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Urinary System. Other names for this system: Urinary tract GU-genitourinary system Excretory system – genitourinary and urogenital: 2 systems in close.

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Presentation on theme: "Urinary System. Other names for this system: Urinary tract GU-genitourinary system Excretory system – genitourinary and urogenital: 2 systems in close."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urinary System

2 Other names for this system: Urinary tract GU-genitourinary system Excretory system – genitourinary and urogenital: 2 systems in close proximity and with shared structures – tract: a continual pathway – excretory: describes the purpose of the system (to excrete urine)

3 KIDNEYS Reddish-brown in color, shaped like a kidney bean. Located under the lower rib cage

4 KIDNEY Hilum-area of indentation, medial side Renal artery- enters and renal vein exits Adrenal glands-not part of this system.

5 Kidney Renal cortex layer- surrounds the kidney Renal medulla-underneath renal cortex-triangular shaped renal pyramids are located Renal pyramids-connected to minor calix-drains urine which drain into- major calix

6 Kidney Major calix- drains into the renal pelvis Renal pelvis- drains into the ureter

7 Ureter/Bladder Bladder- pelvic cavity, held in place by ligaments Rounded top is called the fundus Bladder is lined with- mucosa-when empty it folds into rugae. Bladder neck- sphincter

8 Male Urinary system

9 Ureter/Bladder

10 Urethra External Urethral Sphincter: muscular ring in the urethra, it can be consciously controlled Penis: structure that is part of the male reproductive system Prostate gland: glad that is part of the male reproductive system Urethra: tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body Urethral Meatus: the opening to the outside of the body that is at the end of the urethra

11 Female Urinary Tract Caroline, Priscilla, Alanna, Brittany

12 How it Flows Urine goes through the kidneys and is filtered Flows through the ureters which are about a foot long to the bladder The bladder has a sphincter that holds urine in Urine finally travels through the urethra which is one to two inches long.

13 During pregnancy the bladder is often compressed by the expanding uterus.

14 o Urinary System: includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It produces and excretes urine. o Cortex: area of tissue beneath the capsule of the kidney o Flank: back area “between the ribs and hip bone” that overlies the kidneys o Medulla: area of tissue beneath the cortex of the kidney o Glomerulus: network of intertwining capillaries within the glomerular capsule in the nephron. Filtration takes place here

15 o Parenchyma: functional area of the kidney that is made up of cortex and medulla and contains nephrons o Collecting duct: common passage way that collects fluid from many nephrons. Reabsorption takes place there o Distal convoluted tubule: tubule of nephrons that begins at a nephron loop and that ends at a collecting duct. Reabsorption takes place here too o Glomerular capsule: ball shaped structure that surrounds the glomerulus and collects filtrate.

16 Nephron Loop Nephron  function unit of kidney and site of urine protection Glomerulus  network of intertwining capillaries Glomerulus capsule  filtrates urine and goes to the tubule Proximal convoluted tubule  reabsorption occurs (water and nutritional substances return to blood) Nephron loop  more water and electrolytes are reabsorbed Distal convoluted Tubule  more water, electrolytes, amino acid are absorbed Collecting Duct  urine is collected

17 Nephron Nephron: microscopic functional unit of the kidney Nephron loop: U-shaped, reabsorption takes place here Proximal Convoluted tubule: reabsorption takes place here, begins at the glomerular capsule and ends at the nephron loop

18 Ureter Peristalsis: process of smooth muscle contractions that propel urine through the ureter Ureter: tube that carries urine from the pelvis of the kidney to the bladder Ureteral Orifice: opening at the end of the ureter as it enters the bladder

19 Bladder Bladder: expandable reservoir for storing urine Fundus: dome-shaped top of the bladder Mucosa: mucous membrane lining that is inside the bladder Rugae: folds in the mucosa of the bladder that disappear as the bladder fills with urine Sphincter: muscular ring around a tube

20 Vocabulary

21 o Urinary System: includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It produces and excretes urine. o Cortex: area of tissue beneath the capsule of the kidney o Flank: back area “between the ribs and hip bone” that overlies the kidneys o Medulla: area of tissue beneath the cortex of the kidney o Glomerulus: network of intertwining capillaries within the glomerular capsule in the nephron. Filtration takes place here

22 o Parenchyma: functional area of the kidney that is made up of cortex and medulla and contains nephrons o Collecting duct: common passage way that collects fluid from many nephrons. Reabsorption takes place there o Distal convoluted tubule: tubule of nephrons that begins at a nephron loop and that ends at a collecting duct. Reabsorption takes place here too o Glomerular capsule: ball shaped structure that surrounds the glomerulus and collects filtrate.

