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CHAPTER 10 Karen Meador. The Study of Language  Linguists – study the “rules” of language (what we do when we write, speak or talk)  Psycholinguists.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 10 Karen Meador. The Study of Language  Linguists – study the “rules” of language (what we do when we write, speak or talk)  Psycholinguists."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 10 Karen Meador

2 The Study of Language  Linguists – study the “rules” of language (what we do when we write, speak or talk)  Psycholinguists – study verbal behavior and human cognition

3 Speech & Comprehension of speech consists of: Recognition of words Understanding grammatical structure of words, phrases & sentences Comprehending meaning

4 PHONEMES THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF SPEECH! Smallest unit of sound with meaning Affected by following sounds Context affects strings of sounds

5 Meaning Grammatical Rules- known as Syntactical Rules Explicit – we can learn to express the rules & application Implicit – do not need to know rules to speak & understand

6 Word Order Word Class – categories (noun, adj., etc.) Function Words – a, the, some, but, etc. Affixes – prefixes & suffixes Word Meanings Prosody – intonation & emphasis

7 Semantics Word Meanings CONTENT WORDS help us to understand meaning of sentences (Whereas Function Words help us to understand syntax)

8 DEEP STRUCTURE By Noam Chomsky (linguist) Meaning of a sentence without regard for grammatical features needed to verbally express it Sentences in brain formed in terms of meaning

9 SCRIPTS Characteristics typical to a particular situation Assist in comprehending stories

10 BRAIN MECHANISMS SPEECH PRODUCTION Controlled by Frontal Lobes BROCA’s AREA

11 Broca’s Aphasia Slow, nonfluent speech Meaningful but not grammatical Aggramatism Impaired comprehension

12 SPEECH COMPREHENSION Recognition controlled by upper Left Temporal Lobe In the Auditory Association Cortex Location of Wernicke’s Area Comprehension from surrounding areas

13 Wernicke’s Aphasia Poor speech recognition / comprehension Meaningless speech production Fluent Grammatical Nonsense words

14  Wernicke’s Area  Perceptual only  No Meaning  Area surrounding Wernicke’s Area  Additional information from Long-Term Memory  Meaning RECOGNITION V S. COMPREHENSION

15 Pure Word Deafness – only Wernicke’s Area damaged  Ability to hear, speak and (usually) write  No comprehension of meaning of spoken words  Can comprehend reading lips, writing, nonspeech sounds, etc.

16 Isolation Aphasia – area around Wernicke’s Area damaged only Inability to comprehend speech Meaningless speech Can repeat words Can learn new sequences

17 Some key words - Psycholinguistics Phoneme Syntactics Semantics Deep Structure Script Broca’a Area and Aphasia Aggrammatism Wernicke’s Area and Aphasia Pure Word Deafness Isolation Aphasia

18 READING Writing began in Sumeria aroundWriting began in Sumeria around 4000 BC PictographsPictographs Phoenician > Greek > Roman > Modern EuropeanPhoenician > Greek > Roman > Modern European

19 Scanning Text Eye Tracker- monitors position of pupil Saccades – rapid eye jumps Fixation – when eye does not move –Gathering visual information –Approximately 250 milliseconds Longer on long or unusual words Longer on content words than function words

20 Recognition of Words PHONETIC –Decoding sounds that letters or groups of letters make –“sound reading” WHOLE-WORD –Decoding word as a whole – needed in languages where there are irregular words (such as English) –“sight reading”

21 DYSLEXIAS Surface Dyslexia –Deficit in whole-word reading –Pronunciation problems with irregular words, not comprehension Phonological Dyslexia –Deficit in phonetic reading –Problems with unfamiliar words or pronounceable nonwords

22 Direct Dyslexia –Ability to read words aloud without understanding them Shows a comprehension deficit –Cannot read pronounceable nonwords Shows a phonetic deficit Dyslexia results from damage to the Left Parietal or Temporal lobe DYSLEXIAS (Cont’d.)

23 Meaning – Content Words  Memories from experience –Visual –Auditory –Gustatory –Somatosensory –Olfactory

24 Meaning – Content Words (cont’d.) Adjectives remembered in relation to personal experience – (such as “old” – an old man, an old newspaper, etc.) Abstract words understood as adjectives first –(such as “honesty” remembered in terms of honest people)

25 Meaning – Function Words Understanding is more abstract Most likely represented by objects in relation to one another –(such as “under” – a car driving under a bridge)

26 Semantic Priming A facilitating effect on the recognition of words related to a previously presented word Similar meanings of words Bread > butter, meal, sandwich, cheese, etc.

27 Some more key words- Eye tracker Fixation Phonetic reading Whole-word reading Surface Dyslexia Phonological Dyslexia Direct Dyslexia Semantic Priming

28 Infants –Prefer mother’s voice from birth –Well-developed auditory system –At two months, can distinguish emotions in voices

29 Prespeech At one month, crying leads to other sounds At six months, sounds similar to speech begin to occur Early communication –Rejection –Request –Comment Protowords – strings of phonemes used by infants

30 Early Speech Words come from nonspeech sounds First words around one year of age Two word combinations around months

31 Child-Directed Speech Clear pronunciation and intonation Refers mostly to familiar objects, using content words Gradually becomes more complex as child learns Emphasis on keeping child’s attention Topics usually revolve around child’s focus

32 ADULT GRAMMAR  Object words become noun phrases  Verbs are added next, along with some function words  Inflection – change in form of word (such as a suffix) to show grammatical change

33 Acquisition of Meaning Pairings of objects with words repeatedly Overextension – the use of a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate –for example, calling anything furry a dog Underextension – use of a word to denote a smaller class of items than is appropriate –for example, only calling his pet a dog and not other dogs

34 Finally, some more key words – Protowords Child-Directed Speech Inflection Overextension Underextension THE END!!


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