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Www.engageNY.org 1 Common Core Standards and the Six Shifts in ELA Presentation for Faculty Meetings in January.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.engageNY.org 1 Common Core Standards and the Six Shifts in ELA Presentation for Faculty Meetings in January."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Common Core Standards and the Six Shifts in ELA Presentation for Faculty Meetings in January

2 Shift 1: Balancing Informational and Literary Texts Students read a true balance of informational and literary texts. Elementary school classrooms are, therefore, places where students access the world – science, social studies, the arts and literature – through text. At least 50% of what students read is informational. In other words? Shift 1 Video 2

3 SHIFT 1 Grades PK-5 Balancing Informational & Literary Texts Range of Text Types Literature = Stories, Dramas, Poetry Informational = Literary Nonfiction, Historical, Scientific, & Technical Texts 50% fiction 50% nonfiction 40% fiction 60% nonfiction 20% fiction 80% nonfiction 4 th grade 8 th grade 12 th grade Increase in teaching and learning with non- fiction text

4 ELA/Literacy Shift 1: Balancing Informational and Literary Text What the Student Does…What the Teacher Does…What the Principal Does… Build background knowledge to increase reading skill Exposure to the world through reading Apply strategies to reading informational text. Provide students equal #s of informational and literary texts Ensure coherent instruction about content Teach strategies for informational texts Teach “through” and “with” informational texts Scaffold for the difficulties that informational text present to students Ask students, “What is connected here? How does this fit together? What details tell you that? “ Purchase and provide equal amounts of informational and literacy text to students Hold teachers accountable for building student content knowledge through text Provide PD and co-planning opportunities for teachers to become more intimate with non fiction texts and the way they spiral together 4

5 Shift 2: Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Content area teachers outside of the ELA classroom emphasize literacy experiences in their planning and instruction. Students learn through domain-specific texts in science and social studies classrooms – rather than referring to the text, they are expected to learn from what they read. In other words? Shift 2 Video 5

6 SHIFT 2 Grades 6-12 Knowledge in the disciplines Reading & Writing Literacy Standards Complement, not replace content standards Depending on text rather than referring to it Read a president’s speech & write a response Read scientific papers & write an analysis Think sophisticated non-fiction Analyze and evaluate texts within disciplines Gain knowledge from texts that convey complex information through diagrams, charts, evidence, & illustrations Expectation of rigorous domain specific literacy instruction outside of ELA

7 ELA/Literacy Shift 2: 6-12 Knowledge in the Disciplines What the Student Does…What the Teacher Does…What the Principal Does… Become better readers by building background knowledge Handle primary source documents with confidence Infer, like a detective, where the evidence is in a text to support an argument or opinion See the text itself as a source of evidence (what did it say vs. what did it not say?) Shift identity: “I teach reading.” Stop referring and summarizing and start reading Slow down the history and science classroom Teach different approaches for different types of texts Treat the text itself as a source of evidence Teach students to write about evidence from the text Teach students to support their opinion with evidence. Ask : “How do you know? Why do you think that? Show me in the text where you see evidence for your opinion. “ Support and demand the role of all teachers in advancing students’ literacy Provide guidance and support to ensure the shift to informational texts for 6-12 Give teachers permission to slow down and deeply study texts with students 7

8 8 SHIFT 1 Balancing Informational and Literary Texts SHIFT 2 Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Core Text Pre- CCLS

9 9 SHIFT 1 Balancing Informational and Literary Texts SHIFT 2 Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Paired Texts: The Hero’s Journey Core Texts Post- CCLS

10 Shift 3: Staircase of Complexity In order to prepare students for the complexity of college and career ready texts, each grade level requires a “step” of growth on the “staircase”. Students read the central, grade appropriate text around which instruction is centered. Teachers are patient, create more time and space in the curriculum for this close and careful reading, and provide appropriate and necessary scaffolding and supports so that it is possible for students reading below grade level. In other words? Shift 3 Video: Shift 3 Video: (start to 2:15, 3:15-5:05) 10

11 SHIFT 3 Staircase of complexity Increase in text complexity at each grade level Qualitative Levels of meaning Structure Clarity of language Knowledge demands Quantitative Word length Sentence length Text cohesion Reader & Task Motivation Knowledge Experience Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks Expectation of proficiency and independence in reading grade level text

