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A Study of Muon Flux in Relation to Altitude Preliminary Design Review

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1 A Study of Muon Flux in Relation to Altitude Preliminary Design Review


3 * Bong State Recreation Area, Kansasville, WI November 7 th, 2014Begin work on Subscale Model November 21 st, 2014Subscale model completed November 22 nd, 2014Scale model test flight December 12 th, 2014Begin work on full scale vehicle January 24 th, 2015Full scale vehicle completed February 1 st, 2015Full scale test flight #1 (half impulse) February 15 th, 2015Full scale test flight #2 (full impulse) March 14 th, 2015Full scale test flight #3 (with payload) April 4 th, 2015Flight hardware and safety checks April 11 th, 2015Launch day, full scale flight #4 at MSFC May 23 rd, 2015Full scale flight #5 (tentative) at Bong*


5 * Muons enlarged for emphasis

6 Motor ignition Stable flight Altitude of 5,280 feet AGL reached but not exceeded Both drogue and main parachute deployed Entire vehicle returns to the ground safely with no damage (reflyable on the same day) Successful recovery of the booster and payload compartment

7 Length 156” Diameter 4” Liftoff Weight 22.2lbs CP 105” from nosecone CG 78” from nosecone Static margin 6.75 calibers Motor CTI K1440WT (primary choice) MotorDiameter [mm] Total Impulse [Ns] Burn Time [s] Stability Margin [calibers] Thrust to weight ratio CTI K1440WT5423681.646.7514.3 AT K1050W5425222.376.3010.1

8 LetterPart ANosecone BPayload (separates from vehicle) CDeployment Electronics (Payload) DPayload Parachute ERocket Drogue Parachute FDeployment Electronics (Rocket) GRocket Main Parachute HMotor Mount (54mm/75mm capable) IFins (3, 3/32” G10)


10 Fins: G-10 fiberglass 0.093 (3/32) in Body: 4in DynaWind tubing Bulkheads, centering rings: ABS (3D- printed) Motor mount: 54mm Kraft Phenolic Nosecone: fiberglass nose cone Rail buttons: standard Nylon rail buttons Motor retention system: Aeropack screw-on motor retainer Anchors: 1/4" stainless steel U-Bolts Epoxy: West or Loctite epoxy

11 Length [mm] Mass [lbs] Diameter [mm] Motor Selection Stability Margin [calibers] Thrust to weight ratio 5724.1754CTI K14406.8314.3 We selected the CTI K1440WT 54mm motor to propel our rocket to out target altitude (5456 ft). The CTI K1440WT motor provides an appropriate thrust to weight ratio for our vehicle (14.3).

12 ParameterValue Flight Stability Static Margin 6.83 calibers Thrust to Weight Ratio 14.30 Velocity at Launch Guide Departure (10ft launch rail) 73.90 mph

13 Our rocket currently has a mass of 22.2lbs, which includes a 4.17lbs CTI K1440WT motor. This estimate of the mass comes from the OpenRocket database where our rocket is being designed. If the rockets gains 5lbs of weight it will only reach altitude of 4,361ft which we consider unacceptable performance. The rocket would have to weigh 64.9lbs for the thrust to weight ratio to drop under 5 (underpowered rocket).

14 Time [s] Thrust [Ns] Max. Thrust: 2100N Burn Time: 1.7s

15 Apogee: 5456ft, 17.5s Time [s] Altitude [ft]

16 Maximum acceleration: 20.4 g (200 m/s 2 ) Time [s] Acceleration [m/s^2]

17 Time [s] Velocity [ft/s] Max. velocity: 496mph Mach number: 0.65 subsonic

18 Wind Speed [mph] Altitude [ft] Change in Apogee [%] 054560.00 55434-0.40 105371-1.56 155274-3.30 205157-5.48

19 Parachute Diameter [in] Descent Rate [fps] Ejection Charge [g] Deployment Altitude [ft] Descent Weight [lbs] Impact Energy [ft-lbf] Drogue 16612.554564.9- Main 8411.65.07004.910.25 Payload 10814.84.5545613.144.6

20 Wp - ejection charge weight [g] dP - ejection pressure (15 [psi]) V - pressurized volume [in 3 ] R - universal gas constant (22.16 [ft-lb o R -1 lb-mol -1 ]) T - combustion gas temperature (3,307 [ o R])

21 ParachuteCharge [g]** Drogue1.56 Main3.36 Payload2.14 * Ejection Charges will be finalized during static testing ** Primary charges shown. Secondary charges will be 25% larger (Jeffries’ backup scheme).

22 Main Parachute Drogue ParachutePayload 700’500’ApgApg+1”1700’1500’ PerfectFlite StratoLogger PerfectFlite StratoLogger PerfectFlite StratoLogger PerfectFlite StratoLogger

23 Wind Speed [mph] Drift [ft] Drift [mi] 000.00 58120.15 1016250.31 1524380.46 2032500.62

24 Wind Speed [mph] Drift [ft] Drift [mi] 000.00 58770.17 1017550.33 1526310.50 2053081.01 Wind Speed [mph] Drift [ft] Drift [mi] 00 0.00 5 18180.34 10 36330.69 15 54501.03 20 72661.37 SLI Launch, Huntsville, ALMadWest Launch, Bong RA, WI PAYLOAD DEPLOYED AT APOGEE PAYLOAD DEPLOYED AT 1700ft AGL

25 CLOUD AIDED TELEMETRY : Cloud- Aided-Telemetry (CAT) system uses an on-board Android device and app to transmit flight, tracking and payload data from an airborne rocket using any available cellular network. The data travel along orange route to our data cloud (located in Houston, TX) from where they can be retrieved via blue route by any connected device (such as cell phone) and aid the search for the rocket and payload. CAT is an 'opportunistic uploader' and can store gigabytes of data on-board while searching for available connection. This system has been succesfully tested at LDRS 33 launch during 8K+ flight.

