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ARGUMENT AND EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT IN SECONDARY SCIENCE DAY 1 OCTOBER 2, 2014 MACOMB INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL DISTRICT.

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Presentation on theme: "ARGUMENT AND EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT IN SECONDARY SCIENCE DAY 1 OCTOBER 2, 2014 MACOMB INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL DISTRICT."— Presentation transcript:

1 ARGUMENT AND EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT IN SECONDARY SCIENCE DAY 1 OCTOBER 2, 2014 MACOMB INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL DISTRICT

2 WELCOME! What do you think? When procedures are uniform for all students, where data are similar, and where claims match expected outcomes, then the reportage of results and conclusions often seems meaningless to students and lacks opportunities for deeper student learning about the topic or for developing scientific reasoning skills. (If everyone gets the same answer why ask the question? How meaningful is this type of experience? Is this just another school exercise done to them?) ~Hand, Norton-Meier, Staker, and Bintz

3 ARGUMENT AND EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT: OBJECTIVES Discourse Writing Tasks

4 OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY Explore the meaning of the terms argument and explanation with respect to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Create and/or modify tasks so that they have high cognitive demand and will support the science practices of argument and explanation. Experience gathering evidence to support the practices of argument and explanation within the 5E Learning Cycle framework. Plan a lesson sequence that sets students up for a scientific argument.

5 WHAT DOES ARGUMENT MEAN IN OUR EVERYDAY LANGUAGE?

6 ARGUMENT CLINIC

7 ARGUMENT IN SCIENCE In science, an argument is used… “to promote as much understanding of a situation as possible and to persuade colleagues of the validity of a specific idea….[it] is ideally about sharing, processing, and learning about ideas” (NRC 2008, p 89)

8 ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION: WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? Create a representation that shows how the NGSS defines argument and explanation and also shows the relationship between the two.

9 ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION: WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE IN THE CLASSROOM? For each example: What do you notice? What do you wonder? What might this look like in your classroom?

10 We relinquish some control. We worry about chaos ensuing. We wonder how we will address students who do it “wrong.” (How can we get them to the “right” answer?) We worry that we won’t be able to address all students’ questions and needs. (What if a student says something or does something and I don’t know how to respond?) FEARS

11 A NEW MODEL FOR THE PRACTICE OF SCIENCE

12 ORCHESTRA STUDENTS ARE MUSICIANS; STUDENTS ON THE BASKETBALL TEAM ARE ATHLETES; WHAT OPPORTUNITIES DO OUR SCIENCE STUDENTS HAVE TO BE SCIENTISTS?

13 OUR SHIFT IN THINKING… From thinking that one scientific method fits all To thinking about how to engage our students in the practices of scientists 1.Asking questions and defining problems 2.Developing and using models 3.Planning and carrying out investigations 4.Analyzing and interpreting data 5.Using mathematics and computational thinking 6.Constructing explanations and designing solutions 7.Engaging in argument from evidence 8.Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information

14 OUR SHIFT IN THINKING… From thinking that “hands-on” science is ESSENTIAL To thinking that engaging students EVERY DAY in scientific practices and thinking is POWERFUL

15 A NEW MODEL FOR THE PRACTICE OF SCIENCE

16 Next Generation Science Standards Science & Engineering Practices 1.Asking questions and defining problems 2.Developing and using models 3.Planning and carrying out investigations 4.Analyzing and interpreting data 5.Using mathematics and computational thinking 6.Constructing explanations and designing solutions 7.Engaging in argument from evidence 8.Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information SHIFTING OUR PRACTICE… From… How am I going to teach this? To… How are students going to learn about this?

17 ARGUMENT AND EXPLANATION According to the SEP, what are the hallmarks of a high quality argument at your grade level? Explanation?

18 GETTING STARTED Claim – Evidence – Reasoning (CER) CLAIM: What do you know? EVIDENCE: How do you know that? REASONING: Why does your evidence support your claim?

19 CLAIM – EVIDENCE – REASONING (CER) What grade level? Rewrite the student response so it reflects a higher grade band. How might the task be changed to produce a higher level of student work?

