Presentation on theme: "Providing Concrete Textual Evidence This will definitely help me write my next paper!"— Presentation transcript:
Providing Concrete Textual Evidence This will definitely help me write my next paper!
Responding to a Text When we look at a story (a text), any personal opinions we have about that story are our own abstract ideas. –For instance: Mme. Loisel is selfish. Mme. Loisel is misunderstood. Mme. Loisel is ungrateful. These abstract ideas, however, are meaningless without concrete evidence to prove them.
Concrete Evidence You must prove your abstract ideas about a text, or they’re meaningless! –You’re not literary scholars, believe it or not, so we can’t trust you unless you offer proof. In literary analysis, concrete textual evidence occurs in the form of direct quotations.
Direct Quotations There are three common situations when quotation marks should be used: –1) When writing the title of a short text, i.e. short story, article, or poem (ex: “The Necklace”) –2) When people are speaking in a story (dialogue) –3) When you’re borrowing someone else’s words (direct quotations) We’re dealing with this one
Formatting Direct Quotations There are two rules when writing a direct quotation: –1) Words within quotation marks must be verbatim –2) Quote must be cited Citation: Gives credit to the source Includes author’s last name and the page number on which the quote occurred. Example: “She tried on these adornments in front of the mirror” (Maupassant 35 ). – NOTICE THE PERIOD FALLS AFTER THE CITATION, NOT AFTER THE QUOTE!
Formatting Direct Quotations A quote ending in a period: “She tried on these adornments in front of the mirror” (Maupassant 35). A quote ending in a question mark ( special) : “Haven’t you something else ? ” (Maupassant 30). A quote ending in an exclamation point (special) : “My how you’ve changed ! ” (Maupassant 29). What about a quote that doesn’t end in punctuation because it’s only part of a sentence…?
Formatting Direct Quotations Use of an ellipses (…) –Indicates something has been removed –Original Quote: “She was not selfish, and in fact, she was quite generous” (Maupassant 34). –Ellipses can be used: At the beginning: “…she was quite generous” (Maupassant 34). In the middle: “She was not selfish…she was quite generous” (Maupassant 34). At the end: “She was not selfish…” (Maupassant 34).
Formatting Direct Quotations Rules of ellipses: 1) Even though words have been removed, the quote must still make sense. Bad: “She was not…was…generous” (Maupassant 34). Good: “She was not selfish…she was…generous” (Maupassant 34). 2) You may not change or manipulate the meaning of the original text. Bad:“She was not…generous” (Maupassant 34). Good: “She was not selfish” (Maupassant 34).
Formatting Direct Quotations Quoting multiple pages –If you take quotes from various pages, you have to indicate that in your citation. Dash: “My how you’ve changed!...but my dear, that was only paste!” (Maupassant 29-31). -A dash between pages indicates “through,” so this quote was taken from page 29 through page 31 (29, 30, 31). Comma: “My how you’ve changed!...but my dear, that was only paste!” (Maupassant 29,31). -A comma between pages indicates “and,” so this quote was taken from page 29 and page 31 (29, 31)
Formatting Direct Quotations Sometimes you will quote dialogue, which means that there will be multiple sets of quotation marks (one of you indicating you’ve borrowed words, and another for the characters speaking). When this happens, remember these two guidelines: 1) My quotes: Two bunny ears Book’s quotes: One bunny ear 2) You must close the same number of bunny ears as you open. Examples: – “ She tried on these adornments… ‘ Haven’t you something else? ’” (Maupassant 30). –Now give it a try on your own: Loisel held her back. Hold on! You’ll catch cold outside. I’ll call a cab Maupassant 30
Ridiculous? I think not. College professors DO NOT TEACH these things. They expect you to walk in having perfected them. You use these skills in every paper you write.