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© 2011 The Ohio State University Plug-In Electric Vehicles: Motivation, Architecture, and Impact Shawn Midlam-Mohler, PhD, PE Assistant Professor of Practice Ohio State University Department of Mechanical Engineering and Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research
© 2011 The Ohio State University Introduction Motivation for PEVs PEV Technology Well-to-Wheels Impact Grid Impact 2
© 2011 The Ohio State University World Oil Supply 3 “Long-Term World Oil Supply Scenarios - The Future Is Neither as Bleak or Rosy as Some Assert”, John H. Wood, Gary R. Long, David F. Morehouse, DOE/EIA Report, August, 2004.
© 2011 The Ohio State University Importance of Petroleum in the U.S. 4 ~70% for transportation “State and U.S. Historical Data”, US Report DOE/EIA, January 2007 NGPL = Natural Gas Plant Liquids
© 2011 The Ohio State University World Oil Supply Estimates 5 “Long-Term World Oil Supply Scenarios - The Future Is Neither as Bleak or Rosy as Some Assert”, John H. Wood, Gary R. Long, David F. Morehouse, DOE/EIA Report, August, 2004.
© 2011 The Ohio State University Energy Use and Per Capita GDP
© 2011 The Ohio State University EV AND PHEV TECHNOLOGY 7
© 2011 The Ohio State University Fueling the Future: An Early Perspective 8 "The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today, but such oils may become in the course of time as important as the petroleum and coal tar products of the present time.“ - Rudolph Diesel, 1912 "The fuel of the future is going to come from fruit like that sumac out by the road, or from apples, weeds, sawdust - almost anything. There is fuel in every bit of vegetable matter that can be fermented. There's enough alcohol in one year's yield of an acre of potatoes to drive the machinery necessary to cultivate the fields for a hundred years.“ - Henry Ford, 1925
© 2011 The Ohio State University Electrified Vehicles: Then and Now 9 1917 Woods Dual Power 2010 Chevy Volt 1914 Detroit Electric Model 472010 Nissan Leaf Hybrid Electric Vehicles Electric Vehicles
© 2011 The Ohio State University Plugging-in.. how many PEVs?? Based on the historical rate of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) growth as a benchmark for the first 10 years, and realistic technology sales growth projections by 2020 based on known technical and infrastructure challenges Courtesy of California Air Resources Board
© 2011 The Ohio State University Where does the Energy Go? In urban driving, how much fuel energy is actually used propel a conventional vehicle? a)6%b) 13% c)23%d) 31% 11 ?% Dissipation of kinetic energy Overcoming tire rolling resistance Overcoming aerodynamic drag
© 2011 The Ohio State University Where does the Energy Go? In urban driving, how much fuel energy is actually used propel a conventional vehicle? a)6%b) 13% c)23%d) 31% 12 ?% Dissipation of kinetic energy Overcoming tire rolling resistance Overcoming aerodynamic drag
© 2011 The Ohio State University Conventional Vehicle 13 Engine Transmission Fuel Tank Efficiency improvements hard fought – usually focusing on the engine, driveline, and accessories Advanced engine technology (Diesel, variable valve timing, etc.) are all part of the solution Reduced vehicle size is one of the most reliable means of reducing fuel economy
© 2011 The Ohio State University Mild Hybrid 14 Engine Transmission BSA Battery Pack Fuel Tank A Belted Starter Alternator (BSA) is a small electric motor coupled to the engine in place of the alternator The motor allows the engine to be restarted rapidly, which reduces idle time (i.e. standby losses) The small battery pack for the BSA allows electrification of accessories
© 2011 The Ohio State University Full Hybrid 15 Engine Transmission Battery Pack Fuel Tank EM A hybrid vehicle contains at least one large electric motor, usually two in today’s production vehicles The motors allow engine stop-start and downsizing of the engine for more efficient operation More aggressive regenerative braking is also possible as are electric accessories
© 2011 The Ohio State University Hybrid Fuel Economy Comparison 16 City Fuel Economy: ~50% better for HEV Highway Fuel Economy: ~10% better for HEV Five cars with conventional and hybrid models: 1.Honda Civic 2.Nissan Altima 3.Ford Escape 4.Toyota Highlander 5.Chevy Tahoe
© 2011 The Ohio State University Electric Vehicle 17 Electric Motor Transmission Battery Pack Vehicle is independent of petroleum and zero emissions Typically reduced range (<100 miles) and long recharge times (several hours) Well-to-Wheel analysis is critical
