Freedom…

24 The Independent, 7th August 2014

25 Mind Change: The New Climate Change? Both global Both unprecedented Both controversial Both multi-faceted

26 (3) The Brain Will Be Changing Correspondingly in New Ways Yuan K, Qin W, Wang G, Zeng F, et al. (2011) Microstructure Abnormalities in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder.

27 The Environment of the Screen: Social Networking Sites

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29  Words: 10% of total impact  Eye contact  Body language  Voice(tone/rate/volume)  Pheromones ?  Physical contact ? Communications in Three Dimensions

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31 Reduced Empathy?

32 A link between atypical brain wave responses in problematic face recognition, characteristic of autism, and also of heavy internet users (He et al., 2011) A link between autistic spectrum disorders and an under-functioning prefrontal cortex, indicative of a more literal take on the world (Amodio & Frith 2006) A link between early screen experiences and later development of autism (Waldman et al., 2006) A link between autistic conditions and an appeal of screen technologies (Finkenauer et al., 2012). A link between autistic spectrum disorder and compulsive video game use (Mazurek & Engelhardt 2013) A Link Between Autistic Type Behaviour and the Screen?

33 History of Blogging… 1999: So I just have to tell someone about this thing my cat did today… 2004: OMG! Cat pictures! 2005: Moving cat pictures! 2007: 1:00pm. My cat just sneezed! 1:02pm. Cat sneezed again! 1:04pm. Cat hasn’t sneezed recently. Getting worried.

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35 Research Article Self-Presentation 2.0: Narcissism and Self-Esteem on Facebook Soraya Mehdizadeh, B.Sc. How to cite: Mehdizadeh S Self-Presentation 2.0: Narcissism and Self-Esteem on Facebook 13(4): doi: /cyber Research Article Self-Presentation 2.0: Narcissism and Self-Esteem on Facebook Soraya Mehdizadeh, B.Sc. How to cite: Mehdizadeh S Self-Presentation 2.0: Narcissism and Self-Esteem on Facebook 13(4): doi: /cyber

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38 The Environment of the Screen: Gaming

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40 Research Article Video game playing, attention problems, and impulsiveness: Evidence of bi-directional causality Douglas A. Gentile, Edward L. Swing, Choon Guan Lim, and Angeline Khoo How to cite: Gentile, D. A., Swing, E. L., Lim, C. G., & Khoo, A. (2012). Video game playing, attention problems, and impulsiveness: Evidence of bi- directional causality. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1, Research Article Video game playing, attention problems, and impulsiveness: Evidence of bi-directional causality Douglas A. Gentile, Edward L. Swing, Choon Guan Lim, and Angeline Khoo How to cite: Gentile, D. A., Swing, E. L., Lim, C. G., & Khoo, A. (2012). Video game playing, attention problems, and impulsiveness: Evidence of bi- directional causality. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1, Research Article Television and Video Game Exposure and the Development of Attention Problems Edward L. Swing, Douglas A. Gentile, Craig A. Anderson, David A. Walsh How to cite: Edward L. Swing, Douglas A. Gentile, Craig A. Anderson, David A. Walsh 2010, Television and Video Game Exposure and the Development of Attention Problems Pediatrics Vol. 126 No. 2 pp (doi: /peds ) Research Article Television and Video Game Exposure and the Development of Attention Problems Edward L. Swing, Douglas A. Gentile, Craig A. Anderson, David A. Walsh How to cite: Edward L. Swing, Douglas A. Gentile, Craig A. Anderson, David A. Walsh 2010, Television and Video Game Exposure and the Development of Attention Problems Pediatrics Vol. 126 No. 2 pp (doi: /peds ) Video Games and Attention

41 Why the Increase in Methylphenidate prescriptions?

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44 Kelly CR, Grinband J, Hirsch J (2007) PLoS ONE 2(12): e1268. doi: /journal.pone Repeated Exposure to Media Violence Is Associated with Diminished Response in an Inhibitory Frontolimbic Network.

45 136 Papers Desensitisation Increased arousal Aggressive cognition Aggressive behaviour 381 Independent Tests 130,296 Participants Research Article Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review. Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba How to cite: Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba,. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 136(2), Mar 2010, Research Article Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review. Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba How to cite: Anderson, Craig A.; Shibuya, Akiko; Ihori, Nobuko; Swing, Edward L.; Bushman, Brad J.; Sakamoto, Akira; Rothstein, Hannah R.; Saleem, Muniba,. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 136(2), Mar 2010,

46 THE NEURAL BASIS OF VIDEO GAMING Kuhn, S. et al., Translational Psychiatry (2011) 53, 1-5

47 Research Article Computer and Video Game Addiction- A Comparison between Game Users and Non-Game Users Aviv Malkiel Weinstein How to cite: Weinstein AM.Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. Computer and Video Game Addiction- A Comparison between Game Users and Non-Game Users 2010; 36(5): doi: / Research Article Computer and Video Game Addiction- A Comparison between Game Users and Non-Game Users Aviv Malkiel Weinstein How to cite: Weinstein AM.Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. Computer and Video Game Addiction- A Comparison between Game Users and Non-Game Users 2010; 36(5): doi: /