20 SO HOW DO WE PUT IT ALL TOGETHER SO THAT IT’S MEANINGFUL FOR OUR STUDENTS?

21 When procedures are uniform for all students, where data are similar, and where claims match expected outcomes, then the reportage of results and conclusions often seems meaningless to students and lacks opportunities for deeper student learning about the topic or for developing scientific reasoning skills. (If everyone gets the same answer why ask the question? How meaningful is this type of experience? Is this just another school exercise done to them?) ~Hand, Norton-Meier, Staker, and Bintz

22 When procedures are uniform for all students, where data are similar, and where claims match expected outcomes, then the reportage of results and conclusions often seems meaningless to students and lacks opportunities for deeper student learning about the topic or for developing scientific reasoning skills. (If everyone gets the same answer why ask the question? How meaningful is this type of experience? Is this just another school exercise done to them?) ~Hand, Norton-Meier, Staker, and Bintz

23 We need to change our thinking with respect to experimentation!

24 EXPERIMENTATION Conventional Separate Unit on the Scientific Method Then spend the rest of the year learning content through text resources or telling.

25 EXPERIMENTATION Students read the text to learn vocabulary and background information about clouds. ? Students then observe the cloud in a jar that confirms what they already “know.” Conventional

26 EXPERIMENTATION Students search for answers to their questions as they read the text. ? Students ask questions about cloud formation and do some investigating on their own. Shifts in practice for NGSS

27 5E LEARNING CYCLE 5E Model is based from the SCIS Model of Instruction by researchers Atkins and Karplus in E Model was originally proposed by BSCS (Biological Science Curriculum Study) in the late1980’s.

28 5E LEARNING CYCLE Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate

29 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate

30 TASKS FOR ARGUMENTATION

31 JEREMY’S VACATION Using the data provided, create a representation that will help you show which city Jeremy should visit and at what time of year (spring, fall, winter, or summer). You may represent your data in any way you choose. You may choose to represent all or only some of the data, as long as you can use your representation to justify your recommendations for Jeremy’s vacation (where to go and when to go there). From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013, page 3.

32 COMPARING 2 TASKS Task A Create a bar graph that shows the average monthly high and low temperatures in each city. Identify where and when Jeremy should go on vacation. Task B Using the data provided, create a representation that will help you show which city Jeremy should visit and at what time of year (spring, fall, winter, or summer). From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013, page 3.

33 LOW AND HIGH COGNITIVE DEMAND Read the two experimentation tasks on page 12. How are they similar? How are they different? Features of Tasks Low Cognitive Demand High Cognitive Demand

34 LOW AND HIGH COGNITIVE DEMAND Read the tasks on pages 14 & 15. How are they similar? How are they different? Features of Tasks Low Cognitive Demand High Cognitive Demand

35 LOW AND HIGH COGNITIVE DEMAND Read the summary table on pages 20 & 21. What do you notice? What do you wonder? Features of Tasks Low Cognitive Demand High Cognitive Demand

36 WHAT IS THE TEACHER’S ROLE? Page 16

37 TASKS THAT SUPPORT ARGUMENTATION High cognitive demand Students engage in multiple ways that are productive Students produce artifacts task science concept Student artifacts Argumentation! Page 16 Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

38 INCREASING THE COGNITIVE DEMAND OF A TASK Take a look at the Measuring Fastplant Growth task on page 12. How might you increase the cognitive demand of this task?

39 Eliminate or minimize prescriptive directions Provide complex data Give students an audience Re-sequence tasks INCREASING THE COGNITIVE DEMAND OF A TASK Page 18 Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

40 MATH CLASS NEEDS A MAKEOVER

41 THRIVING IN TIMES OF CHANGE It is unreasonable to ask a professional to change much more than 10 percent a year, but it is unprofessional to change by much less than 10 percent a year. ~Steven Leinwand

42 WHAT MIGHT BE YOUR 10%? Think of a task you will do with your students in the near future. Jot down some notes about some ways you might makeover the task in order to ramp up the cognitive demand.

43 TASKS THAT SUPPORT ARGUMENTATION High cognitive demand Students engage in multiple ways that are productive Students produce artifacts task science concept Student artifacts Argumentation! Page 16 Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

44 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate

45 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate task science concept Student artifacts Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation.

46 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation.

47 ENGAGE Draw a diagram that shows how both people can see the light. What ideas or questions do you have about how light travels?

48 EXPLORE: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL? What can you find out about the way light travels?

49 How does light travel? This is the activity I did: These are the patterns and observations I found: These patterns and observations are important because:

50 EXPLORE: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL? What can you find out about the way light travels? What if you have 2 light sources?

51 EXPLORE: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL? How is this the same? Different? What image will you see?

