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Contemporary Issues in Schools – Deborah Dixon, M.A., CCC-SLP ASHA Director of School Services March 21, 2013 Dearborn, Michigan 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Contemporary Issues in Schools – Deborah Dixon, M.A., CCC-SLP ASHA Director of School Services March 21, 2013 Dearborn, Michigan 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contemporary Issues in Schools – Deborah Dixon, M.A., CCC-SLP ASHA Director of School Services March 21, 2013 Dearborn, Michigan 1

2  Deborah Dixon, Director of School Services, ASHA  Financial: I am a paid employee of ASHA  Non-Financial: I am an ASHA member, and participate in the School Finance Committee which supports increased financial support and other non-financial initiatives for school-based ASHA members. I am also a member of Special Interest Group 16, Schools. I support ASHA’s policy agenda which includes most advocacy initiatives supported by the organization. Although I gain no financial benefit, I am an author of RTI In Action, Oral and Written Language Activities for K-2 Classrooms and the upcoming publication RTI in Action, Grades 3-5, Oral and Written Language Activities for the Common Core State Standards. Disclosure 2

3  The session will focus on :  PACE, ASHA’s alternative to Value Added Assessment  Changes that integration of Common Core State Standards will have on speech-language services in the school  Information on the changing roles and responsibilities of SLPs in school practice.  Response to Intervention  Other Important issues members are facing in their current employment setting. Session Focus 3

4 What is the state of practice in Michigan? 4

5  State department of education officials report that shortages of SLPs is a critical issue, especially in the more rural areas of the state.  Other evolving issues in the state include  Teacher assessment ( Value Added Assessment)  Engagement in Response to Intervention  Adopting Common Core State Standards Michigan Data 5

6 6 Speech and Language Impairment 1992 - 2010 Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

7 7 Autism Spectrum Disorder 1992 - 2010 Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

8 8 Educational Environment Students with IEPs Ages 6-12 in 2010 Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

9 9 Educational Environment Students with IEPs Ages 13-21 in 2010 Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

10 10 Educational Environment Students with IEPs Ages 6-21 in 2010 Source: Annual Special Education Child Count

11 Identification Rates By Eligibility in 2010 Source: Annual Special Education Child Count 11

12 What are Your issues of Concern? Issue 1 Issue 2 Issue 3 12

13  Turn and talk to the person to your left for about 3 minutes.  Discuss the top three issues that are impacting your practice in the schools  Consider volunteering to share the results of your discussion at the end of the discussion period. What are the Issues Challenging You? 13

14  Teacher Assessment- Value Added Assessment  SLP and Response to Intervention  Common Core State Standards  Caseloads/workload  Changing roles and responsibilities  Shortages  Dynamic service delivery models  Budget cuts  Paperwork  Lack of time for planning, collaboration, etc. National Issues 14

15  Value Added Assessment  What is it?  Why is it important?  What is ASHA’s alternative? Let’s Begin 15

16  Value-added assessment, or VAA is a process to accurately and fairly assess a professional’s impact on student performance and overall success of the school community.  A comprehensive, statistical method of analyzing test data that measures teaching and learning, using results of high stakes testing as well as other measures.  VAA is a statistical method of analyzing test data to measure teaching and learning outcomes. Teacher contributions to student learning are determined by calculating student growth on standardized tests. Value Added Assessment 16

17 How is VAA being used?  VAA systems are being utilized to measure teacher effectiveness through a variety of indicators, including improved student test scores.  VAA results are used to make decisions about retention, salary, bonuses, assignments, etc. 17

18 What about the evaluation of SLPs and other school professionals?  To our knowledge very few if any states have developed VAA measures for SLPs and other specialized instructional support personnel (SISPs)  Many are considering or have begun to develop evaluation measures for SLPs including LA and OK 18

19  No systems have been developed specifically for SLPs or other support personnel  Systems fail to differentiate between effective and ineffective teachers  Systems are unrelated to professional development and do not incorporate information about specific teacher impact on student performance (Weisberg, Sexton, Mulhern, & Keeling,2009)  Current systems are not accounting for innovative models of instructional organization PACE- Rationale 19

