Presentation on theme: "Chameleon Communicators When a Child Needs More – Augmentative/Alternative Communication Teri Pinto, Consultant/PECS Trainer Dawn & Marty McRae, Parents."— Presentation transcript:
Chameleon Communicators When a Child Needs More – Augmentative/Alternative Communication Teri Pinto, Consultant/PECS Trainer Dawn & Marty McRae, Parents Cheryl Horn, M.S., CCC-SLP
Why ‘chameleon communicators?’ AAC systems should be adaptable to a variety of changing communication situations. This concept is depicted very well in a recent commercial…. sung-propel-ozzy-commercial/
Objectives Participants will become aware of: When to introduce AAC Difference between Picture Communication Symbols (PCS), Visual Strategies, and Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)? Why PECS was developed Conducting a Reinforcement Assessment Specific teaching strategies used in PECS The importance of information based decision making The importance of a Transdisciplinary team approach The importance of training parents and care givers
When Does A Child Need AAC? When traditional speech and language therapy takes a long time to accomplish. During this teaching time the child generally continues to have no useful (or calm) way to communicate to others about important fundamental needs. When the family asks ‘Is there something else we can do?’
Ruth Ballinger’s web site: Van Tatenhove (1987) states the following: Prior to age one: "...feeding difficulties, irregular breathing...lack of oral play...overall abnormal gross motor development...“ Twelve to twenty-four months: "...abnormal oral movements, vocal blocking, poor coordination of respiration with feeding or vocalizations” Twenty-four to thirty-six months: emerging speech unintelligible...continued reliance on non-language systems to communicate When Does A Child Need AAC?
Numerous studies have found that the introduction of AAC frequently has a positive affect on speech; children who are given AAC often develop speech faster than they would have otherwise (Bodine & Beukelman, 1991; Van Tatenhove, 1987) Will AAC prevent speech?
When something else is needed.. 7 Mybabycantalk.com
Sign Language Recommended ( E.G. Carr, 1982) Requires pre-requisite of visual orientation Motor imitation Few people to talk to Cost of translator Extensive training Competing hand movements Not static
When something else is needed.. Pointing to PicturesPoint to communicate choice 9
When something else is needed..Expressive Picture Communication Symbols (PCS)
Picture Pointing Pre-requisites Identification of pictures Matching to sample Joint attention Pointing Difficulties: Child obtaining adult attention Prompt dependent- question / response Point while looking away
Open and Dedicated AAC ect.com/index.cfm
Visual Supports When something else is needed.. Visual Strategies Get your shoes Picture Schedule
What do they all have in common? Attend Imitation Joint attention Learned in part because of associated social consequences (Bijou & Baer, 1965) Does not teach child to initiate social contacts Focuses on how child should respond to social approaches from teacher or other adults
Houston we have a problem… Use of non-social rewards to teach social skills teaches the form of social skills, but the form does not serve the same function. (e.g. Teach eye contact to get M&M, teaches the form of normal eye contact but it does not have the same consequences).
When something else is needed..Expressive Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) 16 Picture Communication Symbols (PCS) Vs.
What is PECS? initiate communication The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed in 1985 by Andrew S. Bondy, Ph.D. and Lori A. Frost, CCC/SLP as a unique augmentative/ alternative program that teaches children and adults with autism and other communication deficits to initiate communication. PECS is recommended for use with very young children.
What is PECS? P.E.C.S. is a communication system which enables a child to express his wants and needs by exchanging a picture symbol card for the requested need. The training protocol consists of taking a Pre- training Reinforcer Inventory and 6 phases.