23 o Urinary System: includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It produces and excretes urine. o Cortex: area of tissue beneath the capsule of the kidney o Flank: back area “between the ribs and hip bone” that overlies the kidneys o Medulla: area of tissue beneath the cortex of the kidney o Glomerulus: network of intertwining capillaries within the glomerular capsule in the nephron. Filtration takes place here

24 o Parenchyma: functional area of the kidney that is made up of cortex and medulla and contains nephrons o Collecting duct: common passage way that collects fluid from many nephrons. Reabsorption takes place there o Distal convoluted tubule: tubule of nephrons that begins at a nephron loop and that ends at a collecting duct. Reabsorption takes place here too o Glomerular capsule: ball shaped structure that surrounds the glomerulus and collects filtrate.

25 -Creatinine: waste product from muscle contractions -Electrolytes: substances that have a positive or negative charge & conduct electricity when dissolved in a solution -Erythropoitin: hormone secreted when blood cells in the blood decreases -Filtration: process in which water, some nutritional substances, and waste in the blood are pushed through the pores -Reabsorption: process by which water and nutritional substances in the filtrate move out of the tubule and return to blood in capillary -Renin: enzyme secreted by the kidney when the blood pressure decreases

26 -Urea: waste product from protein metabolism- removed from the blood by kidneys -Uric acid: waste product from purine metabolism- removed from body by the kidneys -Urination: the process of peeing- also known as voiding, micturition, or passing water -Urine: water, waste products, and other substances excreted by the kidneys

27 Diseases and Conditions of the Urine and Urination By Katie B. and Kinga F.

28 Albuminuria – Presence of albumin in the urine – Also called proteniuria (albumin is the major protein in the blood) – Occurs when there is kidney disease and the large protein molecules pass through damaged pores into the urine Anuria – Absence of urine production by the kidneys – Caused by acute or chronic renal failure Bacteriuria – Presence of bacteria in the urine – Indicates a UTI – Normally, urine is sterile Dysuria – Difficult or painful urination – Due to many factors – Ex: Kidney stone, cystitis

29 Enuresis – Involuntary release of urine – Nocturnal enuresis is involuntary urination at night. Frequency – Urinating small amounts often – Can be caused by kidney stones, enlargement of prostate gland or and infection Glycosuria – Glucose in the urine – Indication of an elevated blood pressure Hematuria – Blood in the urine – Can be obvious or only detected through laboratory tests. – Can be the caused by a kidney stones, cystitis, bladder cancer, and others

30 Diseases Renal failure- When the kidneys decrease their urine production and stop producing urine. Uremia-excessive amounts of waste product urea in the blood because of renal failure. Bladder cancer- Cancerous tumor on the lining of the bladder Cystitis- inflammation or infection of the bladder.

31 Diseases Urinary retention- The inability to empty the bladder because of damage due to certain drugs. Epispadias- Condition in which either both sexes urethral meatus is an abnormal location near the clitoris or the glands of a penis. Urethritis- Inflammation or infection of the urethra. Hernia- Weakness in the muscle of the diaphragm. Over active bladder- involuntary contractions that cause urinary urgencies.

32 Lab Procedures Summer, Meg, and Paige

33 Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Measures the amount of urea Monitors kidney function/kidney disease Watch for signs of nephrotoxicity In patients taking aminoglycoside antibiotic drugs

34 Culture and Sensitivity (C&S) Identifying the cause of urinary tract infection by putting urine in a Petri dish The disease causing microorganisms are tested

35 Leukocyte Esterase This detects esterase The test gives quick results so that treatment can be started quicker

36 Urinalysis Detects substances in urine and describes characteristics in it The simplest way is a dip stick test Different colors mean different characteristics.

37 Colors Light yellow to amber means normal urine Pink or smoky colored urine means bleeding in the urinary tract Turbid (cloudy or milky) means white blood cells and urinary tract infection

38 Odor Faint odor means normal People with diabetes have a fruity smelling urine because of the glucose in it

39 pH Normal urine is slightly alkaline or basic Bacteria grows quickly and some types of kidney stones form more readily in alkaline

40 Protein Not normally found in urine Presence indicated damage to the glomerulus

41 Glucose When found in urine, it can indicate uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, from excess glucose spilling into the urine from the blood

42 Red Blood Cells Microscopic examination to count red blood cells Even clear urine can contain occult (hidden) blood

43 Catheterization A catheter is a flexible tube, inserted through the urethra and into the bladder to assist in the draining in urine

44 Dialysis Removes waste products from the blood for a patient with renal care Hemodialysis uses a shunt in the patients arm Peritoneal dialysis uses a permanent catheter inserted through the abdominal wall

45 By: Danny, Mike, Aine, John, Maggie

46 Diseases continued Hesitancy: Inability to initiate a normal stream of urine. Less volume. Hypokalemia: Decreased potassium in the blood. Incontinence: Inability to keep urine in the bladder. Ketonuria: Ketone bodies in urine. Ketones are waste products when fat is metabolized. Nocturia: Urination during the night. Oliguria: Decreased urine do to kidney failure.

47 Diseases Continued Polyuria: Excessive production of urine. Pyuria: White blood cells in urine (UTI). Urgency: Strong urge to urinate. Urinary Tract Infection: Any infection in the urinary tract due to bacteria.


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