2Anatomy - The study of the structure and shape of the body parts and their relationships to one anotherGross Anatomy - the study of large, easily observable structuresGreek words - cut (tomy), apart (ana)Microscopic Anatomy - cells and tissues that can only be seen through a microscopeWhat is anatomy?
3Physiology - The study of how the body and its parts work or function. Physio = Natureology = the study ofneurophysiology?, cardiac physiology?What is Physiology?
4How They Work Together Structure determines the function. Lungs:Walls of air sacs are made of thin tissueUsed to exchange gases and provide oxygen to the bodyHeart:Walls made of MuscleUsed to pump blood throughout the bodyHow They Work Together Structure determines the function.
5Structural Organization Chemical level - Atoms combine to make moleculesEx: Water, Sugar, ProteinCellular Level - made up of moleculesEx: Squamous, Cuboidal, ColumnarTissue Level - made up from different types of cellsEx: Epithelium, Connective, Nervous, MuscleStructural Organization
6Structural Organization Organ Level - Made up from different types of tissuesHeart, Lungs, Kidneys, Stomach, Liver, Spleen, IntestinesOrgan System - different organs working togetherCardiovascular, Nervous, RespiratoryOrganism - made up of many organ systemsAnimals, Humans, Plants, Insects, AmphibiansStructural Organization
7Organ Systems Skeletal Cardiovascular Integumentary Lymphatic Muscular NervousEndocrineRespiratoryCardiovascularLymphaticDigestiveUrinaryReproductiveOrgan Systems
8Like all complex beings, we maintain boundaries, move, and respond to environmental changes Humans take in and digest nutrients, carry out metabolism, dispose of wastes, grow and reproduceOur organ systems work together to promote the well being of the human bodyMaintaining Life
9Maintaining Boundaries Separates “inside” from “outside.”Every cell in the human body is surrounded by an external membrane that contains its contentsCells allow needed substances in, while restricting damaging or unnecessary substancesNot to mention the Integumentary system, or our skinMaintaining Boundaries
10Movement Promoted by the muscular system, aided by the skeletal system Ability to use our body to manipulate the external environmentAbility to propel blood, breakdown food, excrete wastes, utilizing every internal organ in the bodyMovement
11Also known as irritability - the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then react to themEx: burn on stove top - pain stimuli - pull hand backEx: amount of carbon dioxide in your blood rises too high, body automatically increases breathing rate to excrete excess CO2.Nervous system is mainly responsible for responsivenessResponsiveness
12Digestion Breaking down ingested food into simple molecules Molecules are then absorbed into the bloodDelivery of molecules are transferred to all body cells via the cardiovascular systemDigestion
13Metabolism All chemical reactions that occur within body cells Breaking down complex substances into simpler building blocksUses nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP molecules, creating energyUtilizes the digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular and endocrine systemsMetabolism
14Excretion Removing wastes from the body Rids the body of non-useful substancesUtilizes digestive and urinary systemsExcretion
15Reproduction Production of offspring Cellular reproduction - original cells divides, and producing two identical daughter cells, used for body growth or repairHuman reproduction - sperm fertilizes an egg which forms an embryoRegulated by hormones in the endocrine systemReproduction
16Growth An increase in size Accomplished by an increased number of cellsCell constructing activities must occur faster than cell destroying activitiesGrowth
17Nutrients - contains chemicals used for energy and cell building (Carbs, Proteins, Fats, Minerals, Vitamins)Oxygen - chemical reactions that release energy from foods require oxygenWater % of body is made up of waterAppropriate Temperature - 37 degrees Celsius, or 98 degrees Fahrenheit, the lower the temperature the slower the metabolic reactions becomeAtmospheric Pressure - Force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air. Exchange of O2 and CO2 also depend on this pressureSurvival Needs
18Homeostasis A Dynamic state of equilibrium Body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changingHomeo - The SameStasis - Standing StillHomeostasis
19Control Mechanisms Nervous and endocrine systems 3 Components: Receptor (input) - sensor that monitors and responds to change (stimuli)Control Center - (brain) via afferent pathways, analyzes information and determines responseEffector (output) - via efferent pathway, tells the stimuli what the control center wantsControl Mechanisms
20Negative feedback - shut off the original stimulus to reduce its intensity. Ex: AC UnitUsed in body to regulate: heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, blood glucose level, O2, CO2, and mineralsPositive feedback - Push stimulus further from its original value.the body rarely utilizes this type of feedback.Control Mechanism
21To understand the terminology associated with the human body we must establish a standard position Anatomical PositionBody terminology used refers to different body locations regardless of the body’s current positionLanguage of Anatomy
22General Terminology Dorsal Superior Palmar Inferior Plantar Anterior PosteriorMedialLateralDorsalPalmarPlantarProximalDistalSuperficialDeepGeneral Terminology
25Body Planes and Sections Sagittal Section - longitudinal, dividing the body into right and left partsMid-sagittal Section - right and left parts are equal in sizeFrontal (Coronal) Section - longitudinal cut dividing body into anterior and posterior partsTransverse (Cross) Section - horizontal plane, dividing body into superior and inferior partsBody Planes and Sections
26Body Cavities Dorsal Body Cavities: Ventral Body Cavities: Cranial Cavity - brainSpinal Cavity - Spinal CordVentral Body Cavities:Thoracic Cavity - lungs and heartAbdominopelvic Cavity - stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines, reproductive organs, bladder, rectumBody Cavities
27Upper Right and LeftLower Right and LeftQuadrants