© 2011 The Ohio State University Sample EV Window Sticker 18
© 2011 The Ohio State University Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles 19 Engine Transmission Battery Pack Fuel Tank EM Cross between HEV and Electric Vehicle – In vehicles like the Chevy Volt, the vehicle can go 30 miles using only electricity – After which, it operates like a conventional HEV For many drivers, functions as an EV during daily commute
© 2011 The Ohio State University Sample PHEV Window Sticker 20
© 2011 The Ohio State University Technology Summary Technologies Discussed: – Mild Hybrids, Full Hybrids, Electric Vehicles, Plug-In Hybrids PHEVs a good compromise between EV and HEV Other Technologies can come to bear on the issue: – Fuel Cells – Alternative Fuels – Alternative Combustion Modes – Waste Heat Recovery – Many others Current designs are largely no-compromise designs 21
© 2011 The Ohio State University WELL-TO-WHEELS ANALYSIS 22
© 2011 The Ohio State University Types of Vehicles Charge Sustaining Electric Drive Vehicles: – Today’s HEVs – No ability to connect to grid – All energy comes from on-board chemical fuel Charge Depleting Electric Drive Vehicles: – PHEVs and EVs – Require or expected to be connected to grid – For PHEVs, energy is mix between on-board chemical fuel and electricity The latter category requires a more in-depth approach for evaluating the impact 23
© 2011 The Ohio State University Timing of Charging Matters for PEVs 24
© 2011 The Ohio State University Location of Charging Matters for PEVs 25
© 2011 The Ohio State University Usage Patterns Matter for PEVs 26
© 2011 The Ohio State University Well-to-Wheel Analysis For advanced technology vehicles and alternative fuels, a well-to-wheel analysis is vital There are no emissions from an electric vehicle directly – but where does the fuel come from? For biomass based fuels, there is considerable debate on the true life-cycle cost of the fuels 27 Zero Emissions, High Efficiency Regulated Emissions, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, High Energy Conversion Losses (Chemical->Mechanical->Electrical)
© 2011 The Ohio State University Well-to-Wheel Petroleum Usage 28
© 2011 The Ohio State University Well-to-Wheel GHG Emissions 29
© 2011 The Ohio State University Well-to-Wheel NOx Emissions 30
© 2011 The Ohio State University Well-to-Wheel SOx Emissions 31
© 2011 The Ohio State University Well-to-Wheels Conclusions Charge depleting electric drive vehicles can offer major gains in petroleum usage and greenhouse gas emissions – Certain regulated emissions can increase from conventional vehicles – Generation mix, time of charging events, and vehicle driving patterns all impact environmental impact Charge sustaining electric drive vehicles (i.e. today’s conventional HEVs) offer more modest improvements in petroleum and GHG with no increase in regulated emissions 32
© 2011 The Ohio State University WHAT IS OSU DOING IN THIS AREA? 33
© 2011 The Ohio State University OSU PEV Activities Education at undergraduate and graduate level (GATE Program) Privately funded research in the area of batteries, PEV control, advanced vehicle lubricants, and much more Consortium funded research in many areas through SMART@CAR Consortium Student motorsports projects: – Electric Motorcycle – Buckeye Bullet 3 – EcoCAR 2 34
© 2011 The Ohio State University What is EcoCAR 2? A three year student vehicle competition: – 15 top schools selected in competitive entry process – Engineering, business, and communications focus Students focus on: – Improving efficiency – Reducing emissions – Reducing petroleum usage – Improving stock performance and consumer features GM provides a 2013 Chevy Malibu at the start of Year 2 35
© 2011 The Ohio State University OSU EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Components 1.8L E85 Engine A123 Systems Battery Pack Parker-Hannifin Electric Machine and GM 6-Speed Automated Manual Transmission Parker-Hannifin Electric Machine and BorgWarner Single Speed Gearbox
© 2011 The Ohio State University Charge-Depleting Front 37 OSU EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Modes
© 2011 The Ohio State University Charge-Sustaining Series Front 38 OSU EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Modes
© 2011 The Ohio State University Charge-Sustaining Parallel Front 39 OSU EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Modes
© 2011 The Ohio State University Year 1 Results 40 Second Place Overall
© 2011 The Ohio State University Questions? 41
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