20  The research that exists about these models indicates they are only reliable over time (i.e., based on several years of data) with larger student populations and when the underlying assessment instruments are fair, accurate, and reliable. (CEC Position on Special Education Teacher Evaluation, 2012)  Current systems do not account for the differences in assignments and responsibilities of various service providers Background 20

21  Current research has focused on classroom teachers  Concerns  Linking student outcomes to one teacher  Accuracy of models  Statistical techniques used to analyze student data  Separating student factors  Research has determined that value-added calculations are invalid for two teachers in a co- teaching environment, as the statistical model cannot determine which or by how much each teacher impacts student learning (Steele et. al., 2010) Research 21

22  Performance Assessment of Contributions and Effectiveness of SLPs Resource Performance Assessment of Contributions and Effectiveness of SLPs Resource  A portfolio based assessment process designed to show the value and contributions of school based SLPs.  It involves  Self assessment  Administrative observation  Portfolio of evidence  Parent and teacher input ASHA’s Alternative to VAA 22

23  The matrix consists of a set of nine objectives by which an SLP should be evaluated.  These objectives are derived from typical roles and responsibilities of a school based SLP  A portfolio is developed to show evidence of mastery of each objective The PACE Matrix 23

24 1. Demonstrate knowledge in the subject areas of speech- language pathology and related areas (e.g., literacy, child development ). 24 The Objectives

25 2. Provide appropriate and educationally relevant services reflecting evidence-based practices. 25 The Objectives

26 3. Provide services that are compliant with state and federal regulations for children with IEPs. 26 The Objectives

27 4. Demonstrate ability to conduct appropriate comprehensive evaluations for students who may be experiencing a variety of communication disorders. 27 The Objectives

28 5. Provide appropriate and dynamic service delivery methods consistent with the wide variety of individual student needs. 28 The Objectives

29 6. Demonstrate collaboration with classroom teachers and other professionals. 29 The Objectives

30 7. Provide opportunities for families to be involved in the student’s SLP services. 30 The Objectives

31 8. Earn continuing education or professional development units sufficient to meet ASHA requirements for certification maintenance as well as state certification and licensing requirements. 31 The Objectives

32 9. Contribute to various building or district initiatives. 32 The Objectives

33  Gather into groups of 4-5  Discuss how you are currently evaluated within your school district.  What are the pros and cons of your current evaluation system  Would the PACE be a viable alterative for you? Why or why not?  Please discuss for 5 minutes and be ready to report back a summary of your discussion. 33 Let’s Talk

34  The portfolio is a comprehensive collection of data, the majority of which is readily available. It should include:  Case files to show evidence of  report writing ( IEPs and MDEs)  progress reports  parent and teacher input  Indication of meeting regulatory timelines and procedure s. Developing the Portfolio 34

35 Portfolio should also include:  Professional development log to show participation in a variety of professional development activities  Therapy schedules for objectives 4, 5, 6 and 9, showing dynamic service delivery, RTI efforts, teacher collaboration and assessment work  Teacher, parent and student surveys Developing the Portfolio 35

36 The portfolio should include:  Self reflection from the Professional Performance Review Process for the School-Based Speech-Language Pathologist (2006)Professional Performance Review Process for the School-Based Speech-Language Pathologist (2006)  Sample presentation materials to show evidence for objectives 1,6, and 7  Administrator's observation report Developing the Portfolio 36

37  For more information, including samples of teacher, parent and student checklists, information for evaluators, power points etc. search “PACE” on the ASHA website  Or go to Assessment-of-Contributions-and-Effectiveness/ Assessment-of-Contributions-and-Effectiveness/ PACE 37

38  What are they?  Why are they important?  What do they look like?  What is expected of students with special needs?  What is the role of the SLP in integrating CCSS? 38 Common Core State Standards (CCSS)

39  Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been adopted by most states across the country.  States are in the process of adjusting curriculums and assessments to reflect the adoption of the standards  The purpose of the CCSS is to provide a clear set of shared goals and expectations of the knowledge and skills needed to succeed in a global society Common Core State Standards 39

40 Why Is CCSS Important? 40

41 Reading Proficiency National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 4th grade reading proficiency rates for 2009 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia 41

