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AN OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. WHAT IS ANATOMY?  Anatomy - The study of the structure and shape of the body parts and their relationships to.

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Presentation on theme: "AN OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. WHAT IS ANATOMY?  Anatomy - The study of the structure and shape of the body parts and their relationships to."— Presentation transcript:

1 AN OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

2 WHAT IS ANATOMY?  Anatomy - The study of the structure and shape of the body parts and their relationships to one another  Gross Anatomy - the study of large, easily observable structures  Greek words - cut (tomy), apart (ana)  Microscopic Anatomy - cells and tissues that can only be seen through a microscope

3 WHAT IS PHYSIOLOGY?  Physiology - The study of how the body and its parts work or function.  Physio = Nature  ology = the study of  neurophysiology?, cardiac physiology?

4 HOW THEY WORK TOGETHER STRUCTURE DETERMINES THE FUNCTION.  Lungs:  Walls of air sacs are made of thin tissue  Used to exchange gases and provide oxygen to the body  Heart:  Walls made of Muscle  Used to pump blood throughout the body

5 STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION  Chemical level - Atoms combine to make molecules  Ex: Water, Sugar, Protein  Cellular Level - made up of molecules  Ex: Squamous, Cuboidal, Columnar  Tissue Level - made up from different types of cells  Ex: Epithelium, Connective, Nervous, Muscle

6 STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION  Organ Level - Made up from different types of tissues  Heart, Lungs, Kidneys, Stomach, Liver, Spleen, Intestines  Organ System - different organs working together  Cardiovascular, Nervous, Respiratory  Organism - made up of many organ systems  Animals, Humans, Plants, Insects, Amphibians

7 ORGAN SYSTEMS  Skeletal  Integumentary  Muscular  Nervous  Endocrine  Respiratory  Cardiovascular  Lymphatic  Digestive  Urinary  Reproductive

8 MAINTAINING LIFE  Like all complex beings, we maintain boundaries, move, and respond to environmental changes  Humans take in and digest nutrients, carry out metabolism, dispose of wastes, grow and reproduce  Our organ systems work together to promote the well being of the human body

9 MAINTAINING BOUNDARIES  Separates “inside” from “outside.”  Every cell in the human body is surrounded by an external membrane that contains its contents  Cells allow needed substances in, while restricting damaging or unnecessary substances  Not to mention the Integumentary system, or our skin

10 MOVEMENT  Promoted by the muscular system, aided by the skeletal system  Ability to use our body to manipulate the external environment  Ability to propel blood, breakdown food, excrete wastes, utilizing every internal organ in the body

11 RESPONSIVENESS  Also known as irritability - the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then react to them  Ex: burn on stove top - pain stimuli - pull hand back  Ex: amount of carbon dioxide in your blood rises too high, body automatically increases breathing rate to excrete excess CO2.  Nervous system is mainly responsible for responsiveness

12 DIGESTION  Breaking down ingested food into simple molecules  Molecules are then absorbed into the blood  Delivery of molecules are transferred to all body cells via the cardiovascular system

13 METABOLISM  All chemical reactions that occur within body cells  Breaking down complex substances into simpler building blocks  Uses nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP molecules, creating energy  Utilizes the digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular and endocrine systems

14 EXCRETION  Removing wastes from the body  Rids the body of non-useful substances  Utilizes digestive and urinary systems

15 REPRODUCTION  Production of offspring  Cellular reproduction - original cells divides, and producing two identical daughter cells, used for body growth or repair  Human reproduction - sperm fertilizes an egg which forms an embryo  Regulated by hormones in the endocrine system

16 GROWTH  An increase in size  Accomplished by an increased number of cells  Cell constructing activities must occur faster than cell destroying activities

17 SURVIVAL NEEDS  Nutrients - contains chemicals used for energy and cell building (Carbs, Proteins, Fats, Minerals, Vitamins)  Oxygen - chemical reactions that release energy from foods require oxygen  Water % of body is made up of water  Appropriate Temperature - 37 degrees Celsius, or 98 degrees Fahrenheit, the lower the temperature the slower the metabolic reactions become  Atmospheric Pressure - Force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air. Exchange of O2 and CO2 also depend on this pressure

18 HOMEOSTASIS  A Dynamic state of equilibrium  Body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing  Homeo - The Same  Stasis - Standing Still

19 CONTROL MECHANISMS  Nervous and endocrine systems  3 Components:  Receptor (input) - sensor that monitors and responds to change (stimuli)  Control Center - (brain) via afferent pathways, analyzes information and determines response  Effector (output) - via efferent pathway, tells the stimuli what the control center wants

20 CONTROL MECHANISM  Negative feedback - shut off the original stimulus to reduce its intensity.  Ex: AC Unit  Used in body to regulate: heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, blood glucose level, O2, CO2, and minerals  Positive feedback - Push stimulus further from its original value.  the body rarely utilizes this type of feedback.

21 LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY  To understand the terminology associated with the human body we must establish a standard position  Anatomical Position  Body terminology used refers to different body locations regardless of the body’s current position

22 GENERAL TERMINOLOGY  Superior  Inferior  Anterior  Posterior  Medial  Lateral  Dorsal  Palmar  Plantar  Proximal  Distal  Superficial  Deep

23 ANTERIOR LANDMARKS  Abdominal  Acromial  Antecubital  Axillary  Brachial  Buccal  Carpal  Cervical  Coxal  Crural  Digital  Femoral  Fibular  Inguinal  Nasal  Oral  Orbital  Patellar  Pelvic  Pubic  Sternal  Tarsal  Thoracic  Umbilical

24 POSTERIOR LANDMARKS  Cephalic  Deltoid  Gluteal  Lumbar  Occipital  Popliteal  Sacral  Scapular  Sural  Vertebral

25 BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS  Sagittal Section - longitudinal, dividing the body into right and left parts  Mid-sagittal Section - right and left parts are equal in size  Frontal (Coronal) Section - longitudinal cut dividing body into anterior and posterior parts  Transverse (Cross) Section - horizontal plane, dividing body into superior and inferior parts

26 BODY CAVITIES  Dorsal Body Cavities:  Cranial Cavity - brain  Spinal Cavity - Spinal Cord  Ventral Body Cavities:  Thoracic Cavity - lungs and heart  Abdominopelvic Cavity - stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines, reproductive organs, bladder, rectum

27 QUADRANTS  Upper Right and Left  Lower Right and Left

28  What organs are in each Quadrant?

29 UPPER QUADRANTS URQ  Right Lung  Liver  Gall-bladder  Right Kidney  Intestines  ULQ  Heart, Left Lung  Stomach, Spleen  Left Kidney  Pancreas  Intestines

30 LOWER QUADRANTS LRQ  Appendix  Intestines  Reproductive Organs  Urinary System LLQ  Intestines  Reproductive organs  Part of urinary system


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