12 ELA/Literacy Shift 3: Staircase of Complexity What the Student Does…What the Teacher Does…What the Principal Does… Read to see what more they can find and learn as they re-read texts again and again Read material at own level to build joy of reading and pleasure in the world Be persistent despite challenges when reading; good readers tolerate frustration Ensure students are engaged in more complex texts at every grade level Engage students in rigorous conversation Provide experience with complex texts Give students less to read, let them re-read Use leveled texts carefully to build independence in struggling readers More time on more complex texts Provide scaffolding Engage with texts w/ other adults Get kids inspired and excited about the beauty of language Ensure that complexity of text builds from grade to grade. Look at current scope and sequence to determine where/how to incorporate greater text complexity Allow and encourage teachers to build a unit in a way that has students scaffold to more complex texts over time Allow and encourage teachers the opportunity to share texts with students that may be at frustration level 12

13 CCSS for ELA Appendix B 13

14 SHIFT 3 Staircase of Complexity Refusal of the Call Often when the call [to adventure] is given, the future hero refuses to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, or any of a range of reasons that work to hold the person in his or her current circumstances. Pre- CCLS

15 SHIFT 3 Staircase of Complexity Refusal of the Call Often in actual life, and not infrequently in the myths and popular tales, we encounter the dull case of the call unanswered; for it is always possible to turn the ear to other interests. Refusal of the summons converts the adventure into its negative. Walled in boredom, hard work, or "culture," the subject loses the power of significant affirmative action and becomes a victim to be saved. His flowering world becomes a wasteland of dry stones and his life feels meaningless—even though, like King Minos, he may through titanic effort succeed in building an empire of renown. Whatever house he builds, it will be a house of death: a labyrinth of cyclopean walls to hide from him his Minotaur. All he can do is create new problems for himself and await the gradual approach of his disintegration. Excerpt from The Hero with a Thousand Faces Post- CCLS

16 Shift 4: Text-Based Answers Students have rich and rigorous conversations which are dependent on a common text. Teachers insist that classroom experiences stay deeply connected to the text on the page and that students develop habits for making evidentiary arguments both in conversation, as well as in writing to assess comprehension of a text. In other words? Shift 4 Video 16

17 SHIFT 4 Text-based answers Questions tied directly to the text, but extend beyond the literal Students must cite text to support answers Personal opinions, experiences, and connections to the text are minimized in favor of what the text actually says or doesn’t say Evidence- based questions are purposefully planned & direct students to closely examine the text

18 ELA/Literacy Shift 4: Text Based Answers What the Student Does… What the Teacher Does… What the Principal Does… Go back to text to find evidence to support their argument in a thoughtful, careful, precise way Develop a fascination with reading Create own judgments and become scholars, rather than witnesses of the text Conducting reading as a close reading of the text and engaging with the author and what the author is trying to say Facilitate evidence based conversations with students, dependent on the text Have discipline about asking students where in the text to find evidence, where they saw certain details, where the author communicated something, why the author may believe something; show all this in the words from the text. Plan and conduct rich conversations about the stuff that the writer is writing about. Keep students in the text Identify questions that are text- dependent, worth asking/exploring, deliver richly, Provide students the opportunity to read the text, encounter references to another text, another event and to dig in more deeply into the text to try and figure out what is going on. Spend much more time preparing for instruction by reading deeply. Allow teachers the time to spend more time with students writing about the texts they read- and to revisit the texts to find more evidence to write stronger arguments. Provide planning time for teachers to engage with the text to prepare and identify appropriate text-dependent questions. Create working groups to establish common understanding for what to expect from student writing at different grade levels for text based answers. Structure student work protocols for teachers to compare student work products; particularly in the area of providing evidence to support arguments/conclusions. 18

19 SHIFT 4 Text-based Answers Question: What reasons might a hero use to refuse the call to adventure? Refusal of the Call Often when the call [to adventure] is given, the future hero refuses to heed it. This may be from a sense of duty or obligation, fear, insecurity, a sense of inadequacy, or any of a range of reasons that work to hold the person in his or her current circumstances. Pre- CCLS

