Presentation on theme: "Drug Abuse : An Overview. -2- Drug / Psychoactive Substance Any substance that when taken by a person modifies perception, mood, cognition, behaviour."— Presentation transcript:
-2- Drug / Psychoactive Substance Any substance that when taken by a person modifies perception, mood, cognition, behaviour or motor functions. This definition includes legal and illegal substances, that can lead to dependence
-6- Alcohol is a brain depressant. In small amounts it relieves anxiety. it may also give a sense of strength and result in boisterous behaviour It heightens the mood prior to intake, be it sadness or happiness. Impairs judgement and performance Alcohol: Psychological effects
-10- Opioids: Psychological effects The effects differ widely between new and dependent users New users Who is not in pain an unpleasant reaction. Who has pain or anxiety some relief Dependent users Short lived in-tense experience – “rush”. A state of profound euphoria. A dreamlike state lasting longer
-13- Cannabis products Bhang (leaves) Ganja (dried flowering stem of the plant) Charas / Hashish (extracted from the resin covering the plant) Hashish Oil (extracting THC using chemical methods) Oral Smoked
-14- Cannabis: Psychological effects A dreamy state with an increased tendency to fantasize State of euphoria, well being and enjoyment. Generally followed by a period of drowsiness. Perceptual and sensory distortions. Can prolong reaction time and impair coordination Sounds and colours may become more intense Restlessness, fear and even panic may spoil the experience (“bad trip”). There may be driven activity (subject knows that one’s activities are meaningless, yet is unable to control them).
Types of drugs Legal (licit): Medicine Tobacco Alcohol Caffeine/tea Bhang Illegal (illicit): Opium Heroin Cocaine ATS, Charas/Ganja
The Extent, Pattern and Trends of Drug Abuse in India: National Survey
1.National Household Survey (NHS) 2.Drug Abuse Monitoring System (DAMS) 3.Rapid Assessment Survey (RAS) 4.Focused Thematic Studies (FTS) Drug abuse and women in India Burden on women through abusing family members Drug abuse in rural population Drug consumption in border areas Drug abuse in prisons Components of the survey
Sample Size: 40,697 males (12-60 yrs) Prevalence of ‘current’ use (i.e., during last month) Alcohol: 21% Cannabis: 3% Opiates:0.7% (heroin: 0.2%) Any illicit drug: 3.6% (excl. tobacco and alcohol) IDUs (‘ever’):0.1% Poly-drug users: 22.3% 1. DATA HIGHLIGHTS – NHS 62.5 m 8.7 m 2 m
ALCOHOL 62.5 m 16.8% 10.5 m CANNABIS 8.7 m 25.7% 2.3 m OPIATES 2.0 m 22.3% 0.5 m Current use Dependency ‘Volume of Work’ 1. DATA HIGHLIGHTS – NHS
There’s a Big Contribution to Big Biological / Genetic Contribution to Drug Abuse and Addiction… Drug Abuse and Addiction… ….Overlapping with Influences that Help Make Addiction a Complex Disease. ….Overlapping with Environmental Influences that Help Make Addiction a Complex Disease.
Environmental factors Drug related Individual related Society – community related
Drug related factors Availability –Legal and policy environment –Socio-cultural norms and attitudes Abuse liability –Reward or reinforcement –Non-toxic –route, duration of action
-44- Drugs: The vicious cycle Presence makes you feel good… (euphoria) Absence makes you feel miserable… (withdrawal)
-45- Taking drugs… NOT Taking drugs…..makes you feel good… (euphoria) likely that you will continue....makes you feel miserable… (withdrawal)..to avoid which you will continue.. Drugs: The vicious cycle
Individual related factors Self-medication theory –Co-morbid mental illnesses very common –Co-morbid symptoms even commoner Personality factors –‘novelty seeking’
Society related factors Family influence Peer influence Cultural and religious sanction & proscription Legal & policy environment The setting
-49- Terminology Use Misuse / harmful use Abuse Dependence Addiction - older term, still used
-50- Terminology Use The ingestion of alcohol or other drugs without the experience of any negative consequences. If a student had drank a beer at a party and his parents had not found out we could say he had USED alcohol.
-51- Terminology Misuse When a person experiences negative consequence from the use of alcohol or other drugs it is clearly misuse. A 40-year old man uses alcohol occasionally, his boss throws a party and the man drinks more than usual and on the way home he is arrested by police.
-52- Terminology Abuse / harmful use Maladaptive pattern of use resulting in physical, social, legal harm Continued use in spite of negative consequences The same 40-year old man continues drinking alcohol after the incident.
-53- Terminology Dependence Drug taken in larger amounts or over longer period Persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down A great deal of time is spent in: obtaining the drug using the drug recovering from its effects Important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced Continued use despite harm Tolerance Withdrawal Addiction - older term, still used
Withdrawal symptoms Usually opposite of acute effects –Depressants: withdrawal-excitation –Stimulants: withdrawal-lethargy/’crash’
-56- Alcohol withdrawal: severe Severe Alcohol Withdrawal: “Delirium Tremens” All features of mild withdrawal Disorientation (unawareness of self and surroundings – time, place and person) Hallucinations Seizures (fits – ‘rum fits’) Can be fatal
-57- Opioid withdrawal Very distressing, but never fatal ! Opening of all holes ! Watering from eyes, nose Vomiting Loose motions Bodyache / pain Anxiety, restlessness, insomnia Premature ejaculation
-58- Cannabis withdrawal Non specific General discomfort Intense craving Anxiety, restlessness
-59- The usual drug-use ‘career’ Experimentation Depends upon Availability Peer pressure Socio-cultural norms Psychological factors
-60- Experimentation Occasional / Irregular use Depends upon Initial experiences Peer pressure The usual drug-use ‘career’
-61- Experimentation Occasional / Irregular use Regular use May be ‘Abuse’ or ‘Misuse’ Symptoms of harm start appearing The usual drug-use ‘career’
-62- Experimentation Occasional / Irregular use Regular use Dependence / Addiction The usual drug-use ‘career’
-63- Alcohol / Tobacco Charas / GanjaHeroin / SmackInjection Tidigesic From ‘softer’ to ‘harder’ drugs…