52 EXPLORE: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL? What can you find out now?

53 EXPLORE: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL? What can you find out now?

54 EXPLORE: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL? What can you find out now?

55 EXPLORE: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL? How is this the same? Different? What will you see on the screen?

56 EXPLORE: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL? ActivityObservations How do these observations help answer the focus question? How does light travel? Light particles… …travel in straight lines …travel in all directions …are invisibly small …travel at high speed

57 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation.

58 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate task science concept Student artifacts Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation.

59 EXPLAIN: HOW DOES LIGHT TRAVEL? ActivityObservations How do these observations help answer the focus question? Imagine that you have a pair of Magic Science Glasses. When you look at light with your Magic Science Glasses, you see the particles that make up light. Put on your Magic Glasses and “look” at the light particles that we’ve been experimenting with. Use what you see about how these particles are behaving and what they look like to explain all the patterns we noticed in our experiments. Use a whiteboard to create a representation that answers the focus question: How does light travel? Light particles… …travel in straight lines …travel in all directions …are invisibly small …travel at high speed

60 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate task science concept Student artifacts

61 PLANNING TIME Think of a science concept your students will learn in the near future. What explanation do you hope your students will develop by the end of the learning cycle? (write it out….what does excellent student work look like?) What evidence will students need in order to develop this explanation? What will students do to gather the evidence they need to develop an explanation?

62 SHARING / REFLECTION Take a photo of something you want to remember on someone’s chart paper. Find someone you don’t know yet and show them your photo. Explain why you took that photo.

63 OBJECTIVES FOR NEXT TIME Explore a protocol for analyzing student work. Develop an understanding of how to orchestrate class discussions that support students as they develop a scientific explanation. Plan a lesson sequence that includes a 5 Practices discussion.

64 BEFORE WE MEET AGAIN…. Have your students do the task you developed. Bring examples of student work with you to our next meeting on November 6. Record a class discussion.

65 ARGUMENT AND EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT IN SECONDARY SCIENCE: DAY 2 NOVEMBER 6, 2014

66 …fifty math problems for homework when fewer will achieve mastery. …more worksheets for the student who finished the assignment early. …using a seventh grade text book with your high performing sixth grade students. …covering more material in a shorter period of time. …cold or impersonal. …just for a select group of students. ~Debbie Shults RIGOR IS NOT… So what is rigor?

67 “Rigor is the goal of helping students develop the capacity to understand content that is complex, ambiguous, provocative, and personally or emotionally challenging.” ONE DEFINITION OF RIGOR from Teaching What Matters Most: Standards and Strategies for Raising Student Achievement by Richard W. Strong, Harvey F. Silver and Matthew J. Perini, ASCD, According to Strong, Silver, and Perini

68 FEATURES OF HIGH COGNITIVE DEMAND TASKS Pages 20-21

69 AT OUR LAST MEETING…

70 TASKS THAT SUPPORT ARGUMENTATION High cognitive demand Students engage in multiple ways that are productive Students produce artifacts task science concept Student artifacts Argumentation! Page 16 Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

71 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate task science concept Student artifacts Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation.

72 OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY Develop an understanding of how to orchestrate class discussions that support students as they develop a scientific explanation. Plan a lesson sequence that includes a 5 Practices discussion.

73 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate task science concept Student artifacts Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation.

74 CLASS DISCUSSIONS Remember the Measuring Fastplant Growth task on pages 12 and 19. Read the Kelly Davis story on pages 24 – 27. As you read… Identify the instances of student authorship of ideas and approaches Identify any instances of holding students accountable to the discipline

75 Show and TellOrchestration CLASS DISCUSSIONS

76 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate task science concept Student artifacts Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation. Orchestrating class discussions

77 Anticipating Monitoring Selecting Sequencing Connecting ORCHESTRATING CLASS DISCUSSIONS From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

78 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation. Day Height (cm) Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Plant 4 Plant 5 Plant

79 EXAMPLE LESSON We know that individual humans vary quite a lot from one another – we are different heights and weights; we have different skin, hair, and eye color; the thickness of our hair varies, etc. Is there variation in populations of other types of organisms? Would we see variation in a population of plants? What kind of variation would we see? How would we measure and describe that variation? Task: Following data collection, students were asked to create a representation of their data on a whiteboard that would enable them to answer the following question, “How tall is a typical Fastplant on a certain day in its life cycle?” Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

80 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate task science concept Student artifacts

