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Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall 2001. Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 1 Michael Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial.

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Presentation on theme: "Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall 2001. Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 1 Michael Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 1 Michael Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 Reading Assignment: TMB2: Section 2.4.

2 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 2 A View of the Human Brain

3 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 3 A View of the Monkey Brain

4 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 4 Dorsal  Spinal Cord  Ventral

5 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 5 Flexor and Extensor Muscles

6 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 6 How Motoneuron Firing Shortens Muscles Henneman’s Size Principle: See HBTNN: Motoneuron recruitment

7 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 7 Eye and retina

8 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 8 Retinotopy

9 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 9 Mammalian and Frog Visual Systems

10 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 10 Mammalian Auditory System

11 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 11 Broca’s and Wernicke’s Aphasias Paul Broca (1865): Broca's aphasia is characterized by nonfluent speech, few words, short sentences, and many pauses. The words that the patient can produce come with great effort and often sound distorted. The melodic intonation is flat and monopitched. This gives the speech the general appearance of a telegraphic nature, because of the deletion of functor words and disturbances in word order. However, aural comprehension for conversational speech is relatively intact. There is often an accompanying right hemiparesis involving the face, arm, and leg. Carl Wernicke (1874): Wernicke’s aphasia is known as a fluent aphasia because the patient does not appear to have any difficulty articulating speech, but may be paraphasic. However, comprehension of speech is impaired and sometimes even single words are not comprehended. The patient may even speak in a meaningless “neoligistic” jargon, devoid of any content but with free use of verb tenses, clauses, and subordinates.

12 Dorsal  Language Cortex  Ventral Warning: Localization of Aphasias is HIGHLY Variable Wernicke’s original drawing (wrong hemisphere!) Broca’s Area (Negative Image) Wernicke’s Area MRI-scans from Keith A. Johnson, M.D. and J. Alex Becker The Whole Brain Atlas AANLIB/home.html Slice viewed from below: So “right” is left a = Wernicke b = Broca

13 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 13 Reading, No - Writing, Yes! Alexia without Agraphia Dejerine, 1892

14 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 14 Frog Snake Horse Primitive Mammal Catfish Alligator Goose Varieties of Vertebrate Brains

15 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 15 The “Bauplan” for the Mammalian Brain

16 Arbib: CS564 - Brain Theory and Artificial Intelligence, USC, Fall Lecture 2. Charting the Brain 1 16 From Basic Vertebrate to Primate Brain


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