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Enhancing Personal Productivity and Managing Stress © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to.

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Presentation on theme: "Enhancing Personal Productivity and Managing Stress © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enhancing Personal Productivity and Managing Stress © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2 Improving Work Habits and Time Management Demand for high productivity among managerial workers has never been higher. High productivity allows for smoother personal life and reduces stress from being out of control. The techniques and attitudes outlined next are helpful for enhancing productivity. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

3 Improving Work Habits and Time Management, continued Develop a mission, goals, and a strong work ethic. (A purpose and certain values can propel you toward productivity.) Clean up your work area and sort out your tasks. (A messy work areas leads to wasted time and neglect, yet the issue of avoiding clutter is controversial. Being super-organized can reduce flexibility. Also, out of sight files can be neglected. ) © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

4 Improving Work Habits and Time Management, continued Prepare a to-do list and assign priorities. (Taking care of easy-to-do tasks is often relaxing. A checklist can help avoid potentially dangerous errors.) Streamline your work. (Eliminate as much low-value work as possible, and focus on activities that add value for customer.) Work at a steady, rapid pace. (Yet, major decisions should not be made rapidly.) © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

5 Work Habits and Time Management, continued Minimize time wasters and interruptions. a. Time diverted from unproductive activity can be invested in productive work. b. Can also avoid working extra hours. c. Internet surfing a big problem, as is shifting from one task to another. d. Interruptions may require re-launching but some are necessary or helpful. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

6 Work Habits and Time Management, continued Concentrate on one task at a time. a. Productive managers focus on task facing them at the time. b. Intense concentration leads to sharp judgment and analysis, fewer errors. c. Multitasking best for routine tasks, and may lead to serious errors on key tasks. Concentrate on high-output tasks (those with big potential payoff). © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7 Improving Work Habits and Time Management, continued Do creative and routine tasks at different times. (Tackle creative tasks when you are typically at your best.) Stay in control of paperwork, , and voice mail. (Not taking care of these items leads to being out of control.) Make effective use of office technology. (Invest time saved into productive work, such as customer problem solving.) © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8 Improving Work Habits, and Time Management, continued Practice the mental state of peak performance. (Achieve maximum results with minimum effort, be at ease.) Take naps or meditate. (Brief naps recharge person, and also reduce stress.) Work smarter, not harder. (Plan carefully, and discharge work imaginatively.) Build flexibility into your system. (Be able to take care of emergencies, and relax.) © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

9 Why People Procrastinate 1. Fear of failure 2. Desire to avoid uncomfortable tasks 3. Not seeing a meaningful reward ahead 4. Dislike of being controlled 5. Enjoying excitement from rushing to meet a deadline 6. Having a negative emotional state such as being self-defeating © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

10 Approaches to Reducing and Controlling Procrastination 1. Break task down into smaller units. 2. Make a commitment to others. 3. Reward yourself for achieving milestones. 4. Calculate the cost of procrastination. 5. Post encouraging notes to yourself. 6. Counterattack (force self to do bad task). 7. Put a progress chart in your work area. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

11 The Nature of Stress and Burnout Job stress and burnout can be major impediments to a successful career. Worker stress costs $300 billion annually including lost productivity, worker compensation, and health- care costs. Stress is physical and mental condition that stems from perceived threat that cannot be dealt with readily. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

12 Job Performance Consequences of Stress Hindrance stressors have a negative effect on motivation and performance. Challenge stressors have positive effect on motivation and performance. Perception determines whether stressor is hindrance or challenge. Right amount of stress required to keep person mentally and physically alert. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

13 Job Burnout Emotional, physical, mental exhaustion resulting from chronic stressors Cynicism, apathy, indifference, and hopelessness are major symptoms. Burnout in form of emotional exhaustion leads to lowered job performance. Absence of ample positive feedback and other rewards linked to job burnout. Less burnout if leader is perceived to be charismatic © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

14 Factors within Individual Contributing to Stress and Burnout Type A people (hostile, impatient) prone to high levels of job stress. People with internal locus of control are less stress prone. People with high expectations, and those who need constant excitement, are potential burnout victims. Large study found that internal locus of control associated with well-being. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

15 Adverse Organizational Conditions Contributing to Stress and Burnout Work and information overload (Death from overwork, or karoshi, reported in Japan. Communication overload can result in attention deficit trait.) Extreme conflict (including office politics, short lead times, and job insecurity) Role ambiguity (confusing or poorly-defined expectations) Limited control over work (despite high demands— job demand-job control model) © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

16 Adverse Organization Conditions, continued Adverse interactions with customers and emotional labor (Latter refers to having to control expression of emotion to please or avoid displeasing a customer.) Work-family conflict a. Person has to perform multiple roles b. People bring work into home and home into work c. Flexible working hours can help © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

17 Stress Management Techniques Everybody experiences stress. How you manage stress can be the key to your well being. Organizations can play a major role in remedying stress by correcting negative conditions. Focus here is on what individuals can do to manage stress and burnout. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

18 Methods for Control and Reduction of Stress 1. Get social support. 2. Improve your work habits 3. Develop positive self-talk. 4. Hug the right people. 5. Demand less than perfection from yourself. 6. Strive not to neglect aspects of life outside of work. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

19 Symptom Management for Stress Reduction 1. Make frequent use of relaxation techniques including meditation. (The relaxation technique works well, and so does visualizing a pleasant fantasy.) 2. Get appropriate physical exercise. (Very important for heavy business travelers.) 3. Try to cure the hurry sickness. (Enjoy the present for its own sake.) © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

20 Removal of the Stressor Include actions and reappraisals of the situation that provide stressed person some relief from the stressor. Eliminating the stressor is the most effective escape technique. Mentally block out stressful thought. Strategic method is to identify work skills, and find work to match skills. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.


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