42 Add to These Facts…  Dyslexia affects one out of every ____ children – ten million in America alone. Sally Shaywitz, M.D.,2004 The answer is five 42

43 Adult Literacy 43

44  The standards establish a “staircase” of increasing complexity in what students must be able to read.  The standards also require the progressive development of reading comprehension so that students advancing through the grades are able to gain more from whatever they read.  Through reading a diverse array of classic and contemporary literature as well as challenging informational texts in a range of subjects, students are expected to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspective Key Points of Reading Standards 44

45  The ability to write logical arguments based on substantive claims, sound reasoning, and relevant evidence is a cornerstone of the writing standards, with opinion writing—a basic form of argument— extending down into the earliest grades  Research—both short, focused projects (such as those commonly required in the workplace) and longer term in depth research is emphasized strongly in this set of standards Key points of Writing Standards 45

46  The standards require that students gain, evaluate, and present increasingly complex information, ideas, and evidence through listening and speaking as well as through media  An important focus of the speaking and listening standards is academic discussion in one‐on‐one, small‐group, and whole‐class settings. Key Points of Speaking and Listening 46

47  The standards expect that students will grow their vocabularies through a mix of conversations, direct instruction, and reading. The standards will help students determine word meanings, appreciate the nuances of words, and steadily expand their repertoire of words and phrases.  The standards recognize that students must be able to use formal English in their writing and speaking but that they must also be able to make informed, skillful choices among the many ways to express themselves through language. Key Points of Language Standards 47

48  Examples of CCSS  Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (reading standards for Literature, grade 2 )  Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. (Reading standards for literature, grade 5 )  Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.(Reading standards for informational text, grade 3 ) Common Core State Standards 48

49  Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.(5 th grade writing standard)  Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly (4 th grade speaking and listening standard) CCSS Examples 49

50  Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (language standard, grade 1 )  Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.(Reading standard for Literature, grade 8)  Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone (Reading standard for literature, grade 6) CCSS Examples 50

51  Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation (Speaking and Listening, grade 7) CCSS Examples 51

52  Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter. (Math standard, grade K)  Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.(Math standard, grade 1) CCSS- Math Examples 52

53  Students with disabilities…must be challenged to excel within the general curriculum and be prepared for success in their post-school lives, including college and/or careers. CCSS and Students with Special Needs 53

54  High-quality, evidence-based instruction  Accessible instructional materials  Embedded supports  Universal Design for Learning  Appropriate accommodations and adaptations  Assistive technology  Positive behavior supports For Students with Special Needs to Meet Standards they Require 54

55  Collaborative teaching  Interpersonal collaboration is a style for direct interaction between at least two co equal parties voluntarily engaged in shared decision making as they work toward a common goal -Friend 2007Friend and Cook, 2007 For Students with Special Needs to Meet Standards they Require 55

56  Service delivery options  Dynamic service delivery- changing the frequency, location and time of service as student’s needs change. For Students with Special Needs to Meet Standards they Require 56

57  The SLP interfaces with the CCSS in two ways:  Through general education interventions like Response to Intervention  Providing educationally relevant services to students with IEPs. Role of the SLP 57

58  Develop deep knowledge of the content of the standards  Determine the foundational skills, or underpinnings necessary to achieve the standards  Develop IEP goals focused on each student’s need for support and instruction on foundational skills related to their communication disorder What is the Role of the SLP? 58

59  Strong collaborative skills  Ability to interpret research to practice  Analytical skills  Subject area expertise (i.e.. Communication) What Skills Are Required? 59

60  Analyze the student’s assessment results in terms  Where is the student now?  Why are they experiencing the weaknesses diagnosed?  What do we want them to achieve this year? Start with the IEP 60

61  Recommend goals that support the “prerequisite” skills for the standard  Determine how progress will be measured  Determine what general education supports need to be in place for student achievement  Determine how services will be delivered dynamically, responding to the student’s progress throughout the school year  Discuss the roles and responsibilities of all team members necessary to facilitate student progress on the goal and on the standard. Developing the IEP 61

62  Look at the student’s specific areas of weakness.  Determine which standards are impacted by the deficit.  Analyze those standards to determine the underpinnings necessary for success on that standard.  Develop the IEP goals to support that standard and teach the underpinnings. Analyze the Standard 62

