Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution Libertyville HS. Ind. Rev. in England (18 th C.) Industrial rev. triggered by changes in agriculture – Consolidation: wealthy."— Presentation transcript:
Ind. Rev. in England (18 th C.) Industrial rev. triggered by changes in agriculture – Consolidation: wealthy landowners buying land up to make large estates – Enclosures: small sections of large fields used to develop new ideas – Led to efficiencies, new tech Developments – Seed drill (Jethro Tull) – Crop rotation
Roots of Industrialization What is industrialization? – Process of developing machine production of goods – Industrialization roots were in England Why England? – Ample Factors of Production Land Labor Capital – Presence of entrepreneurs
English Roots of Industrialization Why England? – Expanding economy (lots of banks, sophisticated methods of lending) – “Protestant work ethic” (hard work, success = virtues) – Form of government (200+ years of liberty, freedom) – Climate of progress (England a dynamic, open society vs. rest of Europe / Russia)
Industrial Advancements Textile industry first to industrialize (machines replaced muscle power) – Flying shuttle (1733) – Spinning jenny (1764) – Steam engine (1765) – Spinning mule(1779) – Power loom (1787) – Cotton Gin (1793) New techniques – Old technique: piece work – Factory: place where bulky, expensive machinery – and workers – were brought together Weavers wove faster SJ: process thread Cotton Gin Steam engine
Transportation Advancements Erie Canal: 363 miles long! On water – Steam engine used to propel boats (Steam ship & paddle wheel boat) – Man made canals connected regions otherwise not fed with rivers – Why was river / canal trade better than overland trade?
Transportation Advancements On Land – Macadam road Large rocks on top of smoothed gravel Easier travel, better drainage Allowed travel during rainy seasons – Steam engine led to railroads First RR engine = 1804 First RR line (1821) transported coal to port city Liverpool to Manchester line (1830): 24 MPH train!
Transportation Developments Effects of Railroads – Spurred economic growth (cheap way to transport goods) – Created thousands of jobs Coal mining Iron smelting Shipping – Boosted agriculture – Made migration to cities easier – Killed canal industry
Industrial Rev. on Continent Belgium (ca. 1800) – First country to adopt industrial processes from UK – Already had canals, raw materials (textile industry) – Employed skilled British workers – Built machinery, steam engines, railroads
Industrial Rev. on Continent Germany (ca. 1835) – Imported British ideas, engineers & equipment – German children were sent to UK schools, to learn about industrialization – Germany first RRs were built connecting raw materials to manufacturing centers – Helped Germany’s rise to power
Industrial Rev. on Continent Regional spread of industrialization to rest of Europe – Parts of Spain – Parts of Italy – Parts of Russia – Generally into cities near rivers (why?) France industrialized after 1830 (what slowed it down?) – Government sponsored dev. of RR after 1850 – How was that different than UK?
Impact of Industrialization Global inequality – Growing gap between industrialized, non- industrialized nations – Outside of Europe / America, no industrialization
Impact of Industrialization Economic & Social Inequality – Owners of factories got rich – Workers had hard, dangerous life Imperialism – Result of industrialization – Need for raw materials Where to get them from? – Need for vast markets to sell finished (manufactured) goods where to sell them? – Industrialized nations took lands of non industrialized countries for raw materials, markets – Even more power to industrialized nations
Impact of Industrialization Economic power was concentrated in the hands of Europe and America Asian & African economies based on agriculture and small work shops; no match for industrialized Europe