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The effect of gravitational stress on the diffusion of liquids. New team.

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Presentation on theme: "The effect of gravitational stress on the diffusion of liquids. New team."— Presentation transcript:

1 The effect of gravitational stress on the diffusion of liquids. New team

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3 February 17Full scale vehicle completed February 18Full scale test flight #1 (1/2 impulse) March 17Full scale test flight #2 (full impulse) April 19/20Flight hardware and safety checks April 21Launch day, full scale fight #3 April 28/29Full scale flight #4 (“rain date” flight)

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5 Event 1: Ignition at 0s, 0ft Event 2: Burnout at 2.24s, 1000ft Coast Event 3: Apogee at 16s, 4502ft Drogue descent Event 4: Main parachute deployment at 84s, 700ft Event 5: Landing at 110s, 0ft Apogee prediction updated based on data from full scale full-impulse flight (C d = 0.65 ): 4502 ft Apogee prediction updated based on data from full scale full-impulse flight (C d = 0.65 ): 4502 ft

6 Motor ignition Stable flight Altitude of 5,280 feet AGL reached but not exceeded (most current prediction: 4502ft) Both drogue and main parachute deployed Vehicle returns to the ground safely with minimal damage Safe recovery of the booster

7 CP 83.1” from nosecone CG 65.6” from nosecone Static margin 5.5 calibers Length 108” Diameter 5.5”(body tube), 4”(booster) Liftoff Weight 21 lbs with AT-K1050W Motor Aerotech K1050W

8 LetterPart ANosecone BMain Parachute CDrogue Parachute DPayload Bay ETransition FMotor Mount GFins

9 Body: 5.5”/4.0” LOC Precision fiber tubing Fins : 1/32” G-10 fiberglass + 1/8” balsa sandwich, TTW mounted Couplers: LOC Precision with stiffeners Bulkheads, centering rings: 1/2” plywood Motor mounts: 54mm Kraft phenolic tubing Nosecone: Plastic nose cone Rail buttons: standard nylon rail buttons Motor retention system: Aeropack screw-on motor retainer Anchors: 1/4" stainless steel U-Bolts Epoxy: Locktite epoxy

10 Length [in] Mass [lbs] Diameter [in] Motor Selection Stability Margin [calibers] Thrust to weight ratio Burn time , 4.0AT-K1050W s We selected the AT-K1050W 54mm motor to propel our rocket to reach, but not exceed an altitude of 5280ft AGL The AT-K1050W motor provides an appropriate thrust to weight ratio for our vehicle (12.2). Mach delay of 4 seconds will be set on both deployment altimeters (the setting was successfully tested during full impulse test flight) Mach delay of 4 seconds will be set on both deployment altimeters (the setting was successfully tested during full impulse test flight)

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12 Apogee 4502ft, 16s C d = 0.65 (from flight data)

13 Max acceleration: 16g

14 Maximum velocity 507 mph (Mach number: 0.66)

15 Wind Speed [mph] Altitude [ft] Percent Change in Altitude % % % % %

16 ParameterValue Flight Stability Static Margin 5.5 Thrust to Weight Ratio12.2 Velocity at Launch Guide Departure (12ft x 1” rail) 70mph

17 Wp - ejection charge weight [g] dP - ejection pressure (15 [psi]) V - free volume [in 3 ] R - universal gas constant (22.16 [ft- lb o R -1 lb-mol -1 ]) T - combustion gas temperature (3,307 [ o R])

18 ParachuteCharge [g] Drogue primary2.4apogee backup3.0apogee + 1s Main primary5.5700ft AGL 500ft AGL backup7.0 Charges have been finalized via static ejection tests. Per NASA recommendation we have upgraded our backup charges by 25% and delayed their activation. If primary charge fails, backup charge will “try harder”, otherwise it fires harmlessly in open air.