63 Let’ s Practice  Sally – 6 th grade student with weaknesses in understanding and use of vocabulary 63

64 Sally’s Background Information  Language skills are scattered  Age-level skills in syntax  Teacher reports  Masters vocabulary taught in class in a limited way  Difficulty with vocabulary understood by other students  Always completes class and homework assignments  Uses simple, concrete vocabulary in writing  Written answers to questions showed misunderstanding of terminology and misuse of new vocabulary from class 64

65 CCSS in Language and Vocabulary for Grade 6  L.6.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.  Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.  Maintain consistency in style and tone.  L.6.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.  Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.  Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).  Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.  Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).  L.6.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.  Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.  Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.  Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, thrifty). 65

66  Limited exposure to experiences that build base vocabulary  Limited direct instruction on the metalinguistic skills necessary for learning new vocabulary  Weak categorization and classification skills  Memory and processing issues  Hearing loss  Difficulties understanding figurative language  Difficulty with base words, prefixes and suffixes Potential Causes of Her Vocabulary Difficulties 66

67 Next Steps for Intervention  SLP can pre-teach meanings of common prefixes in individual and/or small group sessions  Collaborate with teacher to identify vocabulary from curriculum to focus on that contained prefixes  Identify figurative language forms in literature  Pre-read selected sections with Sally and highlight figurative language  Provide in class lesson on figurative language and relation to text for class  Provide home practice materials for parents to reinforce vocabulary skills 67

68 Goals? Objectives?  TIMEFRAME - By June 18, 2012  CONDITION- Given sixth grade curriculum related vocabulary  BEHAVIOR - Sally will explain the meanings of words containing common, grade-level prefixes and suffixes  CRITERIA - In 4/5 opportunities  TIMEFRAME- In 18 instructional weeks  CONDITION - Given sentences from fourth grade level texts  BEHAVIOR - Sally will explain the meanings of similes and metaphors  CRITERIA - with 80% accuracy 68

69  Cards with different standards have been placed around the room.  Please form into small groups to discuss the standard  Choose a note taker and a speaker for your group.  Design a set of goals that would address the foundational skills necessary to achieve that standard.  Be prepared to share your goals with the full group. Let’s Breakdown a Standard 69

70 ASHA’s CCSS Resources Does ASHA offer Common Core information and support?  Webpage on CCSS Webpage on CCSS  Journal articles  Leader and Perspectives articles  Presentations  Technical assistance 70

71  SLPS need the following to successfully integrate CCSS into treatment:  Appropriate workload  Time for collaboration (joint planning periods)  Access to appropriate materials including text books, lesson plans, supplementary items  Training  Mentoring  Opportunity for engagement in RTI and other general education initiatives What Needs to be in Place ? 71

72  Core principles  Tiers of instruction  Case studies  Instructional considerations  Role of the SLP 72 Response To Intervention

73 What’s Your Comfort Level with RTI? Don’t forget: You can copy- paste this slide into other presentations, and move or resize the poll. 73

74 74 RTI is a Framework

75 What Are The Components? RTI involves:  universal screening,  high-quality evidence based instruction  interventions matched to student need  frequent measures of progress  use of child’s response data to make educational decisions. 75

76 Core Principles of RtI (NASDE, 2005)  All students can learn with effective instruction utilizing scientifically research based instruction  intervene early  use a multi-tier model – intervention must be differentiated in nature and intensity 76

77 Core Principles  We must use a problem-solving model based on data to make decisions within a multi-tier model Is there a problem and what is it? (Identification) Why is it happening? (Analysis) What are we going to do about it? (Plan) Did our intervention work? (Review and Revise) 77

78 Tier 1  Primary instruction in the general education classroom.  High quality instruction  Assessment at least 3 times a year  Ongoing professional development  Team agreement to implement identified interventions. 78

79 Katelyn’s Story 79

80 Tier 2- Problem Solving With Other Resources and Supp orts Supplemental Specialized Intervention Targeted for Individual Student 80

81 Tier 2 81  Teacher consults with other professionals and/or parent(s).  Additional support needed by students struggling with learning  Frequent progress monitoring is expected.  Supplementary