48 Arousal Addiction RewardReward

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51 ‘Meaningless’ Prefrontal under-function ? Strong feelings Sensory Here-and-now External environment dominates Little ‘meaning’ Reduced sense of self No time-space Infants and children More ‘Meaningful’ Prefrontal activation? Thinking dominates Cognitive Past / present / future Internal perceptions dominate Personalised ‘meaning’ Strong sense of self Clear time-space reference Older children and adults Less Two Basic Modes for the Human Brain

52 Having a sensational time… Letting yourself go…

53 Research Article Inverse Association Between BMI and Prefrontal Metabolic Activity In Healthy Adults Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Alia-Klein N, Logan J, Wong C, Thanos PK, Ma Y, Pradhan K. How to cite: Obesity (2009) Inverse Association Between BMI and Prefrontal Metabolic Activity In Healthy Adults. (1):60-5. doi: /oby Epub 2008 Oct 23. Research Article Inverse Association Between BMI and Prefrontal Metabolic Activity In Healthy Adults Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Telang F, Fowler JS, Goldstein RZ, Alia-Klein N, Logan J, Wong C, Thanos PK, Ma Y, Pradhan K. How to cite: Obesity (2009) Inverse Association Between BMI and Prefrontal Metabolic Activity In Healthy Adults. (1):60-5. doi: /oby Epub 2008 Oct 23.

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55 Research Article Decision-Making in Obesity: A Study using the Gambling Pignatti R, Bertella L, Albani G, Mauro A, Molinari E, Semenza C. How to cite: Eat Weight Disord. (2006) Decision-Making in Obesity: A Study using the Gambling 11(3): Research Article Decision-Making in Obesity: A Study using the Gambling Pignatti R, Bertella L, Albani G, Mauro A, Molinari E, Semenza C. How to cite: Eat Weight Disord. (2006) Decision-Making in Obesity: A Study using the Gambling 11(3):126-32

56 WithoutSchizophreniaWithSchizophrenia

57 Childhood and Schizophrenia Similarities Easily distracted Short attention span Inability to interpret proverbs Under-functioning Prefrontal Cortex

58 A Common Factor: The Press of the Senses?

59 Implications for 21 st Century Risk-Management?

60 ‘Meaningless’ Prefrontal under-function ? Strong feelings Sensory Here-and-now External environment dominates Little ‘meaning’ Reduced sense of self No time-space Infants and children More ‘Meaningful’ Prefrontal activation? Thinking dominates Cognitive Past / present / future Internal perceptions dominate Personalised ‘meaning’ Strong sense of self Clear time-space reference Older children and adults Less Two Basic Modes for the Human Brain

61 A CONTINUOUS CYCLE? (2) High arousal, high levels of dopamine release (6) Conditions of childhood, schizophrenia, obesity (5) Dopamine causes PFC hypo-function (4) Dopamine released (3) Reward seeking addictive behaviour (7) Drive: sensation over cognition (8) Greater appeal of a screen environment? (1) Intense stimulation of screen: fast response

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63 The Environment of the Screen: Search Engines

64 What is Honour?

65 Princess Marya…

66 ERIC SCHMIDT (CHAIRMAN, GOOGLE) ‘I worry that the level of interrupt, the sort of overwhelming rapidity of information…is in fact affecting cognition. It is affecting deeper thinking. I still believe that sitting down and reading a book is the best way to really learn something. And I worry that we’re losing that…’

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69 High IQ Efficient information processing Short attention span Icons not ideas Sensation at premium Risk taker Low empathy Need for constant feedback Weak sense identity Low-grade aggression The Mindset of the 21 st Century?

70 (4) Realising the Full Potential of the Human Mind in the Digital Age the Human Mind in the Digital Age

71 “Even so, mankind will suffer badly from the disease of boredom, a disease spreading more widely each year and growing in intensity. This will have serious mental, emotional and sociological consequences, and I dare say that psychiatry will be far and away the most important medical specialty in The lucky few who can be involved in creative work of any sort will be the true elite of mankind, for they alone will do more than serve a machine.” Isaac Asimov, 1964

72 From INFORMATION to NEW IDEAS 1)Isolated Fact 2)Relate to other facts = 3)Significance 4)Place facts in wider, conceptual framework = 5)Understanding

73 What is ‘Understanding?

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75 From INFORMATION to NEW IDEAS 1)Isolated Fact 2)Relate to other facts = 3)Significance 4)Place facts in wider, conceptual framework = 5)Understanding 6)Make unprecedented connections = 7) New significance and understanding = 8)New ideas!

76 Science Screen Technology Reading List

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