2The Beginnings of Industrialization Chapter 9 Section 1The Beginnings of Industrialization
3Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain The Industrial Revolution refers to the greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700s.The Agricultural Rev-Paves the WayEnclosure movement allows farmers to try new methods and large farm owners make small farm owners into tenant farming, meaning what?Jethro Tull and the seed drill, significance?Rotating CropsMoving crops, restoring nutrientsSelective breedingPopulation grows and a need for what also grows?
4Industrial Revolution Begins in England Why the Industrial Revolution Began in EnglandLarge populationNatural resources that were required for industrializationWater power, iron ore, rivers, and harborsEconomy and banking systemPolitical stabilityBritain had all of the _________ of __________ including land, labor, and capital.
5Inventions Spur Industrialization Changes in the Textile IndustryInvention of the flying shuttle for weavers leads to the invention of the spinning jenny for spinnersWater power (water frame) used to drive spinning wheelsSpinning mule makes stronger, finer threadPower loom speeds up weavingWhy did production move to factories?Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, purpose?
6It’s important to know that…. “Spinning” is the process of creating yarn from various raw fiber materials like cotton.“Weaving” is a way to make fabric in which two sets of yarn or thread are brought together to form fabric or cloth.
9Invented by John Kay in 1733. In previous looms, the shuttle was thrown, or passed through the threads by hand, and wide fabrics required two weavers seated side by side passing the shuttle between them. Kay mounted his shuttle on wheels in a track and used paddles to shoot the shuttle from side to side when the weaver jerked a cord. Using the flying shuttle, one weaver could weave fabrics of any width more quickly than two could before.(weaving)
15Improvements in Transportation Watt’s Steam EngineNeed for cheap, convenient power sourceJames Watt and Matthew Boulton combine to produce the steam engine…entreprenuer?Water TransportationRobert Fulton uses steam to propel boatsSignificance of canals?Road TransportationNetwork of roads and “turnpikes” by John McAdam
16The Railway Age Begins Steam-Driven Locomotives Trevithick and the steam driven locomotiveGeorge Stephenson and the first RR line in 1825The Liverpool-Manchester RRRR built to connect the cities of Liverpool and Manchester, significance?
17The Railway Age Begins RR Revolutionize Life in GB Gave manufacturers a cheap way to transport goodsNew _____ on the RR and in mines (iron and coal for?)Transport crops and fish across countriesEasier transporting of people
189.1 Daily QuestionsExplain how population increase is connected to improved food supplies and living conditions.How were England’s cotton industry and America’s cotton growers linked?Honors Only3. Was the revolution in textiles or in transportation more significant to England? Why?
19Industrialization Case Study: Manchester Chapter 9 Section 2Industrialization Case Study: Manchester
20Industrialization Changes Life How does industrialization change the way the British live?Industrial Cities RiseGrowth of the factory system results in migration from rural to urban areas, why?Urbanization city building and the movement of people to citiesFactories were built close to sources of energy like?London and other urban centers began to grow because of the increased labor force and industryLiving ConditionsCities had no plans as to how to deal with the rapid increase in populationSanitation, housing, education, protection were all issuesHow did factory owners live?
21Industrialization Changes Life Working Conditions14 hours a day, 6 days a week working year roundUnclean, poorly lit, and dangerous conditionsLife of a coal miner?Who were the cheapest laborers during the Industrial Revolution?
22Industrial Revolution The "Haves":Bourgeois LifeThrived on theLuxuries of theIndustrial Revolution
39Class Tensions GrowMiddle class-a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmersThe Middle ClassWhat groups become wealthier than the landowners and aristocrats?The middle class emerges, not rich or poor…had a “comfortable” standard of livingThe Working ClassUpset that machines were putting them out of workThe Luddites and the attacking of machinesRioted because of poor working/living conditions
40Positive effects of the Industrial Revolution Created job for workers, increased wealth, contributed to progress in ___________, improved the standard of living, and what else?Also expanded education and overall livelihoodMiddle and upper classes had immediate gains, for laborers it took much longer (what improvements?)Long-Term EffectsPeople in industrialized countries are able to afford manufactured goodsWorking conditions improved over the long term
41The Mills Of Manchester Readily available waterpower and laborUnhealthy vs. wealthyHigh risk=high rewardHighly dangerous, why? And for who?Industrialization would continue without a government act until 1819Ecological effects?
429.2 Daily QuestionsHow did the Industrial Revolution provide hope for improvement for England’s poor?How would joining together in groups help workers win better conditions and higher pay?Honors Only3. Why do you think young children continued to do heavy work in Manchester factories even after the Factory Act? What does this suggest about the relative power of industry compared to government?
44Industrial Development in the United States The United States had the same ________ resources as Britain (resulted in the ability to industrialize)The blockade during the War of allowed Americans to do what?Industrialization in the United StatesBritain attempts to keep the secrets of the revolutionSamuel Slater and Moses Brown open the first factory in RILowell, Massachusetts becomes a booming manufacturing centerWhy did young girls flock to “mill towns”?TextilesclothingshoesSkilled laborers and farmers moved to towns
45Industrial Development in the United States Late Expansion of U.S. IndustryAgricultural until the end of the Civil WarRR plays a significant role in expansionThe Rise of CorporationsLarge businesses began selling _____ or rights of ownerships to their companies…these buyers became part owners in their corporationsStockholders share in the profits but are not responsible for any debt (also do not deal with day to day operations)Standard Oil and Carnegie Steel=big profits----- Meeting Notes (12/20/12 15:05) -----Hi Mrs Temple!!!