Who are candidates for PECS? Children who have no speech Children that have speech but don’t use it functionally Children who have echolalic speech Children who do not routinely approach others to make requests and comment spontaneously Children who actively avoid interaction with others Children who only communicate in response to a direct cue to do so
Who can use PECS? PECS was developed for use by teachers, families, early intervention personnel and direct care staff. It is now widely used with all ages and with individuals having a variety of social communication problems, memory and attention deficits. PECS communication training is a transdisciplinary team endeavor
Advantages of PECS Does not involve expensive equipment or comprehensive testing or costly staff and parent training Doesn’t require complex fine motor movements Low Tech = Low Cost Can facilitate verbal communication Can ease the transition to an augmentative device Can be taught in a short length of time Extensive vocabulary Can be used in situations where problem behaviors have occurred Easily understood by untrained people
Getting Ready for PECS Conduct Reinforcer Assessment Gather possible reinforcers Non-see through box with lid Clear disposable plastic cups Two pieces of cardboard 1’x2’ Data sheet
Possible Reinforcers Ask family and care givers Don’t limit selection to conventional items Include items the child may use inappropriately
Assessment Protocol Gather possible reinforcers Present 5-8 edible items at a time Remove most preferred item ( selected 3 times) and conduct assessment with remaining items Continue until you have pool of 3-5 “most preferred” items
Phase I Teaches students to initiate communication right from the start by exchanging a single picture for a highly desired item. Phase II Teaches students to be persistent communicators- to actively seek out their pictures and to travel to someone to make a request. Phase III Teaches students to discriminate pictures and to select the picture that represents the item they want. Phase IV Teaches students to use sentence structure to make a request in the form of “I want _____.” Phase V Teaches students to respond to the question “What do you want?” Phase VI Teaches students to comment about things in their environment both spontaneously and in response to a question. PECS
Phase I Training Environment Child and two trainers: one in front (communicative partner); one in back ( physical prompter) of child At a table or floor, seated or standing Choose one highly desired item and present it slightly out of reach Picture of item is on table/floor
Phase I: Picture Exchange
Phase I: Mastering the Exchange Upon seeing the preferred item the child will : – Pick up picture – Reach toward the communicative partner – Place the picture in the partners hand – Release the picture in to the partners hand – Receive desired item
Phase I Protocol No verbal prompts used Use more than one preferred item…presented one at a time Give item with in 1/2 second Do not conduct in massed trial format Arrange for at least requesting opportunities throughout the day
Error Correction The two person prompting strategy is an errorless learning strategy. If the Physical Prompter systematically fades prompts and the Communicative Partner entices with reinforcing items errors should not occur However…accidents do happen!
Error Correction: Backstep Procedure He drops the picture – Do not make him pick it up!!! Physical Prompter takes child back in the exchange sequence to the last step completed correctly – Physical Prompter picks up picture and replaces it on the table – Communicative Partner entices again and Physical Prompter gives additional aid to insure successful exchange – He gets the requested item
Stop, Drop and Talk Do anywhere the child is likely to find something he wants! Phase I should not be conducted only during structured training Use a variety of trainers in variety of environments Refer to Voluntary Family Assessment for daily routines, imbed Phase I Whenever communicative opportunity arises, grab Physical Prompter, get on child’s eye level and conduct one exchange on the spot
Be Prepared for Stop, Drop and Talk Always carry some simple reinforcers with you and corresponding pictures Teach everyone who is important to the child to use PECS Use waist pack or carpenters apron for small items and pictures
Quick Review Phase I Communicative Partner – Arranges training environment effectively- pictures available one at a time, trainers positioned appropriately, control of reinforcers – No verbal prompting – Entices appropriately – Uses open hand prompt effectively- appropriate timing – Reinforces within ½ second and provides social reinforcement – No insistence on speech – Returns picture( while child consumes/plays with +R)
Quick Review Phase I Physical Prompter – Waits for child to initiate ( reach for +R) – Physically guides child to pick up, reach, release – Fades prompts effectively – Interrupts/ prevents student’s interfering behaviors – No social interaction with child- no touching or talking
Your Turn! cheezitschipsgummies raisins cheezitschipsgummies raisins
Phase II Traveling and Persistence Child will: – Travel to his communication book – Remove picture from communication book – Travel to a ”Listener” – Make face to face request
Phase II: Travel
Phase II Eye Contact Not pre-requisite for PECS Difficult for child with Autism due to lack of responsiveness to social reinforcement Child is taught face to face communication – Respond to some ones eye contact – Elicit eye contact from others
Phase II Teach with Peers & Siblings Child is persistent with adults Peers systematically taught PECS Peers control child’s access to favorite item at snack time or play time Peers understand the importance of the pictures and are rewarded for sharing
Phase II Quick Review Physical Prompter Waits for initiation Prompts removal of picture from book as needed Physically guides child to Communicative Partner as needed Physically guides child to communication book as needed Does interact socially with the child Uses Backstepping correction
Phase II Quick Review Communicative Partner Plans for child to have communication book Arranges training environment appropriately- pictures available one at a time, trainers positioned appropriately, items available but inaccessible Entices appropriately Gradually increases distance between child and Communicative Partner Gradually increases distance between child and communication book Teaches child to cross room to reach Communicative Partner Reinforces appropriately- new behavior with in ½ second Turns away from child-eliminates subtle body language cues Teaches child to travel from room to room Does not insist on speech
Phase III: Discrimination of Pictures – From the beginning picture learning occurs with in communicative context – Not necessary for child to learn picture matching to sample
Phase IIIb: Take It / Tray
Phase III: Discrimination of Pictures (cont.) Add pictures as mastery occurs. Present a similar array of items the child can choose from. Reduce the picture size.