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20 ParachuteDescent Weight (lbs) Parachute Diameter (in.) Descent Rate (ft/s) Kinetic Energy at Impact (ft-lbf) Drogue N/A Main Nosecone 23.1 Body 58.6 Booster 69.4

21 Wind Speed (mph) Drift (ft) Drift (mi)

22 Tested Components C1: Body (including construction techniques) C2: Altimeter C3: Accelerometer C4: Parachutes C5: Fins C6: Payload C7: Ejection Charges C8: Launch System C9: Motor Mount C10: Beacons C11: Shock Cords and Anchors C12: Rocket Stability

23 Verification Tests V1 Integrity Test: force applied; verifies durability. V2 Parachute Drop Test: tests parachute functionality. V3 Tension Test: force applied to shock cords; tests durability. V4 Prototype Flight: tests feasibility of vehicle with scale model. V5 Functionality Test: tests basic functionality of device on ground. V6 Altimeter Ground Test: simulate altitude changes; verifies preset altitude events fire. V7 Electronic Deployment Test: tests that electronics ignite deployment charges. V8 Ejection Test: tests that deployment charges can deploy parachutes/separate components. V9 Computer Simulation: RockSim predicts behavior of launch vehicle. V10 Integration Test: payload fits smoothly and snuggly into vehicle, and withstands flight stresses.

24 V1V2V3V4V5V6V7V8V9V10 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12

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26 Liftoff weight17 lb MotorAerotech K1100T Length9ft Diameter5.5” payload section 4” booster Stability Margin5.3

27 Test drogue and main parachute deployment Test flight electronics (altimeters and ejection charges) Test separation of body tubes at ejection Test validity of simulation results Test rocket stability Test durability of rocket

28 Apogee- 3325ft Rocksim prediction 3396ft Time to apogee- 13.4s Apogee events Drogue deployment Main event Main parachute deploys at 700ft Calculated C d :0.61 Apogee for full scale impulse vehicle (C d =0.61): 4718 ft

29 Apogee : 3325ft at 13.4s (drogue deployment) Apogee : 3325ft at 13.4s (drogue deployment) Drogue Descent: measured rate 43fps (average) Main parachute: deploys at 500ft Final Descent: measured rate 21fps (average)

30 Because of a construction error, our fin assembly separated from the rest of the rocket at apogee (due to deployment shock). The problem has been fixed by adding 12 screws. Our drogue parachute was by mistake tied far from its upper anchor point (this increases the chance of drogue not leaving the body). The problem has been solved by moving the drogue closer to its upper anchor point.

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32 Liftoff weight21 lb MotorAerotech K1050W Length9ft Diameter5.5” body, 4” motor tube Stability Margin5.5

33 Test drogue and main parachute deployment Test flight electronics (altimeters and ejection charges) Test separation of body tubes at ejection Verify the flight apogee will not exceed 1 mile Verify fixes from half-impulse flight Verify final predictions

34 Apogee- 4502ft Rocksim prediction 4718ft Time to apogee- 16s Apogee events Drogue deployment Main event Main parachute deploys at 700ft Calculated C d : ft Apogee for full scale vehicle (C d =0.65): 4502 ft

35 Apogee : 4502ft at 16.00s (drogue deployment) Apogee : 4502ft at 16.00s (drogue deployment) Drogue Descent: measured rate 54fps (average) Main parachute: deploys at 700ft Final Descent: measured rate 23fps (average)

36 Our rocket landed in the tree and we have lost some of its parts. This results in following issues: IssueSolutionTests Nosecone not recovered, need new nosecone New noseconeRepeat static ejection test Shockcord partially lost Replace shockcordRepeat static ejection test Parachute lostReplace parachuteRepeat static ejection test Altimeters possibly damaged Replace altimeters*Pressure chamber test E-bay damagedRepair e-bayRepeat static ejection test * MAWD altimeters are no longer available and we will be replacing them with StratoLogger altimeters. While we will have no opportunity to test the StratoLogger units ourselves before the launch in Huntsville, our sister team has used StratoLoggers with success during their full impulse test flight.

37 Apparent coefficient of drag C d =0.65 Apogee prediction 4,500ft Primary motor choiceAT-K1050W Work to be done Improve surface finish (decrease Cd) Remove surface protrusions (decrease Cd) Search and pursue minor weight savings Repair E-bay

38 ParachuteDescent Weight [lb] Descent Rate [fps] Ejection Charge [g] Impact Energy [ft-lbf] 24” Drogue ” Main Top 23.1 Body 58.6 Booster 69.4 To further reduce the drift, we’d rather use a smaller drogue than to decrease the size of the main parachute (the booster impact energy is near the allowed maximum of 75ft-lbf) Work to be done Replace lost parachute Replace lost shockcord Replaced possibly damaged altimeters Repeat static ejection tests

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40 We will investigate the effects of acceleration and vibrations during flight on the diffusion of dye into liquids using digital imaging.

