Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Science and Technology. Chapter Outline The Global Context: The Technological Revolution Sociological Theories of Science and Technology."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Outline The Global Context: The Technological Revolution Sociological Theories of Science and Technology Technology and the Transformation of Society
Chapter Outline Societal Consequences of Science and Technology Strategies for Action: Controlling Science and Technology Understanding Science and Technology
Science and Technology Science –The process of discovering, explaining, and predicting natural or social phenomena. Technology –The application of science and mechanics to the solution of problems.
Question Which of the following comes closest to your own view? A.We should emphasize tradition more than high technology. B.We should emphasize high technology more than tradition.
Levels of Technological Development Mechanization - agricultural societies Automation - industrialized societies Cybernation - postindustrialized societies
Global Internet Use: April 2005 Average number of sessions per month31 Average number of unique domains visited62 Average pages viewed per month1,151 Average pages viewed per session37 Average time online per month25 hrs, 48 min. Average time of surfing session50 minutes Average duration of a page viewed43 seconds Average online population295,495,299
Question How likely is it that you would be willing to pursue an Internet romance? A.Very likely B.Somewhat likely C.Unsure D.Somewhat unlikely E.Very unlikely
Postmodernism and the Technological Fix Postmodernism is the view that rational thinking and science are limited in their ability to provide “truths.” Many people think social problems can be resolved through a technological fix:. –A social engineer might approach water shortages by persuading people to use less water. – A technologist would develop new technologies to increase the water supply.
Structural-Functionalist Perspective Science and technology emerge in response to societal needs. Science fulfills the need for an assumed objective measure of truth. If society changes too rapidly problems may emerge.
Conflict Perspective Technological advances are motivated by profit. Industry spends more money than government on research and development. Funding of research is determined by dominant groups.
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Knowledge is relative, it changes over time and between societies. Scientific “truths” are socially constructed and result from interactions between scientists, researchers, and the public. Who becomes involved in what aspects of science and technology is socially defined.
Question Science and technology furthers the interests of dominant groups to the detriment of others. This view is held by which theorists? A.conflict theorists B.structural functionalists C.symbolic interactionists D.strain theorists
Answer: A Science and technology further the interests of dominant groups to the detriment of others. This view is held by conflict theorists.
Households with Computers and Internet Access by Age: 2003 AgeComputerInternet Access Under 25 years old56.546.9 25 to 34 years old68.660.2 35 to 44 years old73.265.2 45 to 54 years old71.965.1 55 years or older46.640.8
Households with Computers and Internet Access by Sex: 2003 SexComputerInternet Access Male65.658.6 Female57.450.1
Households with Computers and Internet Access by Education: 2003 EducationComputerInternet Access Elementary20.614 Some high school32.724.3 High School Graduate/G.D.D. 51.143 Some college70.662.4 BA degree or higher83.378.3
Households with Computers and Internet Access by Income: 2003 Household IncomeComputerInternet Access Under $5,00035.626.8 $5,000 to $9,00026.920 $10,000 to $14,00031.723.7 $15,000 to $19,99938.229.4 $20,000 to $24,99946.136.7 $25,000 to $34,99955.445.6
Households with Computers and Internet Access by Income: 2003 Household IncomeComputersInternet Access $35,000 to $49,99971.162.8 $50,000 to $74,99981.976 $75,000 to $99,99988.184.1 $100,000 to $149,00092.990.4 $150,000 or more94.792.4
The Internet International information infrastructure (a network of networks) available through universities, research institutes, government agencies, and businesses. E-commerce –Buying and selling goods and services over the Internet.
Question Of the friends and relatives you keep in contact with at least once a year: About how many do you stay in contact with by communicating through electronic mail? A.None B.1-5 C.6 and up
GSS National Data Education No High School Degree High School Degree College Education None82.5%64.1%33.6% 1-51019.624.6 6 and up7.616.341.9
Genetics Molecular biology has led to a greater understanding of the genetic material found in all cells, DNA, and with it the ability for genetic screening. Gene therapy involves identifying defective or missing genes to get a healthy duplicate and transplant it to the affected cell. Genetic engineering is the ability to manipulate and alter the genes of an organism.
Reproductive Technologies In-vitro fertilization - An egg and a sperm are united in a laboratory dish or test tube. Abortion is the removal of an embryo or fetus from a woman’s uterus before it can survive on its own. –Intact dilation and extraction (D&X) abortions. Opponents refer to them as partial birth abortions because the limbs and the torso are delivered before the fetus has expired. Performed because the fetus has a serious defect, the woman’s health is jeopardized or both.
Support for Legal Abortions Specific Circumstances: 2003
Question Do you support legal abortion if the women wants it for any reason? A.Yes B.No
GSS National Data Education No High School Degree High School Degree College Education Yes27.9%36.7%50.2% No72.163.349.8
Therapeutic Cloning Uses stem cells from human embryos. Stem cells can produce any type of cell in the human body. Stem cells have been used for repairing spinal cord injuries in mice, allowing them to walk normally. Because the use of stem cells can entail the destruction of human embryos, many conservatives, including President Bush, are opposed to the practice.
The Stem Cell Issue, 2004: Which Is More Important? Age New Cures from Stem Cell Research Protecting Human Embryos Don’t Know 18-2961327 30-49583111 50-64553411 64 and older503218
The Stem Cell Issue, 2004: Which Is More Important? Political Affiliation New Cures from Stem Cell Research Protecting Human Embryos Don’t Know Republican45 10 Democrat682210 Independent583012
The Stem Cell Issue, 2004: Which Is More Important? Self-described New Cures from Stem Cell Research Protecting Human Embryos Don’t Know Conservative444511 Moderate612712 Liberal77167
The Stem Cell Issue, 2004: Which Is More Important? Religion New Cures from Stem Cell Research Protecting Human Embryos Don’t Know Protestants523810 White evangelical 33589 White mainline691912 Black protestant473617 Catholic63289 Secular701614
Deskilling Labor requires less thought than before and gives workers fewer decisions to make. Upskilling –Reduces alienation as employees find their work more rather than less meaningful, and have greater decision-making powers as information becomes less centralized.
1. Which level of technological development dominates agricultural societies? A.mechanization B.rationalization C.cybernation D.automation
Answer: A Mechanization dominates agricultural societies?
2. The manipulation of the genes of an organism in such a way that the natural outcome is altered is called what? A.gene therapy B.gene splicing C.genetic engineering D.genetic screening
Answer: C The manipulation of the genes of an organism in such a way that the natural outcome is altered is called genetic engineering.
3. The increasing removal of individuals from the production process and relegating them to boring, routine, and meaningless activities promotes: A.higher morale. B.deskilling. C.a reduction in workplace activities. D.improved quality of work.
Answer: B The increasing removal of individuals from the production process and relegating them to boring, routine, and meaningless activities promotes deskilling.