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An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

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1 An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

2 Anatomy - The study of the structure and shape of the body parts and their relationships to one another Gross Anatomy - the study of large, easily observable structures Greek words - cut (tomy), apart (ana) Microscopic Anatomy - cells and tissues that can only be seen through a microscope What is anatomy?

3 Physiology - The study of how the body and its parts work or function.
Physio = Nature ology = the study of neurophysiology?, cardiac physiology? What is Physiology?

4 How They Work Together Structure determines the function.
Lungs: Walls of air sacs are made of thin tissue Used to exchange gases and provide oxygen to the body Heart: Walls made of Muscle Used to pump blood throughout the body How They Work Together Structure determines the function.

5 Structural Organization
Chemical level - Atoms combine to make molecules Ex: Water, Sugar, Protein Cellular Level - made up of molecules Ex: Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar Tissue Level - made up from different types of cells Ex: Epithelium, Connective, Nervous, Muscle Structural Organization

6 Structural Organization
Organ Level - Made up from different types of tissues Heart, Lungs, Kidneys, Stomach, Liver, Spleen, Intestines Organ System - different organs working together Cardiovascular, Nervous, Respiratory Organism - made up of many organ systems Animals, Humans, Plants, Insects, Amphibians Structural Organization

7 Organ Systems Skeletal Cardiovascular Integumentary Lymphatic Muscular
Nervous Endocrine Respiratory Cardiovascular Lymphatic Digestive Urinary Reproductive Organ Systems

8 Like all complex beings, we maintain boundaries, move, and respond to environmental changes
Humans take in and digest nutrients, carry out metabolism, dispose of wastes, grow and reproduce Our organ systems work together to promote the well being of the human body Maintaining Life

9 Maintaining Boundaries
Separates “inside” from “outside.” Every cell in the human body is surrounded by an external membrane that contains its contents Cells allow needed substances in, while restricting damaging or unnecessary substances Not to mention the Integumentary system, or our skin Maintaining Boundaries

10 Movement Promoted by the muscular system, aided by the skeletal system
Ability to use our body to manipulate the external environment Ability to propel blood, breakdown food, excrete wastes, utilizing every internal organ in the body Movement

11 Also known as irritability - the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then react to them Ex: burn on stove top - pain stimuli - pull hand back Ex: amount of carbon dioxide in your blood rises too high, body automatically increases breathing rate to excrete excess CO2. Nervous system is mainly responsible for responsiveness Responsiveness

12 Digestion Breaking down ingested food into simple molecules
Molecules are then absorbed into the blood Delivery of molecules are transferred to all body cells via the cardiovascular system Digestion

13 Metabolism All chemical reactions that occur within body cells
Breaking down complex substances into simpler building blocks Uses nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP molecules, creating energy Utilizes the digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular and endocrine systems Metabolism

14 Excretion Removing wastes from the body
Rids the body of non-useful substances Utilizes digestive and urinary systems Excretion

15 Reproduction Production of offspring
Cellular reproduction - original cells divides, and producing two identical daughter cells, used for body growth or repair Human reproduction - sperm fertilizes an egg which forms an embryo Regulated by hormones in the endocrine system Reproduction

16 Growth An increase in size
Accomplished by an increased number of cells Cell constructing activities must occur faster than cell destroying activities Growth

17 Nutrients - contains chemicals used for energy and cell building (Carbs, Proteins, Fats, Minerals, Vitamins) Oxygen - chemical reactions that release energy from foods require oxygen Water % of body is made up of water Appropriate Temperature - 37 degrees Celsius, or 98 degrees Fahrenheit, the lower the temperature the slower the metabolic reactions become Atmospheric Pressure - Force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air.  Exchange of O2 and CO2 also depend on this pressure Survival Needs

18 Homeostasis A Dynamic state of equilibrium
Body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing Homeo - The Same Stasis - Standing Still Homeostasis

19 Control Mechanisms Nervous and endocrine systems 3 Components:
Receptor (input) - sensor that monitors and responds to change (stimuli) Control Center - (brain) via afferent pathways, analyzes information and determines response Effector (output) - via efferent pathway, tells the stimuli what the control center wants Control Mechanisms

20 Negative feedback - shut off the original stimulus to reduce its intensity.
Ex: AC Unit Used in body to regulate: heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, blood glucose level, O2, CO2, and minerals Positive feedback - Push stimulus further from its original value. the body rarely utilizes this type of feedback. Control Mechanism

21 To understand the terminology associated with the human body we must establish a standard position
Anatomical Position Body terminology used refers to different body locations regardless of the body’s current position Language of Anatomy

22 General Terminology Dorsal Superior Palmar Inferior Plantar Anterior
Posterior Medial Lateral Dorsal Palmar Plantar Proximal Distal Superficial Deep General Terminology

23 Anterior Landmarks Abdominal Acromial Antecubital Axillary Brachial
Orbital Patellar Pelvic Pubic Sternal Tarsal Thoracic Umbilical Abdominal Acromial Antecubital Axillary Brachial Buccal Carpal Cervical Coxal Crural Digital Femoral Fibular Inguinal Nasal Oral Anterior Landmarks

24 Posterior Landmarks Cephalic Sacral Deltoid Scapular Gluteal Sural
Vertebral Cephalic Deltoid Gluteal Lumbar Occipital Popliteal Posterior Landmarks

25 Body Planes and Sections
Sagittal Section - longitudinal, dividing the body into right and left parts Mid-sagittal Section - right and left parts are equal in size Frontal (Coronal) Section - longitudinal cut dividing body into anterior and posterior parts Transverse (Cross) Section - horizontal plane, dividing body into superior and inferior parts Body Planes and Sections

26 Body Cavities Dorsal Body Cavities: Ventral Body Cavities:
Cranial Cavity - brain Spinal Cavity - Spinal Cord Ventral Body Cavities: Thoracic Cavity - lungs and heart Abdominopelvic Cavity - stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines, reproductive organs, bladder, rectum Body Cavities

27 Upper Right and Left Lower Right and Left Quadrants

28 What organs are in each Quadrant?

29 URQ ULQ Upper Quadrants Right Lung Liver Gall-bladder Right Kidney
Intestines ULQ Heart, Left Lung Stomach, Spleen Left Kidney Pancreas Intestines Upper Quadrants

30 LRQ LLQ Lower Quadrants Appendix Intestines Intestines
Reproductive Organs Urinary System LLQ Intestines Reproductive organs Part of urinary system Lower Quadrants

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