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COLLECTIVE ACTION IN MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS - CASE STUDIES FROM KARNATAKA, INDIA Dr. M.R. GIRISH Assistant Professor Centre for Agrarian Studies National.

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Presentation on theme: "COLLECTIVE ACTION IN MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS - CASE STUDIES FROM KARNATAKA, INDIA Dr. M.R. GIRISH Assistant Professor Centre for Agrarian Studies National."— Presentation transcript:

1 COLLECTIVE ACTION IN MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS - CASE STUDIES FROM KARNATAKA, INDIA Dr. M.R. GIRISH Assistant Professor Centre for Agrarian Studies National Institute of Rural Development Rajendranagar HYDERABAD –

2 BACKDROP The policing approach of the Forest Department resulted in continual clash of interests between the forest staff and the local communities with regard to use of forest resources. Foresters realised that strong laws are meaningless and counter productive without adequate and voluntary participation by the local communities. User communities are likely to protect forests when they have a say in forest management and receive a significant proportion of the benefits.

3 DEFINITION OF JOINT MANAGEMENT Joint Management of forest lands is the sharing of the products, responsibilities, control and decision-making authority over forest lands between Forest Department and local user groups. It involves a contract specifying the distribution of authority, responsibility and benefits between villages and State Forest Departments with respect to land allocated for Joint Management. Source: Moench

4 GENESIS OF JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT IN INDIA 1972 – Arabari (West Bengal) Mid-1970s – Sukhomajri (Haryana) Two most well known pilot experiments in early 1970s

5 JFM ENVISAGES A MOVEMENT Source: SPWD (1992) FROMTO Centralized managementDecentralized management Production motivesSustainability Large working plansMicro-plans Unilateral decision makingParticipatory decision making Controlling peopleFacilitating people DepartmentPeople’s institution Achieving single, pre-set objective Fulfilling multiple, need based objectives Timber productionMultiple products combined with bio-diversity Plantation as first optionLow input management and regeneration

6 CASE STUDY - 1 Five VFCs in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka  Rs. 5,000/- seed money to each VFC  VFC members provided labour for planting purpose  Exposure trips and trainings to the VFC members  Fencing in the form of CPTs or barbed wire.  Audhal  Kabbe  Bugaribail  Honnebail  Satgeri (All Women VFC)

7 MOTIVATION FOR FORMING VFCs Audhal VFC - Benefits Kabbe VFC – Scarcity of wood for fuelwood and implements and ecological balance Bugaribail VFC – Benefits, migration problem (into the village resulting in degradation of woodlots) and protection (gift to nature) Honnebail VFC – Fuelwood, fodder and other benefits Satgeri VFC – Poverty, fulfillment of domestic demands and improvement in environment

8 WATCH AND WARD Audhal VFC – FD watchman Kabbe VFC – FD watchman Bugaribail VFC – FD watchman + night patrolling Honnebail VFC – FD watchman + night patrolling Satgeri VFC –FD watchman

9 GRAZING Audhal VFC – Grass harvested and shared among the members Honnebail VFC – Allotment of grass patches to members Satgeri VFC – Grass harvested only during rainy season and shared among the members

10 CASE STUDY - 2 Marketing of uppage (Garcinia cambogia) through VFCs Unchalli VFC  Not interested in marketing of uppage as 50 % of the receipts go to Forest Department  VFC receives royalty from the contractor for collection rights of uppage in VFC area Hallibail VFC Auction price was almost equivalent to upset price Reduction of the auction price by FD tax amount VFC receives royalty from the contractor for collection rights of uppage in VFC area

11 Badagi VFC  Auction price was almost equivalent to upset price  Reduction of the auction price by FD tax amount  Objection by forest contractor regarding the smuggling of the produce by the auction bidders  VFC receives royalty from the contractor for collection rights of uppage in VFC area

12 Marketing of harda (Terminalia chebula) through VFCs Thimbolli VFC CASE STUDY - 3 Bori VFC Till 2001, sale of harda through VFC In 2002, dispute in VFC area Since 2002, lack of demand for harda  Till 2001, sale of harda through VFC  Since 2002, lack of demand  In 2002 and 2003, sale of harda to contractors directly

13 Unchalli VFC oTo promote unchalli waterfalls oFees collected from visitors of waterfalls oForest Department – water supply and sanitation facilities oZilla Panchayath – stairs and viewpoints oLack of co-operation from other departments CASE STUDY - 4 Promotion of eco-tourism by VFC

14 LESSONS LEARNT  Relationships between Forest Department and local communities have improved greatly due to JFMPs  Women protect forests better because they are more concerned and conscious about forests  Smaller the village and greater the homogeneity, greater the success of JFMPs  Success of JFMPs also depends upon strong users groups

15  Potential returns from JFM are large and available to the entire community  JFMPs reduce greatly the regeneration costs of degraded lands

16 THANK YOU


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