41 Determine the effect of acceleration on the diffusion of dye into liquids Determine the effect of vibrations on the diffusion of dye into liquids

42 Collected data from the camera and accelerometers is accurate Vessels containing liquid do not leak Dye is injected into the liquid correctly Images from camera are received Acceleration is recorded Payload is recovered

43 Battery Camera LED Syringe Servo

44 Battery Camera LED Syringe Servo

45 Payload Computer Drives injector servos Collects and stores acceleration data Monitors accelerometer for liftoff detection Monitors G-Switch for liftoff detection Distributed regulated voltages 3.3V for sensors 5.0V for servos Powered from a single pack of 6AA batteries 80MHz, 32KB RAM, 8 core processor, 27 I/O pins 128KB of EEPROM, 96KB available for data storage Accelerometer / G-Switch module LIS331 3D accelerometer +/- 24g, 16 bit resolution Digital interface 1000Hz maximum sampling rate GS21 G-switch (2.1g) Powered by payload computer (3.3V) Connected by a single ribbon cable Data Acquisition Rates and Memory Needs Flight Phase Sampling Rate [Hz] Memory Usage [KB] Ascent40016 Descent10020 Total-36

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47 Selection Rationale Fits inside the payload chamber Waterproof (in case of payload damage) Minimum focus is 1cm (0.4”) Full HD video 1920 x 30fps Sufficient memory/battery capacity Within the budget of our project ($300) Robust design (designed for extreme sports) Selection Rationale Fits inside the payload chamber Waterproof (in case of payload damage) Minimum focus is 1cm (0.4”) Full HD video 1920 x 30fps Sufficient memory/battery capacity Within the budget of our project ($300) Robust design (designed for extreme sports)

48 Vertical module Horizontal module

49 Launch and Boost Dye is injected into the solution Camcorder records the diffusion process The experiment chamber is brightly lit using LEDs to prevent any exposure problems during recording

50 The camcorder continues to record the diffusion process until the vehicle reaches apogee. Coast and Apogee Accelerometer records acceleration data.

51 Data Analysis The pictures taken during the flight are analyzed

52 Preflight ground tests  Camcorder takes overhead pictures of Petri dish  Camcorder takes side view pictures of water tank Experimental Group Control Group (stationary)

53 Independent variables a Acceleration t Time after dye is released (flight time) Dependent Variables R Rate of diffusion (diffusion front speed) P Pattern of diffusion (qualitative classification)

54 R = f(a) Rate of diffusion in relation to acceleration R = f(t) Rate of diffusion in relation to time after dye is released P = f(a) Pattern of diffusion in relation to acceleration P = f(t)Pattern of diffusion in relation to time after dye is released

55 TestMeasurement Rate of Diffusion Dyed area boundary rectangle expansion Pattern of Diffusion Width to height ratio of dye Color saturation per pixel Voids in dye

56 Voids Boundary rectangle: X pixels by Y pixels Measure color saturation in each pixel

57 CharacteristicMeasurement Average void sizeMeasured in pixels Void scatteringNumber of void areas Color dye spreadClear vs. colored area (in pixels) Directional dye spreadWidth vs. height of color area To quantify the results of our experiment, we have selected the following characteristics to measure. Computerized digital image analysis will be used and we expect to process over 7 billion pixels using a multicore Linux machine.

58 We will use commercially available accelerometers and altimeters The sensors will be calibrated We will do extensive testing on the ground prior to the rocket launch

59 Tested Components C1: Camera C2: Injection C3: Diffusion Vessel

60 Verification Tests V1 Basic Function Test: testing the main functions of the payload V2 Leak Test: verifying that the vessels containing the liquid do not leak V3 Battery Life Test: verifying that the battery life of the camera is long enough to take pictures during the entire diffusion process

61 V1V2V3 C1 C2 C3

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