46Continental Europe Industrializes Europe watched Britain industrialize with great envy…what was the issue?Beginnings in BelgiumBelgium was the first after Britain to industrialize, why?Illegal transfer of ideas helps Belgium flourishGermany Industrializes1835 Germany begins copying the British modelRR play an important role, how?Industrial power=_________ powerExpansion Elsewhere in Europe“pockets” of industrializationHow did France avoid the issues of industrialization?Social structure, geography, and transportation issues all limited industrialization
47The Impact of Industrialization Shifts world power, increases competitionRise of Global Inequality“widening the gap”How did industrialized countries view non-industrialized countries?Imperialism was born out of industrialization, what does this mean?Transformation of SocietyIndustrialization=economic powerHardships at the outset turned into greater opportunities through education and democratic participation (and in turn social reform)
489.3 Daily QuestionsWhat was the purpose of Britain keeping industrialization a secret?Why might railroads be even more important to U.S. industrialization than to that of Britain?Honors Only3. Explain the relationship between industrialization and the shift of world power.
49Reforming the Industrial World Chapter 9 Section 4Reforming the Industrial World
50The Philosophers of Industrialization Laissez-faire-letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference; free market, unregulated by ____________Laissez-Faire EconomicsGov’t interference with the production of wealth, favored free tradeAdam Smith writes The Wealth of Nations supporting the idea of a free market economy3 natural laws of economicsSelf interestCompetitionSupply and demandThe Economics of CapitalismAlong with Malthus and Ricardo, _______ is born, where the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profitMalthus’s view on population? Ricardo?Opposed efforts to help the poor, minimum wage laws, and better working conditions…why?----- Meeting Notes (1/10/13 10:21) -----hi :)
51The Rise of Socialism Utilitarianism Jeremy Bentham develops the idea that ideas, institutions, and actions should be based on their _____________The greatest good for the greatest amount of people, individuals should pursue their goals without interferenceJohn Stuart Mill promoted an equal division of profits, equality of women’s rights, and reforms in the legal and education systems
52The Rise of Socialism Utopian Ideas Socialism Robert Owen improves working conditions in his factory and even provided _________ to childrenOwen’s “utopia” New Harmony in Indiana was short lived but influenced others that followedSocialismThe factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of allGovernment should plan the economy rather than rely on what?Gov’t control would result in the promotion of equality and end of poverty
53Marxism: Radical Socialism Marx and Engels introduce a radical form of socialism in The Communist ManifestoThe Communist ManifestoThe “haves” (the bourgeoisie) and the “have-nots” (workers/proletariat)…haves control __________ and the poor_________Call for an overthrow of the owners by the proletariatThe Future According to MarxHow did Marx see the future of the capitalist system?Communism would be a complete form of socialism where the _______ of _________ are owned by the people, ________ property would cease to exist, goods/services are equally sharedWhere did Marx inspire revolutions? What was wrong with Marx’s ideas?
54Labor Unions and Reform Laws Unions-workers joining together in voluntary labor associationsUnion workers worked together to gain rights and did what if their demands weren’t met?Unions help the middle class before the poorest groups because of the demand for skilled laborHow did gov’t see unions at first?By 1875 about _________ people were in a unionReform LawsFactory Act of 1833 made it illegal for children under 9 to work, children hours, hoursMines Act, The Ten Hours Act (1847)Legislation in the U.S.states’ rights----- Meeting Notes (1/10/13 10:21) -----hi :)
55The Reform Movement Spreads The Abolition of SlaveryWilliam Wilberforce leads the crusade against slavery…slave trade abolished in 1807, slavery abolished in 1833 in BritainAnti-slavery movements occur throughout the world including the U.S. and Brazil but finally ended by the end of the 19th centuryThe Fight for Women’s RightThe Industrial Revolution provided higher paying jobs for women, however, they were still paid less than menWomen led movements to address social issues Jane Addams and Hull HouseThe International Council for Women begins to question a woman’s inferior status
56The Reform Movement Spreads Reforms Spread to Many Areas of LifeWhat areas were reformers seeking to change at first?Horace Mann in Massachusetts tackles public education, making free public education the norm in the United States and in Britain by the late 1800sAlexis de Tocqueville addresses the harsh conditions of __________ and focuses on rehabilitation----- Meeting Notes (1/10/13 10:21) -----heyyyyy <333333
579.4 Daily QuestionsExplain how the “haves” and the “have-nots” are interdependent or in other words, how they rely on one another.How do you think joining a union or supporting a reform law made workers feel?Honors OnlyHow can slavery be perceived as an economic threat?----- Meeting Notes (1/10/13 10:21) -----hiiiiii :0)))))))))