4 Step Error Correction Entice with both items Child requests wrong item Give wrong item to child, pause Child reacts negatively
4 Step Error Correction Step 1Show or tap target picture( get child to look at target picture) Step 2.Prompt with open hand near target picture, physically or gesturally prompt – Child gives target picture – You praise but do not give item
4 Step Error Correction Step 3. Switch- “ Do this,” pause – Child performs the switch – Verbally praise child Step 4.Entice with both items – Child gives correct picture – Child gets item
4 Step Error Correction About Switching… – Purpose is to change the subject, visually distract from pictures – Very important to switch to a well known task! Or, use a Delay. – Switch your switches!
4 Step Error Correction – Within one trial repeat the 4-Step Error Correction Procedure 2 or 3 times at most!!! – Return to “level of mastery” and end session with success
Phase IV- Sentence Structure Child will request present and non-present items using a multi- word phrase – Child gets book – Removes “I want” icon from book – Puts I ’want” icon on sentence strip – Removes reinforcer picture from book – Puts reinforcer picture on sentence strip – Removes sentence strip – Gives sentence strip to communicative partner
Phase IV: Sentence Strip
Phase IV Setting A Velcro sentence strip is constructed to be velcroed to communication board Stationary “I want” picture is attach to the left side of the sentence strip. Pictures may be categorized in side book to make finding them easier
Phase IV By the end of Phase IV the child should be communicating with a variety of people and be using 20 or more pictures
Phase IV Protocol No verbal prompts used Use “Backward Chaining” to teach sentence strip construction Use structured training trials and opportunities for spontaneous requesting during functional activities Conduct “correspondence” checks while adding vocabulary Simplify some aspects of the lesson while teaching the new behavior, then re-incorporate.
Phase IV: Backward Chaining Provide needed assistance from the first step through the end, and fade the assistance from the end of the chain. The student is physically guided to put the picture of the preferred item onto the sentence strip next to the “I want” picture and then handing that to the trainer.
Phase IV – Not right now using universal “no” symbol over picture – Schedule access to reinforcer- put picture on schedule – Just say “no” – Show empty containers (keep on hand) – DO NOT TAKE PICTURES AWAY!!! – DO NOT HIDE BOOK!!!
Phase IV Quick Review Trainer should: – Uses physical assistance to teach child to point while strip is being “read” – Uses delay(3-5 sec>) in “reading” strip – Differentially reinforces if child speaks – Avoids verbal prompting – Conducts error correction for incorrect picture sequence – Organizes communication book appropriately – Does not insist on or drill speech imitation/production during PECS
Phase IV Splits Begin teaching Phase V & IV Continue with Phase IV – Teach attributes, descriptive vocabulary – Other vocabulary other than highly preferred items
Phase IV Commenting in response to a question This phase targets responses that include “I want,” “I see,” “I have” More complex sentence construction is emphasized.
Phase V : Brief Responding to “What do you want?” With a desired object present and the “I want” picture, the sentence strips, and picture of item, the teacher simultaneously points to the “ I want” card and ask, “What do you want?” The student should pick up the “I want” card and complete the exchange. Increase the time delay between asking, “what do you want?” and pointing to the “I want” card. Time is increased by 1 second per success level of 800% of opportunities successful.
Communication Bill of Rights We must believe: Every person has the right to be heard. Every person has the right to be understood. Every person deserves the right to communicate his or her needs, thoughts questions, emotions, and choices. Every person can communicate in his or her own way. ---Tanni Anthony, Project Director, Colorado Services to Children
What a Daycare Director said…. “…. I wanted to let you know that he's doing great with the PECS- we only have time to do it briefly throughout the day (snack, lunch, and center time), but he's totally independent with the pictures now……” Michelle McDaniel