82 Henry’s Story 82

83 Tier 3  Problem Solving with Student Improvement Team; Intensive Supplemental Interventions provided – needed by 5% of the students 83

84 Tier 3 84 IntenseSustained Specifically Focused Differentiated

85 Samantha 85

86 The Process Problem Identification Intervention Planning Monitoring and Evaluation ImplementationProblem Analysis 86

87 Sample RTI Plan Form Behavior of Concern: Intervention: Who’s responsible: Date to be collected: Intervention start date: Intervention review Date: 87

88 Instructional Considerations  Grouping  Direct teaching needs  How the student’s communication issues are addressed  How expectations for learning are stated  Consideration of accommodations and assistive technology supports 88

89 Instructional Considerations  More learning opportunities  Multiple exposures to vocabulary and concepts  Issues w/ concrete to abstract  Multisensory  Universal Design for Learning (UDL) 89

90 90

91 Environmental Considerations  Visual cues, noise level, activity in the room, seating arrangement, proximity to teacher 91

92 Learner Considerations 92  Missing prior knowledge  Limited prerequisite vocabulary  Number of directions the student can handle at one time  Need for multiple repetitions

93 Curriculum Considerations  Vocabulary  Language load of material  Coverage time  Previous access to the general curriculum 93

94 Paradigm Shift for SLPs  Expansion of the SLP’s assessment “tool kit” to include more instructionally relevant, contextually based procedures  Engagement in prevention and identification of at risk students as well as direct support and services 94

95 What’ s Different Define “treatment” more globally- consultation, collaboration, team teaching, engaging parents, assistants, teachers in treatment process 95

96 What’s Different? Reallocation of time to offer prevention and early intervening services* in a more naturalistic setting with decrease in number of students requiring “direct” treatment, SLPs will have time to address those needs 96

97 SLP in Tier 1 -Conduct staff training on instructional models -Observe student/teacher interactions -Model instruction -Provide materials -Assist with screenings and progress monitoring -Conduct classroom-based lessons 97

98 SLP in Tier 2 -Continue supports from Tier 1, with increased collaboration with and coordination of support services - Conduct short-term remediation with students in increasingly intensive levels, including small groups and individual work 98

99 SLP in Tier 3  Interventions of increased intensity and /or frequency  Conduct dynamic assessment  Serve as team member considering child for special education 99

100 Role of SLP  Explaining the role that language plays in curriculum, assessment, and instruction, as a basis for appropriate program design  Explaining the interconnection between spoken and written language  Identifying and analyzing existing literature on scientifically based literacy assessment and intervention approaches  Assisting in the selection of screening measures 100

101 Role of SLP  Identify systemic patterns of student need with respect to language skills  Select scientifically based literacy intervention  Conduct professional development on the language basis of literacy and learning  Interpret school’s progress in meeting the intervention needs of its students 101

102 Role of the SLP  Suggest strategies to the classroom teacher or to the parent that will make the difference for the student.  Provide short-term, focused, direct instruction, to help the student. This also provides valuable information to the educational team  Provide parents with support strategies and materia l 102

103 What Are Your Thoughts? How much should SLPs do before considering making a recommendation of MDE? 103

104  Realignment of Roles and responsibilities of SLPs in schoolsRoles and responsibilities of SLPs in schools 104 Other Contemporary Issues

105 105

106 Dynamic Service Delivery  dy·nam·ic /da ɪˈ næm ɪ k/. pertaining to or characterized by energy or effective action; vigorously active or forceful; energetic: the dynamic president of the firm. 106

107 Dynamic Service Delivery  Service Delivery is becoming a dynamic process in terms of  Frequency  Duration  Location All three of these should change throughout the course of treatment based on student progress and need. Evidence based practice should also be foundation to decision making. 107

108 Top 10 Future Trends for SLPs Use of Technology 108

109 Use of Technology 109

110 Use of Technology  Mobile Devices,  Applications (APPs),  SmartBoards,  Podcasts,  Moodle,  Cloud technology  Personal websites  Skype  Telepractice  Wikispaces  Bloglines  Online projects  Geographic information systems  Social networks 110