20 SHIFT 4 Text-based Answers Question: What fate awaits the (future) hero who refuses the call to adventure? Use specific examples from the text to support your answer. Often in actual life, and not infrequently in the myths and popular tales, we encounter the dull case of the call unanswered; for it is always possible to turn the ear to other interests. Refusal of the summons converts the adventure into its negative. Walled in boredom, hard work, or "culture," the subject loses the power of significant affirmative action and becomes a victim to be saved. His flowering world becomes a wasteland of dry stones and his life feels meaningless—even though, like King Minos, he may through titanic effort succeed in building an empire of renown. Whatever house he builds, it will be a house of death: a labyrinth of cyclopean walls to hide from him his Minotaur. All he can do is create new problems for himself and await the gradual approach of his disintegration. Excerpt from The Hero with a Thousand Faces Post- CCLS

21 Shift 5: Writing from Sources Writing needs to emphasize use of evidence to inform or make an argument rather than the personal narrative and other forms of decontextualized prompts. While the narrative still has an important role, students develop skills through written arguments that respond to the ideas, events, facts, and arguments presented in the texts they read. In other words? Shift 5 Video

22 SHIFT 5 Writing from sources Three Text Types Argument Supporting a claim with sound reasoning and relevant evidence Informational/ Explanatory Writing Increase subject knowledge Explain a process Enhance comprehension Narrative Writing Conveys experience i.e. fictional stories, memoirs, anecdotes, autobiographies Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing Argumentative writing is especially prominent in the CCLS

23 ELA/Literacy Shift 5: Writing from Sources What the Student Does…What the Teacher Does…What the Principal Does… Begin to generate own informational texts Expect that students will generate their own informational texts (spending much less time on personal narratives) Present opportunities to write from multiple sources about a single topic. Give opportunities to analyze, synthesize ideas across many texts to draw an opinion or conclusion. Find ways to push towards a style of writing where the voice comes from drawing on powerful, meaningful evidence. Give permission to students to start to have their own reaction and draw their own connections. Build teacher capacity and hold teachers accountable to move students towards informational writing

24 SHIFT 5 Writing from Sources Write about a time you had to make a difficult decision. Describe the situation and the heroic qualities you exhibited. Pre-CCLS

25 SHIFT 5 Writing from Sources Modern writers often enhance their story through the use of literary allusions. Grann compares Fawcett’s Nina to Odysseus’ Penelope. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of Grann’s choice in making this comparison. In your essay, be sure to: Describe the call to adventure for both Percy Fawcett and Odysseus. Compare and contrast the impact of answering this call on those closest to the heroes. Support your analysis using specific evidence from the two works listed above. Post-CCLS

26 Shift 6: Academic Vocabulary Students constantly build the vocabulary they need to access grade level complex texts. By focusing strategically on comprehension of pivotal and commonly found words (such as “discourse,” “generation,” “theory,” and “principled”) and less on esoteric literary terms (such as “onomatopoeia” or “homonym”), teachers constantly build students’ ability to access more complex texts across the content areas. In other words? Shift 6 Video

27 SHIFT 6 Academic vocabulary Tier One Words Words of everyday speech Tier Two Words Not specific to any one academic area Generally not well-defined by context or explicitly defined within a text Wide applicability to many types of reading Tier Three Words Domain specific Low-frequency Often explicitly defined Heavily scaffolded Ramp up instruction of Tier Two words

28 ELA/Literacy Shift 6: Academic Vocabulary What the Student Does…What the Teacher Does…What the Principal Does… Spend more time learning words across “webs” and associating words with others instead of learning individual, isolated vocabulary words. Develop students’ ability to use and access words that show up in everyday text and that may be slightly out of reach Be strategic about the kind of vocabulary you’re developing and figure out which words fall into which categories- tier 2 vs. tier 3 Determine the words that students are going to read most frequently and spend time mostly on those words Teach fewer words but teach the webs of words around it Shift attention on how to plan vocabulary meaningfully using tiers and transferability strategies Provide training to teachers on the shift for teaching vocabulary in a more meaningful, effective manner. 28

29 SHIFT 6 Academic Vocabulary Pre-CCLS Archetype Epic Poetry Mythology Odyssey

30 SHIFT 6 Academic Vocabulary Post-CCLS Tier 3 Words ArchetypeEpic PoetryMythologyOdyssey Tier 2 Words SummonsAffirmativeTitanicDisintegration


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