Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Analytic Philosophy. Logic and the dream of a precise and unambiguous language Leibniz and the Characteristica universalis and the Calculus ratiocinator.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Analytic Philosophy. Logic and the dream of a precise and unambiguous language Leibniz and the Characteristica universalis and the Calculus ratiocinator."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analytic Philosophy

2 Logic and the dream of a precise and unambiguous language Leibniz and the Characteristica universalis and the Calculus ratiocinator

3 Gottlob Frege ( ) University of Jena Recognized as father of analytic philosophy Logicism (reduction of mathematics to pure logic; i.e. no psychologism or intuition) Quantification theory

4 Frege’s Begriffschrift

5 Jena

6

7

8

9 C. S. Peirce Truth table method Quantification theory Theory of relations Modal logic 3-valued logic

10 Peirce’s existential graphs

11 Harvard, Cambridge Mass. Sever Hall

12 Bertrand Russell ( ) University of Cambridge Logicism Principia Mathematica with Alfred North Whitehead 1916 dismissed from Cambridge and imprisoned during Great War for pacifism

13 University of Cambridge

14 Vienna (Wien) Austria

15 The Vienna Circle (Der Wiener Kreiss) Logical Empiricism/ Logical Positivism Mathematics, Modern Symbolic Logic & Natural Sciences (theory of relativity, quantum physics) Hume’s relations of ideas & matters of fact “When we run over our libraries persuaded of these [empiricist] principles, what havoc must we make? If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number [math]. No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence [natural science]. No. Commit it then to the flames: for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion.” David Hume An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748)

16 Moritz Schlick ( ) Founder of the Vienna Circle Murdered by a former student and Nazi for his Jewish sympathies Metaphysics results from a confusion over language; pseudoproblems

17 Einstein & Gödel

18 Kurt Gödel ( ) Member, Vienna Circle Mathematician, logician Completeness proof 1 st -order predicate logic; incompleteness theorems -> trouble for the logicist program

19 Ludwig Wittgenstein ( )

20 Wittgenstein Studied with Russell at Cambridge ( ) on Frege’s advice Fought for Austria in Great War ( ) POW in Italy; writes Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Some-time member Vienna Circle 20’s 1929 return to Cambridge, DPhil for Tractatus Norway, writes Philosophical Investigations ‘39-Cambridge professor becomes British citizen (as a Jew not comfortable in Nazi Austria) Philosophical puzzles result from misapplications of our ordinary uses of language ‘Language games’; ‘forms of life’; pragmatic approach

21 Rise of Hitler and the National Socialists

22 Heidegger ( ) Philosophy of Being; Dasein Member of Nazi party “Highly eccentric in its terminology, his philosophy is extremely obscure. One cannot help suspecting that language here is running riot. An interesting point in his speculations is the insistence that nothingness is something positive. As with much else in Existentialism, this is a psychological observation made to pass for logic.” Russell, Wisdom of the West, 303

23 Alfred Jules Ayer ( ) Oxford Visit with the Vienna Circle Language Truth and Logic 1936 Verifiability theory of meaning (any statement that cannot be verified is meaningless)

24 Willard Van Orman Quine ( ) Harvard University PhD under Whitehead on PM Visit with Vienna Circle “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” “Epistemology naturalized”

25 Hilary Putnam (1926-) Harvard Mathematics, Logic and Philosophy Reason, Truth and History 1980 Critique of ‘metaphysical realism’ (the ‘God’s eye view’) ‘Internal realism’ (realism from within a conceptual scheme/language)

26 Richard Rorty ( ) Stanford Major critic of analytic philosophy Though analytically trained himself Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature 1980

27 Language and the World How does language ‘hook onto’ the world? Can there be one uniquely true account of reality? Or are there multiple accounts/descriptions suitable for distinct purposes? E.g. scientific, spiritual/religious Is this relativism? What of objectivity?

28 Analytic Philosophy Today


Download ppt "Analytic Philosophy. Logic and the dream of a precise and unambiguous language Leibniz and the Characteristica universalis and the Calculus ratiocinator."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google