111 Use of Technology  Collect data  Record conversational samples  Motivate and engage students  Provide augmentative assistive for communication  Offers another modality for assessing, treating and engaging students 111

112 Advantages Improved communication Cost and time saving Adaptability Motivating Dynamic Models appropriate use of technology Accesses monumental amounts of information Disadvantages Initial cost Connectivity/Security limitations  Finding the “right” technology  Distractibility  Need for ongoing training Pathology-Practice/ 112 Use of Technology

113 How Shall we Respond to these Issues?  Demonstrate strong leadership with and without the “official” titles  Form partnerships  Innovate with procedures, policies and service delivery  Change roles and responsibilities  Control our destiny through involvement in local, state and federal organizations. 113

114  Providing input whenever possible  Creating new partnerships  Participating in the process  Innovating  Advocating 114 How Do We Respond?

115 How do we need to change  You are not “JUST” the building SLP  You are an educational leader who is engaged in shaping services for students with communication disorders  You are an “expert” with much to offer students, staff, parents and community 115

116 116

117 117

118 References and Resources  Kovaleski, J., & Prasse, D. P. (2004, February). Response to instruction in the identification of learning disabilities: A guide for school teams. Communiqué, 32(5), insert. Available: rti.pdf  Klinger, J. & Edwards, P. (2006). Cultural considerations with Response to Intervention models. Reading Research Quarterly. 41/1, 108-117. 118

119 References and Resources  Kratcoski, A. M. (1998). Guidelines for using portfolios in assessment and evaluation. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 29, 3–10  Troia, G. A. (2005). Responsiveness to intervention: Roles for speech-language pathologists in the prevention and identification of learning disabilities. Topics in Language Disorders, 25, 106–119. 119

120 References and Resources  Montgomery, Judy K. Models of RTI for SLPs: Is This What We Have Been Waiting for? Perspectives on Language Learning and Education 2008 15: 13-21  Peña, E., Quinn, R., & Iglesias, A. (1992). The application of dynamic methods to language assessment: A nonbiased procedure. The Journal of Special Education, 26, 269–280. 120

121 References and Resources  Responsiveness to Intervention: New Roles for Speech-Language Pathologists By Barbara J. Ehren, EdD, CCC-SLP, Judy Montgomery, PhD, CCC-SLP, Judy Rudebusch, EdD, CCC-SLP, and Kathleen Whitmire, PhD, CCC- SLP American Speech-Language-Hearing Association 121

122 References and Resources  Staskowski, M., & Rivera, E. A. (2005). Speech- language pathologists' involvement in responsiveness to intervention activities: A complement to curriculum- relevant practice. Topics in Language Disorders, 25, 132– 147.  Tomblin, J. B., Zhang, X., Buckwalter, P., & O'Brien, M. (2003). The stability of primary language disorder: Four years after kindergarten diagnosis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 1283–1296.[[ 122

123 References and Resources  Ukrainetz, Teresa A. The Implications of RTI and EBP for SLPs: Commentary on L. M. Justice Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2006 37: 298- 303  Implementing IDEA 2004 Part I: Conducting Educationally Relevant Evaluations, Technical Assistance for Speech-Language Pathologists (ASHA product) 123

124 References and Resources  Ukrainetz, T. A., & Fresquez, E. F. (2003). What isn't language? A qualitative study of the role of the school speech-language pathologist. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 284–298  Ukrainetz, T. A., & Trujillo, A. (1999). "You know, I just don't know what else you'd do?" Five SLPs' perspectives on students's literature in speech-language intervention. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 26, 35–48. 124

125 References and Resources  National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Available from  Learning Disabilities Association of America. Responsiveness to Intervention: Questions PARENTS Must Ask. May 2006. Available at 125

126  10 Tips for Teaching Grammar According to the Common Core by Lauren Davis.  Ehren, B. J., Blosser, J., Roth, F. P., Paul, D. R. & Nelson, N. W. (2012, April 03). Core Commitment. The ASHA Leader.  Blosser, J., Roth, F. P., Paul, D. R., Ehren, B. J., Nelson, N. W. & Sturm, J. M. (2012, August 28). Integrating the Core. The ASHA Leader.  Core State Standards Initiative Resources and References 126

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