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1.2: The Nature of Data Objective: To understand the different types of data CHS Statistics

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Data Data (plural) – observations (such as measurements, genders, and survey responses) that have been collected Datum (singular) Sometimes used to find statistics if the context of the data is randomly selected and/or representative of the population

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Parameter vs. Statistic Parameter – a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a population Statistic – a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a sample

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Parameter vs. Statistic – YOU DECIDE! 1)A recent survey of a sample of MBAs reported that the average salary for an employee with an MBA is more than $82,000. 2)Starting salaries for the 667 MBA graduates of the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business increased 8.5% from the previous year. 3)In a random check of a sample of retail stores, the Food and Drug Administration found that 34% of the stores were not storing fish at the proper temperature. 4)When Lincoln was first elected to the presidency, he received 39.82% of the 1,865,908 votes cast.

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Two Types of Data Quantitative Data – values that answer questions about the quantity or amount (with units) of what is being measured. Examples: income ($), height (inches), weight (pounds) Categorical Data – (qualitative data) can be separated into different categories that are often distinguished by some nonnumeric characteristic Examples: sex, race, ethnicity, zip codes Wait? Hold up! Did I just see zip codes as categorical data? I thought they were numbers…

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Categorical vs. Quantitative - You Decide! Length of a song Responses in an opinion poll Telephone Number Income of college graduates The genders of college graduates

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Discrete vs. Continuous Data Discrete Data – result when a number of possible values is either a finite number or a “countable” number (dealing with counts) Example: the number of students with blonde hair Continuous Data – result from infinitely many possible values that correspond to some continuous scale that covers a range of values without gaps, interruptions, or jumps (often times has units of measure attached) Example: the amount of rainfall in Zelienople this past month

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Discrete vs. Continuous Data – YOU DECIDE! 1)X represents the number of motorcycle accidents in one year in California. 2)x represents the length of time it takes to get to work. 3)x represents the volume of blood drawn for a blood test. 4)x represents the number of rainy days in the month of July in Orlando, Florida. 5)x represents the amount of snow (in inches) that fell in Nome, Alaska last winter.

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Levels of Measurement Nominal – characterized by data that consist of names, labels, or categories only The data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme (such as high to low) Example: survey responses of yes, no, and undecided Ordinal – can be arranged in some order, but the differences between the data values either cannot be determined or are meaningless Example: grade letters (A, B, C, D, F); movie ratings (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) – while you can find the difference between the ratings, it is meaningless. The difference of 1 or 2 is meaningless, because it cannot be compared to other similar differences.

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Levels of Measurement (continued) Interval – similar to the ordinal level, but the difference between any two data values is meaningful. However, there is no natural zero starting point (where none of the quantity is present). Example: temperatures (while 0° F seems like a good starting point, it isn't necessarily) Ratio –similar to the interval, but has a natural zero starting point (where zero indicates none of the quantity is present) Differences and ratios are meaningful Example: weights of adult humans, prices of jeans

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Levels of Measurement – YOU DECIDE! 1)Body temperature in degrees Fahrenheit of a swimmer 2)Collection of phone numbers 3)Final standing for the football Northeastern Conference 4)Heart rate (beats per minute) of an athlete.

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1.2 Assignment P. 10 #1 – 19 ALL

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Statistics: Basic Concepts. Overview Survey objective: – Collect data from a smaller part of a larger group to learn something about the larger group.

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