81 Anticipating Monitoring Selecting Sequencing Connecting ORCHESTRATING CLASS DISCUSSIONS From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

82 ANTICIPATING What representations do you anticipate from students? Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

83 Anticipating Monitoring Selecting Sequencing Connecting ORCHESTRATING CLASS DISCUSSIONS From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

84 MONITORING What monitoring questions might you ask students as they work to make their thinking visible? Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

85 Anticipating Monitoring Selecting Sequencing Connecting ORCHESTRATING CLASS DISCUSSIONS Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

86 What might you do? Adapted from Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

87

88 ORCHESTRATING CLASS DISCUSSIONS Read the Nathan Gates story on pages As you read… Where do you see each of the 5 Practices?

89 FOCUS ON DISCOURSE Read pages 85 – 88. As you read, select your own: Sentence that is meaningful to you, that you feel captures a core idea of the passage Phrase that moved, engaged, or provoked you Word that captured your attention or struck you as powerful From Making Thinking Visible by Ritchhart, Church, and Morrison, Wiley, 2011, page 207.

90 USING FOCUSED TALK Small Group Work Making student thinking visible Guiding student thinking in productive directions Directing students’ attention to what matters Whole Class Discussions Create a whiteboard that represents the big ideas of your section.

91 CHECKLIST AND REFLECTION TOOL Do these match the thinking in the passages we just read? In what way?

92 CHECKLIST AND REFLECTION TOOL As we watch the videos…. What do you notice? Where are the missed opportunities?

93 CHECKLIST AND REFLECTION TOOL Read pages 54 – 59. What do you notice?

94 CHECKLIST AND REFLECTION TOOL Read pages What do you notice?

95 PLANNING FOR ARGUMENTATION task science concept Student artifacts

96 PLANNING FOR ARGUMENTATION

97 Students will be able to: Depict the molecular behavior of water in all three phases in drawings on whiteboards. Explain the molecular behavior of water in the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. How does water behave? EXPLAINING THE BEHAVIOR OF WATER

98 FOCUS QUESTION

99 THE SCIENCE CONCEPT How does water behave? Science concept

100 Features: Spacing Heat Movement Forces Type & Size THE SCIENCE CONCEPT How does water behave?

101 SCIENCE CONCEPT: SAMPLE STUDENT WORK

102 THE TASK Task Science concept Student artifacts How does water behave?

103 What evidence do students need in order to fully support the science concept? How will they come to know that this is how water behaves? SETTING UP FOR THE EXPLORE LEARNING PHASE

104 WHAT EVIDENCE DO STUDENTS NEED TO SUPPORT THIS IDEA?

105 HOW DOES WATER BEHAVE? ActivityPatterns and Observations How do these observations help answer the focus question? Exp. 1: Observation of physical properties of S, L, and G phases of water S: retains shape L: flows to bottom of container G: escapes out of container S: not compressed with syringe L: not compressed with syringe G: can be compressed with syringe Exp. 2: Measure mass and volume of water at different temps Mass of water didn’t change in different temperatures Volume of water was the same for 2.8 o C and for 20 o C. The volume increased by about 10% at 0 o C. Exp. 3: Observation of behavior of ice in liquid water Ice floats on liquid water, but not all the way at the top. Part of the ice cubes are under the surface of the water and part of them are above the surface. Exp. 4 Observation of boiling and condensation When heat is added to the flask, the water level decreases. Small droplets of water collect in the tubing (and we can also see “fog” in the tube) and then droplets form in the test tube that is sitting in the cup of ice. Task

106 HOW DOES WATER BEHAVE? ActivityPatterns and Observations How do these observations help answer the focus question? Exp. 1: Observation of physical properties of S, L, and G phases of water S: retains shape L: flows to bottom of container G: escapes out of container S: not compressed with syringe L: not compressed with syringe G: can be compressed with syringe Exp. 2: Measure mass and volume of water at different temps Mass of water didn’t change in different temperatures Volume of water was the same for 2.8 o C and for 20 o C. The volume increased by about 10% at 0 o C. Particles in S are farther apart than in L Mass stayed same – so particles aren’t changing mass as they change phase – just changing spacing Exp. 3: Observation of behavior of ice in liquid water Ice floats on liquid water, but not all the way at the top. Part of the ice cubes are under the surface of the water and part of them are above the surface. Exp. 4 Observation of boiling and condensation When heat is added to the flask, the water level decreases. Small droplets of water collect in the tubing (and we can also see “fog” in the tube) and then droplets form in the test tube that is sitting in the cup of ice. Task