26 Tested Components C1: Body (including construction techniques) C2: Altimeter C3: Parachutes C4: Fins C5: Payload C6: Ejection charges C7: Launch system C8: Motor mount C9: Beacons C10: Shock cords and anchors C11: Rocket stability

27 Verification Tests V1 Integrity Test: applying force to verify durability. V2 Parachute Drop Test: testing parachute functionality. V3 Tension Test: applying force to the parachute shock cords to test durability V4 Prototype Flight: testing the feasibility of the vehicle with a scale model. V5 Functionality Test: test of basic functionality of a device on the ground V6 Altimeter Ground Test: pressure chamber test V7 Deployment Test: test to determine if the electronics can ignite the deployment charges. V8 Ejection Test: ejection charge size verification V9 Computer Simulation: use RockSim/OpenRocket to predict the behavior of the launch vehicle. V10 Integration Test: ensure that the payload fits smoothly into the vehicle, and is robust enough to withstand flight stresses.

28 P = planned, C = successfully completed Status: Verification will begin after PDR conference. V1V2V3V4V5V6V7V8V9v10 C1PPPP C2PPP C3PPPPP C4PP C5PPP C6PPPP C7PP C8PP C9PPP C10PPP C11PPPP


30 Study muon flux in relation to altitude

31 Data collected by the detector is accurate No hardware failures Payload is recovered and undamaged

32 µ µ P+ π π High velocity proton impacts nitrogen nuclei. Quarks and antiquarks form a pion. Pion decays into a muon.

33 We make the following hypothesis: As altitude decreases, muon flux will decrease at an exponentially proportional rate. Left, Data from experiments by Victor Hess and Werner Kolhörster Right, Hess in the balloon used to in their experiment

34 When a muon passes by a molecule of scintillator material, it excites that molecule’s electrons, providing the electrons with energy that will force them to a higher energetic state. After the muon passes, the electrons eventually return to its original lower energy state, releasing the extra energy in the form of light (photons). The increase in photon flux can be measured using photomultiplier tubes.

35 Coincidence counter: To increment the detected muons count, both scintillator layers in our payload must detect a passage of a particle at the same time (PMT1 and PMT2 both register a signal). If only one detector registers a passing particle, the detected particle is most likely not a muon.

36 The payload is comprised of two, completely separated layers of scintillator fibers encircling the detector electronics, all enclosed in a 4 inch black fiberglass tube coupler. The scintillator fibers are divided into two independent layers (outer and inner), each layer being monitored by its own photomultiplier tube (PMT). Simultaneous detection of a particle in both layers is an indication of muon passage.



39 1.High velocity protons impact nitrogen nuclei in the upper atmosphere creating muons. 2.As our payload falls through the atmosphere muons pass through it. 3.Coincidence counter counts each muon. 4.Ground based computer receives data. 5.Data is analyzed. 6.Final Report is generated. 12 3 4 5 6

40 µ = f(A) µ…Cumulative Muon Count A…Altitude

41 We will use commercially available accelerometers, altimeters, GPSs, and transmitters The sensors will be calibrated We will do extensive testing on the ground prior to the rocket launch

42 TestMeasurement Muon Frequency Photomultipliers and scintillator fibers AccelerationAccelerometer Location GPS and Cloud Aided Telemetry AltitudeAltimeter

43 Estimated Maximum Amount of Memory Needed: 970 Bytes Memory Chip Used in Flight Computer:128KB FLASH (non-volatile) † AND events: both PMTs register a passage of particle, muon detected ‡ XOR events: only one PMT register a passage of particle, not-a-muon detected

44 Tested Components C1: Photomultiplier Tubes C2: Scintillator Optic Fibers C3: Detection Electronics C4: Central Processing Unit C5: Accelerometer C6: Altimeter C7: GPS C8: Cloud Aided Telemetry C9: Transmitter C10: Parachutes

45 Verification Tests V1 Functionality Test: Test of basic functionality of a device on the ground V2 Integrity Test: Applying force to verify durability V3 Calibration Test: Calibration and test of accurateness and preciseness V4 Battery Test: Test for sufficient amount of battery power V5 Connection Test: Test of proper connection of components

46 V1V2V3V4V5 C1PPPPP C2PPP C3PPPP C4PPPP C5PPPP C6PPPP C7PPPP C8PPPP C9PPPP C10P P = planned, C = successfully completed Status: Verification will begin after PDR conference.

47 DateSchoolOutreach# of People (estimate) Oct. 10, 2014Randall Elementary School Homecoming Parade 200 Oct. 18, 19, 2014 Wisconsin Science Festival Alka-Seltzer Rockets, Pneumatic Rockets 2000 Nov. 1, 2014 Science Saturday at Wisconsin Inst. For Discovery Pneumatic Rockets, Rocket and Payload Displays 500 Nov. 15, 2014Kids ExpressAlka-Seltzer Rockets50 Feb. 21, 2015Physics Open HouseDisplays, presentations200 Mar. 7, 2015 O’Keefe Middle School –Super Science Saturday Alka-Seltzer Rockets, Pneumatic Rockets 80 Mar. 14, 2015 Franklin and Randall Elementary - Super Science Saturday Alka-Seltzer Rockets, Pneumatic Rockets 100 Total: 3130


49 Will this fit in our rocket?

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