Presentation on theme: "Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions Printing."— Presentation transcript:
Perspective and Printing Press - The First Information Revolutions Printing
Language: The First Information Technology Greek Ena Dio Tria Tessera Pente Hexa Hepta Okto Ennea Deka Russian Odin Dva Tri Chetyre Pyat Shest Sem Vosem Dyevyat Dyesyat Latin Unus Duo Tres Quattuor Quinque Sex Septem Octo Novem Decem Kurdish Eg Du Shay Char Pench Shash Haysh Heft Na Da German Eins Zwei Drei Vier Funf Sechs Sieben Acht Neun Zehn English One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten
Language Families Arabic Wahid Ithnain Thalatha Arba’a Khamsa Sitta Saba Thamanya Tisa Ashra Kurdish Eg Du Shay Char Pench Shash Haysh Heft Na Da English One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Turkish Bir Iki Uc Dort Bes Alti Yedi Sekiz Dokuz On
The Indo-European Languages Germanic – English, German, Dutch, Scandinavian Romance (From Latin) – French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian Slavic – Russian, Polish, Czech, Serbo-Croatian Others: Hellenic, Iranian, Indian, etc.
Tracking Language Evolution Historical Documents Words resistant to borrowing (small numbers, self, mother, sun, etc.) Patterns of Sound Change Grammatical Structures Genetics Search for the Proto-Language
A Modern Idea? AlfaHotelOscarVictor BravoIndiaPapaWhiskey CharlieJulietQuebecX-Ray DeltaKiloRomeoYankee EchoLimaSierraZulu FoxtrotMikeTango GolfNovemberUniform
The Oldest Idea in the Book Hebrew 1000 B.C. Aleph - Ox Beth - House Gimel - Camel Daleth - Door Old Slavic 1000 A.D. Az (I) Buki (Beech Tree) Vedi (Know) Glagol (Word) Dobro (Good) In a pre-literate world, the best way to learn the alphabet is to use words as mnemonics, not meaningless syllables
How We Got English Pre-Roman Britain was Celtic – Only a few place names are relics (Ben for mountain, glen for valley) Romans occupied Britain – Castra, military camp, survives in Lancaster, Worcester, Manchester Angles and Saxons invaded starting in the 5th Century – Largely wiped the linguistic slate clean
English is a Germanic Language Closest language is Frisian, spoken by 300,000 in Holland and Germany Closest national language to English is Dutch About 80% of our small everyday words (day, word, father, mother, sun, moon) are Germanic Sometimes the relationship is hard to see: Vogel isn’t much like bird but very similar to fowl
Word Endings The Dog Bites the Man is not the same as The Man Bites the Dog -but- Der Hund beisst den Mann means exactly the same as Den Mann beisst der Hund
Dropping the Endings Languages that use word endings for meaning are called inflected England was partly occupied by the Vikings beginning in 865 A.D. Vikings and Anglo-Saxons spoke Germanic languages but differed in word endings We just dropped the word endings (except for plural s, possessive ‘s, and a few others)
The French Influence In 911 the King of France gave part of France to a Viking chief in return for protection This region, settled by the “Norsemen,” came to be called Normandy In 1066, William of Normandy (a Viking descendant) defeated Harold (also a Viking descendant) and conquered England By this time, the Normans spoke French
A Double Language More earthy terms tend to be Anglo-Saxon, more abstract synonyms French: FriendshipAmity FreedomLiberty LoveAffection
A Double Language Rural and small-town occupation names are often English, more urban or technical ones French: BakerCarpenter MillerPainter WeaverMason
A Double Language French government terms reflect a more complex society than Anglo-Saxon terms KingGovernor QueenParliament
A Double Language The English grew it, the French cooked it SheepMutton CowBeef DeerVenison Of course, many cooking terms are French: Fry, Broil
Prerequisites for Printing Paper! Cheap, abundant, smooth and absorbent. Far better for printing than papyrus or vellum. Means of printing impressions. Chinese wood-block printing. Wood block used in Europe in 14th century for religious pictures and cards. Laurenz Janzoon (1420-30) used blocks for individual letters. Press adapted from wine-making, book-binding, paper-making
Advent of movable type Metal type used ca. 1430 in Holland to stamp copper plates. Lead poured on to copper to make printing face Gutenberg ca. 1450 used dies as masters to cast copies of letters. Early type letters Pb-Sn (for corrosion resistance) - Sb (for hardness). Basically modern composition. Type metal is one of the oldest unchanged industrial materials.
The Spread of Printing By 1480, there were printing presses in 110 towns. Ten million books in print by 1500. Aldus Manutius of Venice (d. 1515). First cheap mass-market books. William Caxton, 1476, first press in England
The Great Vowel Shift Almost all English “long” vowels are diphthongs or blends of vowel sounds – “a” in “bay” = a + i as in “bait” – “i” as in “bite” = e + i as in “height” – “o” as in “go” = o + u as in “though” We also dropped or changed guttural “gh”: cough, through, light, sight
Why English Spelling is so Chaotic Great Vowel Shift happened just as English was first being printed Caxton used the spelling system of Chaucer (ca. 1400) Result: English was set into print with an already-obsolete spelling system Also, English has borrowed from just about every other language and preserved their spelling
Effects of printing Vast increase in literacy. Rapid dissemination of ideas. Standardization and simplification of spelling. (& from Latin et and % from p/c are relics of pre- printing days) Stimulus toward accuracy.
Change in our concept of "fact" Before printing, documents were suspect as too easily forged. Eyewitnesses and personal testimony were considered more reliable. Printing made documents more authoritative than personal testimony. Hard to fake printed documents. Before printing, people relied on memory to store facts. Printing changed the concept of "fact" to "printed fact"; "show me in black and white.” Electronic forgery: we have come full circle from pre- printing days
The printed image Wood-cut along with type. Itaglio-engraved metal. Copper plates with engraved lines did for pictures what type did for text. Lithography. Zinc plate, 1868. Photography-halftone method. Xerography, computer graphics, etc.
Printing, Culture, and Control Europe: mass literature China: official documents, validation Islamic World: suppressed until 19 th century Modern corporate and government attempts to control Internet, copyrights, etc.