107 HOW WILL THEY GENERATE THIS EVIDENCE?

108 How will you ask students to demonstrate their thinking in order to set them up for a class discussion? High cognitive demand Students engage in multiple ways that are productive Students produce artifacts Task: Imagine that you have a pair of Magic Science Glasses and you use them to look at a glass of water. But instead of the water, you see the pieces that make up water, the particles. “Look” at the solid, liquid, and gaseous water that we’ve been experimenting with. I want you to use what you see about how these particles are behaving and what they look like to explain all those patterns that we noticed in our experiments. In your groups, DRAW a representation of what you see when you put on your Magic Science Glasses. How does water behave? SETTING UP FOR THE EXPLAIN LEARNING PHASE

109 HOW WILL STUDENTS DEMONSTRATE THEIR THINKING?

110 Anticipating Monitoring Selecting Sequencing Connecting ORCHESTRATING CLASS DISCUSSIONS From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

111 HOW WILL YOU ORCHESTRATE THE CLASS DISCUSSION?

112 WHAT WILL YOU NEED TO SUMMARIZE? Feature of WaterSolid (Ice)Liquid (Water)Gas (Vapor) Spacing Farther apart than liquid ClosestFar apart Forces Motion Heat Energy From Cartier, Smith, Stein, and Ross, 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Task-Based Discussions in Science, NSTA Press, 2013.

113 HOW WILL THE CLASS SUMMARIZE THE DISCUSSION?

114 THANK YOU!

115 WELCOME BACK! DAY 3 JANUARY 21, 2015

116 WELCOME! One new thing I’ve tried in the classroom since we last met is…. …and as a result, my students….

117 OBJECTIVES FOR TODAY Learn how writing fits into the process of argument and explanation development in science. Develop and use tools that provide feedback to students on their writing. Experience a collection of writing instructional strategies and create a plan for teaching the writing component of argument and explanation development in your classroom.

118 PREVIOUSLY….

119 ARGUMENT AND EXPLANATION According to the SEP, what are the hallmarks of a high quality argument at your grade level? Explanation?

120 GETTING STARTED Claim – Evidence – Reasoning (CER) CLAIM: What do you know? EVIDENCE: How do you know that? REASONING: Why does your evidence support your claim?

121 CLAIM – EVIDENCE – REASONING (CER) What grade level? Rewrite the student response so it reflects a higher grade band. How might the task be changed to produce a higher level of student work?

122 SO HOW DO WE PUT IT ALL TOGETHER SO THAT IT’S MEANINGFUL FOR OUR STUDENTS?

123 When procedures are uniform for all students, where data are similar, and where claims match expected outcomes, then the reportage of results and conclusions often seems meaningless to students and lacks opportunities for deeper student learning about the topic or for developing scientific reasoning skills. (If everyone gets the same answer why ask the question? How meaningful is this type of experience? Is this just another school exercise done to them?) ~Hand, Norton-Meier, Staker, and Bintz

124 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate task science concept Student artifacts Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation.

125 ARGUMENT AND EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT TaskDiscourseWriting

126 HOW DOES ARGUMENT & EXPLANATION DEVELOPMENT FIT INTO THE 5E LEARNING CYCLE? Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate task science concept Student artifacts Students gather evidence to be used as they develop an explanation.

127 AND NOW IT’S TIME TO WRITE… Students write evidence- based explanations task science concept Student artifacts

128 GETTING STARTED WITH WRITING Claim – Evidence – Reasoning (CER) CLAIM: What do you know? EVIDENCE: How do you know that? REASONING: Why does your evidence support your claim? COUNTER-ARGUMENT: What other claims might be made…and why are they not supported by the evidence?

129 CHEMICAL REACTION ASSESSMENT TASK Measurements Melting Point Volume Solubility in Water Density Before stirring and heating Sample of butanic acid -7.9 o C2.00 cm 3 Yes0.96 g/cm 3 Sample of butanol o C2.00 cm 3 Yes0.81 g/cm 3 After stirring and heating Sample of Layer A o C2.00 cm 3 No0.87 g/cm 3 Sample of Layer B 0.0 o C2.00 cm 3 Yes1.00 g/cm 3 Did a chemical reaction occur? From NcNeill and Krajcik, Supporting Grade 5-8 Students in Constructing Explanations in Science, Pearson, 2012.

