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AMERICA AND THE WORLD, 1921-1945 America: Past and Present Chapter 27.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICA AND THE WORLD, 1921-1945 America: Past and Present Chapter 27."— Presentation transcript:

1 AMERICA AND THE WORLD, 1921-1945 America: Past and Present Chapter 27

2 Retreat, Reversal, and Rivalry  1920s--American diplomacy permeated by a sense of disillusionment  U.S. refuses to be bound by any agreement to preserve international peace

3 Retreat in Europe  U.S. quarrels with former allies over repayment of $10 billion in wartime loans  U.S. never joined the League of Nations  U.S. refuses recognition of Soviet Union

4 Cooperation in Latin America  Coolidge, Hoover, FDR substitute cooperation for military coercion  FDR’s "Good Neighbor" policy renounces past imperialism  U.S. continues political, economic domination of Latin America

5 Rivalry in Asia  1920--Japanese occupy Korea, parts of Manchuria  U.S. Open Door policy blocks Japanese dominance of China

6 Rivalry in Asia: Washington Conference of 1921  England agrees to U.S. naval equality  Japan accepted as third largest naval power  All nations agree to limit naval construction  Nine-Power Treaty--Open Door Policy reaffirmed  Four-Power Treaty--establishes alliance among U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France

7 Isolationism  Depression shifts focus to domestic affairs  Rise of militaristic regimes threatens war – Germany – Italy – Japan

8 The Lure of Pacifism and Neutrality  Most Americans resolved against another meaningless war  1935--Senator Gerald Nye leads passage of neutrality legislation – U.S. trade with nations at war prohibited – U.S. loans to nations at war prohibited  1937--Japan invades China  FDR permits sale of arms to China

9 War in Europe  FDR approves appeasement of Hitler  1938--Hitler seizes Czechoslovakia  FDR attempts to revise the neutrality acts, to give edge to England, France  July, 1939--FDR attacks neutrality acts  September 1939--W.W.II begins, Roosevelt declares the acts in force

10 The Road to War  U.S. remains at peace 1939-1941  Popular sympathy for Allies, distaste for Germany and Japan  Roosevelt openly expresses favor for Allies, moves cautiously to avoid isolationist outcry

11 From Neutrality to Undeclared War  1939-41--FDR seeks help for England without actually entering the war  November, 1939--belligerents may buy U.S. goods on "cash and carry" basis  1940--German occupation of France


13 From Neutrality to Undeclared War: Increased Aid to England  U.S. gives or loans war supplies  U.S. ships transport war supplies  Eventual consensus that a Nazi victory in Europe would threaten western civilization

14 Showdown in the Pacific  1937--Japanese occupation of coastal China  U.S. limits exports to Japan of strategic materials  1940--Japan allies with Germany, Italy  Japanese invasion of Indochina prompts U.S. to end all trade

15 Showdown in the Pacific: Pearl Harbor  1941--U.S.-Japanese negotiations  Japan’s demands – free hand in China – restoration of normal trade relations  U.S. demands Japanese troops out of China  December 7, 1941--Pearl Harbor attacked  December 8--War declared

16 Turning the Tide Against the Axis  December, 1941--Axis on the offensive  1942-43--U.S., England, Russia fight to seize the initiative  1944-45--offensive to crush Axis

17 Wartime Partnerships  U.S.-English alliance cemented by personal friendship between FDR and Churchill  Soviet Union unsatisfied with alliance  Soviet Union often feels alone in conflict  Wartime tensions persist after victory

18 Halting the German Blitz  November 1942--U.S. invades North Africa  May 1943--U.S., England invade Italy – Mussolini falls from power – slow advance up the Italian peninsula  Summer, 1943--Battle of Stalingrad – Russia defeats Germans – begins advance into eastern Europe

19 Checking Japan in the Pacific  Two-pronged drive against Japan – Douglas MacArthur leads drive through New Guinea to the Philippines – Chester Nimitz leads navy westward from Pearl Harbor to the Philippines  June, 1942--victory at Midway launches advance into Japanese-held territories

20 World War II in the Pacific

21 The Home Front  War ends depression  Economy geared for military output  Automobile factories converted to tank and airplane production  Women moved into the workplace  Demographic shifts

22 The Arsenal of Democracy  Scarce goods rationed  Income of lowest-paid laborers increases faster than the rich  High savings rate lays basis for postwar prosperity

23 A Nation on the Move  Wartime migration South and West  Early marriages, increased birth rates  Family-related social problems – housing shortages – more divorces – neglected children

24 A Nation on the Move: Improving Conditions  Women’s income increases 50%  African Americans – equal opportunities in war-related industry – surging migration from the rural South  Mexican-Americans take urban factory jobs

25 A Nation on the Move: Japanese Internment  120,000 Japanese moved from the West Coast to detention camps  1944--Supreme Court rejects appeal for release  1988--Congress votes indemnity of $1.2 billion for survivors

26 Japanese American Internment Camps

27 Win-the-War Politics  1942--Republican-Southern Democrat coalition controls Congress  November, 1944--Truman attracts moderates, FDR wins fourth term


29 Victory  June 6, 1944--Normandy Invasion  April 25, 1945--U.S., Russian forces meet at Torgau  May 7, 1945--unconditional German surrender

30 War Aims and Wartime Diplomacy  Russia claims eastern Europe as prize for conquest of Germany  U.S. seeks collective security arrangement including the United Nations  Yalta, Potsdam conferences clarify U.S., Soviet differences  April 12, 1945--FDR dies

31 World War II in Europe and North Africa

32 Triumph and Tragedy in the Pacific  June 21, 1945--U.S. capture Okinawa, complete control of Pacific  May-August--intense air attacks on Japan  August 6--atom bomb destroys Hiroshima  August 9--atom bomb destroys Nagasaki  August 14--Japan surrenders

33 The Transforming Power of War  U.S. the most powerful nation on earth  Unprecedented economic prosperity  Federal government a permanent force in daily life

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