130 STUDENT WORK: WHAT DO YOU NOTICE? From NcNeill and Krajcik, Supporting Grade 5-8 Students in Constructing Explanations in Science, Pearson, 2012.

131 BASIC RUBRIC

132 Now, use the basic rubric to individually score each piece of student work. How do your scores compare to the rest of your group?

133 FEEDBACK What kind of feedback will help students improve their writing? Goal Referenced Tangible and Transparent Actionable User-friendly Timely Ongoing Consistent Wiggins, G. (2012). Effective Feedback. Educational leadership.

134 FEEDBACK What kind of feedback will help students improve their writing?

135 FEEDBACK What kind of feedback will help students improve their writing? What is the question you are trying to answer? Have you answered it? What evidence do you have to support your thinking? What did you observe that makes you think that? Does what you have written agree with observations you have recorded? How do you know this evidence supports your claim? What is it about (your evidence) that lets you know that (your claim) is valid? What are the scientific principles? What other claims might be made? What questions do you have now?

136 WHAT FEEDBACK WOULD YOU GIVE? From NcNeill and Krajcik, Supporting Grade 5-8 Students in Constructing Explanations in Science, Pearson, 2012.

137 What we really want is a written argument in paragraph form that meets the expectations laid out in the basic rubric. Sometimes, this will be the conclusion to a lab that answers a question. Sometimes, it will be a paragraph (or more) that pulls together evidence from several lab experiences to answer a question.

138 What do we do if our students aren’t ready yet? What are some baby steps we can take that will help them understand how to do this?

139

140

141

142 Create a rough outline of your science content for the year…..

143 Then add your writing instructional strategies that you might use during that time….. And decide when to check in with the rubric….

144 LET’S FOCUS ON WRITING INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

145 ANALYZE EXAMPLES Are fat and soap the same substance? For each of the following explanations, underline and label the claim, evidence, reasoning, and counter-argument. Which explanation is the strongest? Why?

146 ANALYZE EXAMPLES

147 Might this instructional strategy be helpful with your students? What might it look like in your content area? What examples might you use?

148 MULTIPLE CHOICE ARGUMENTS Might this instructional strategy be helpful with your students? What might it look like in your content area? What examples might you use?

149 RECONSTRUCTING ARGUMENTS Mammal Resting Heart Rate (beats per minute) Human75 Horse48 Cow45-60 Dog Rat120 Mouse498 Does the size of an animal affect their heart rate at rest?

150 RECONSTRUCTING ARGUMENTS Might this instructional strategy be helpful with your students? What might it look like in your content area? What examples might you use?

151 GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS AND WRITING SCAFFOLDS What is the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in a simple circuit?

152 GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS AND WRITING SCAFFOLDS Might this instructional strategy be helpful with your students? What might it look like in your content area? What examples might you use?

153 FOCUS ON “APPROPRIATE AND SUFFICIENT” EVIDENCE Sample # Mass (g) Volume (mL) Maria was given several samples of unknown metals and she was trying to figure out if any of them were the same material. She measured the mass and volume of each sample. She made a claim that samples 1 and 3 are the same material. Does she have sufficient evidence to support her claim? What might she do to strengthen her argument?

154 FOCUS ON “APPROPRIATE AND SUFFICIENT” EVIDENCE Might this instructional strategy be helpful with your students? What might it look like in your content area? What examples might you use? Question: What data will you provide? What data will you not provide (but they need for a quality argument)?

155 FOCUS ON EVIDENCE AND REASONING Question: What is the relationship between the organization of the periodic table and atomic radius? Claim: As you move across a period from left to right, the atomic radii decrease. As you move down a group, the atomic radii increase. What is appropriate evidence and reasoning for this claim?

156 FOCUS ON EVIDENCE AND REASONING Might this instructional strategy be helpful with your students? What might it look like in your content area? What examples might you use?

157 FOCUS ON COUNTER-ARGUMENTS Which ball will hit the ground first? Explain your thinking. A B

158 FOCUS ON COUNTER-ARGUMENTS Might this instructional strategy be helpful with your students? What might it look like in your content area? What examples might you use?

159 Then add your writing instructional strategies that you might use during that time….. And decide when to check in with the rubric….

160

161 REFLECTION 3 ideas for teaching argument/explanation writing that I’m excited to try:  2 interesting things I learned as we looked at student work this morning:  1 short term goal that I plan to accomplish in the near future: 


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